Military Review

Independent Baltic. 1920-1940 Addition to "Were there colonies in Russia?"

28

For the modern Baltic elites, the 1920-1940 period. - This is the “golden time of independence” and “the heyday of”, when the economy developed rapidly, the population of the Baltic peoples expanded and grew, and the identity of the peoples of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia reached a new level, allowing them to create the most democratic governments in Eastern Europe. And then came the beast-like USSR led by the paranoid tyrant Stalin and destroyed the entire “Baltic Eden” ... And for half a century the Baltic fell under the “Soviet yoke” ...


If you have not yet begun to cry over the “lost paradise”, you did it right, because When examining the situation closely, with a close study of the facts, this benevolently sorrowful picture very quickly loses its appeal.

POPULATION

Unfortunately, more or less reliable data on the population are available only for Lithuania and Estonia, while in Latvia there is a large temporary gap between population censuses - 1935 and 1959, which makes it difficult to accurately assess the situation. True, Kolpakidi with reference to A.N. Fedotov (Economy of Latvia (1920-1940)) and M.I. Kozina (Essays on Economic stories Of Latvia. 1860-1900), writes that in the period from 1913-1920's. The population of Latvia fell from 2,5 million to 1,6 million as a result of wars and emigration, and up to 1940 was below the pre-war number by 20%. I could not find these books in the public domain, so I cannot deny or confirm this data.
As for Lithuania, here we see the following picture: in the territory of Lithuania censuses were conducted in 1897, 1923, 1959 and later years (we will touch on them in terms of finding the Baltic states as part of the USSR). Based on these data, as well as data from the Statistics Department of Lithuania (for 1913, 1939, etc.), we can show the dynamics of the Lithuanian population in a table and draw the appropriate conclusions. The table was taken by me from an article by A. Stanaytis, S. Stanaytis and R. Subotkevicienne (in the article, in general, the dynamics of the rural population are studied, but there are also data on aggregate population):

Independent Baltic. 1920-1940 Addition to "Were there colonies in Russia?"


The years we are interested in I specifically singled out. However, there is no 1923 data in the table. A reasonable question - why? In my opinion, the whole point is that the 1923 numbers spoil the big picture a bit and do not show the true price of Lithuanian independence. After all, according to this table, how is it? That the population grew both with RI and after it, nothing changed, i.e. Lithuania is sovereign, sovereign, and Russia, as it were, was and is not particularly needed. But what will happen if at the same time and consider the data 1923 g .:



What follows from the above data? Over 10 years, the population decreased by almost 800 thousand people - at the expense of those killed in wars (PMA, war for independence) and emigration, and could overcome the pre-war number only after 16 years. Actually, these data can be assessed in two ways: on the one hand, there is indeed progress: the population has increased, and Lithuania was able to overcome the “demographic hole”; on the other hand, most of the victims and immigrants fell precisely during the period of the struggle for independence, which, in general, gives reason to think - was it worth it?
Estonia also fully “tasted” the fruits of independence. The table below provides information on mortality and fertility rates from 1914 to 1939.



Actually, as expected, the maximum fertility rate and the corresponding difference fall at the pre-war time. During the war, predictable mortality went up. With 1921, the birth rate again exceeded mortality, but from this point on, this indicator, albeit remaining in “+”, begins to decline steadily, right up to the 1935 year: it began to grow again, but the level of 14-15 and even 16 did not reach . The difference between mortality and fertility, starting with 1930, is characterized by a tendency to decrease, against the background of which single “bursts” (1932 and 1938) cannot change the negative picture. Thus, it is not surprising that in the period from 1922 to 1934, the population of Estonia increased very insignificantly - from 1 million 107 thousand people to 1 million 126 thousand people, that is, the increase in 12 years amounted to 19 thousand 354 person (this in aggregate, if we take exclusively Estonians, then 22544 person; frankly, not a lot). The data is presented below.



In between 1939 and 1940 an outflow from the Baltic states began, and from Estonia in particular, Baltic Germans, as a result of which the population of the Estonian Republic decreased by more than 5% (according to 40 of the year, 1 million 54 thousand people lived in Estonia).


ECONOMY

In fact, the development of the economy of the Baltic countries in the period of independence can be characterized in just two words - agratization and resource extraction.
The main reasons for this phenomenon are two:

1) During the years of the WWI, many industrial productions were evacuated from the Baltic States (in Latvia alone, after the equipment was dismantled, about 400 enterprises ceased to operate, and 90% of the total machine park and power equipment were removed from Riga), however, Latvia and Estonia had significant potential for the development of industry (this will be discussed below).

2) As a result of the separation, the established economic ties between these countries and Russia were broken. In the end, this led to the following consequences:
- The Baltic States lost many sources of raw materials, which, as is clear, mainly came from Russia;
- The Baltics was cut off from the domestic market of Russia, which accounted for the lion's share of the total exports of these territories (the same Latvia, as already mentioned, sold almost 67% in all its products in 1913 in the territory of the Empire).

Due to the isolation from the market of Russia (USSR), the Balts had to urgently reorient themselves to the markets of Western countries. But under capitalism, as we know, the strongest survive: unsupported by the resources and finances of the "center", the industry of the Baltic republics was not able to with the industrial power of the West - their industrial output was uncompetitive on the world market and not needed by anyone. As a result, almost all Baltic exports began to consist of food, light and fuel industry products.

In confirmation of this, it is sufficient to compare the industrial structure of the Baltic countries in 1912-1913. and 1936-1940 Here she is.




Nevertheless, from the point of view of the official historiography of the Baltic republics, the period we are considering is considered to be the time of economic growth, the main reason for which is precisely the achievement of “own statehood”. And the submission of relevant information is carried out both in publicly available sources (such as the same Wikipedia) and in the school curricula of these countries. At the same time, Baltic historiography does not hesitate to distort facts or present them in a favorable light to it. As an example, I will cite some excerpts from the article “Estonian Economy in the 1920-30-s” (this article was timed to the 90 anniversary of the Republic of Estonia, in full here; By the way, the Wikipedia article “The History of the Economy of Estonia” is partially based on this material):

Exposure first
In 1936, for every 1,000 Estonian residents, there were 136 ship gross registered tons. It was the seventh figure in the world after Norway, England, Holland, Denmark, Greece, Sweden. The new narrow gauge 3 and the wide gauge 1 railway Tallinn-Petseri-1931 were built. Tallinn-Nõmme-Raesküla railway was electrified, 1924 year. Bus lines more than rail. Well-maintained highway, there are more than 100 thousands of bicycles in the country, the merchant fleet on 83% consists of steamboats.


83% are steamboats, and what about the remaining 17%? And these are sailing ships. Their share in the total tonnage fleet it only decreased in 5 to 1939%. In the mid-20s, the ratio of sailing ships and steamboats was 50 to 50. Despite the fact that before the WWI, Estonia had a powerful shipbuilding industry, which then accounted for about 10% of all industrial production in Estonia . But it sounds beautiful - "The seventh indicator in the world" ...

Exposure two
In general, it can be said that during the period of its statehood in Estonia great success was achieved in the development of the economy. The average standard of living was higher than in Spain, Portugal, the Balkan countries, Poland, and Lithuania, and since the end of the 30-s, Estonia was ahead of Finland, but noticeably lagged behind the developed European countries.


Actually, here we have the classic recipe of Dr. Goebbels: take a little truth, mix it with a lie - and get what looks presentable enough and what will be believed. The truth here is that - yes, Estonia was ahead of Lithuania, yes, it was behind the developed countries of the West. I cannot vouch for Spain, Portugal and the Balkans, unfortunately I did not find information on them. But here in Poland and Finland - I have something to say.

First, we have the calculations of Mr. Colin Clark, the creator of the economic concept of gross national product (GNP), which in 1940 compared the economic performance of 53 countries of the world (from 1925 to 1934), including - in terms of average real per capita income per employed resident. The rating compiled by him is presented below. Draw your own conclusions.



Yes, a very interesting point is connected with this rating. In the process of searching for information, I twice stumbled upon it, and both times the following disclaimer was present - that, they say, during this period, the Great Depression struck painfully in the Baltic States. So I want to ask - and what, unless on other countries VD did not affect?

Secondly, there is a table “National income of the Baltic states and individual countries” - a more specific Clark rating, but compiled by our scientists. And there is Finland. Here he is.



And thirdly, there are calculations of J. Valge, an economist from Tartu (Dorpat, Yuryev). He determined the index of the change in Estonian GDP per capita relative to the level of Finland, in comparison with a number of European countries. And since GNI (gross national income) is calculated as GDP + “the balance of primary income received from abroad or transferred abroad,” the difference in GDP of countries is essential.



Comments, in my opinion, are superfluous.

Third exposure
As a result, the reform number of farms in the country has doubled (to 125 thousands). By 1939, the number of farms reached 140 000. The average farm size reached 23 hectares, and was mainly processed by one family. Between 1913 and 1940 over the years, the land area under cultivation increased 18 times.


The increase in farms and the increase in the amount of cultivated land is really a big plus, no one is going to argue with that. But at the same time, the authors somehow forget to highlight the situation with the technical equipment of Estonian agriculture. And the situation was, to put it mildly, disgusting. What the table says below.



Actually, comparing the data with the number of Estonian farms (140 thousand), you can quite imagine how much and for whom equipment accounted for. From here, in my opinion, the “legs” of increasing the area of ​​cultivated land “grow” —the low efficiency of the treatment forced it to be compensated by the amount of land used.

Fourth exposure
During the years of economic growth - 1925-1927 - the volume of industrial output increased significantly. The most important successes were achieved in the shale industry. For three years, shale mining has grown 3 times. The production of shale oil and the production of sheet glass increased. Factories Russo-Balt and Noblessner were eliminated as unprofitable.


About the slates, I will say all the same below, but for now I will note:
1) during the economic boom, the factories are not closed, especially since such a serious enterprise as Nobessner (a shipbuilding plant that was producing submarines and electrical equipment for them) and
2) Estonian brothers did not hesitate to “rob” Latvian brothers smile Russo-Balt after all settled down in Riga.

Exposure of the fifth and last
In the second half of the 1930-ies began the growth of industrial production (14% per year). By 1938, the share of industry in national income reached 32%. The share of industrial products in Estonian exports increased from 36% at the end of 1920-s to 44% by the end of 1930-s. After 1934, the state's economic regulation functions were expanded. Peat processing enterprises became joint-stock, new plants of the state joint-stock company in shale-mining industry. The state joint stock company Eesti Metstööestus became a monopolist in the processing and marketing of timber. New enterprises were created, production technologies were improved. In 1938, the laying of the quarry and the construction of a workshop in Maardu began. Extraction of oil shale to 1939 reached 2 million tons, 181 thousand tons of shale oil and 22,5 thousand tons of shale gasoline were produced. Textile, chemical and food industries, metalworking, woodworking, paper production, peat and phosphate mining were also of great importance for the country's economy. In Estonia, manufactured high-speed boats, radios, telephones, refrigeration units, electrical appliances. In some industries, foreign capital played a dominant role.. In terms of industrial output, Estonia was ahead of Poland, Norway and even Denmark, inferior to Sweden, Finland and Latvia.
The main trading partners were the UK and Germany. The share of the USSR in foreign trade turnover by the end of 1930-x significantly decreased. Estonia exported meat products, oil, fish, eggs, textiles, paper, cellulose, plywood, shale oil and gasoline, cement and glass; imported industrial products and raw materials.


What can I say? First, the slates. More precisely, oil shale. A mineral that “during dry distillation produces a significant amount of resin (similar in composition to petroleum)”. That is, in essence, an oil substitute, from which oil, gasoline, etc. were driven. That is, we have a typical oil needle, which gives the lion’s share of profit to the budget.

Secondly, it is a completely logical question: if so many different types of equipment were produced in Estonia, why did almost only raw materials go for export? But industrial products just imported? Strange, is not it? One contradicts the other.

Thirdly, about the dominance of foreign capital - this is an understatement. By 1938 in Estonia there were 150 large private companies, of which 77 had foreign owners. And, as it is not difficult to guess, the overwhelming number of such firms was employed in the shale industry. And this situation was everywhere in the Baltics. In Lithuania, almost 100% of electricity production capacity belonged to Belgium, the paper industry and printing industry for 80-90% belonged to Sweden (the rest was from England and Holland), the textile industry and banking monopolized America. And in Latvia to 1935, 72% of all industrial enterprises belonged to Germans and Jews, who to one degree or another lived in Latvia (I don’t have data on how many of them are foreigners and how many are not).

You have already understood what exactly the Baltic countries of the 20-30-s resemble? That's right, African pseudo-states of the era of developed colonialism: ephemeral statehood, critical dependence on the export of resources, and industry, more than half of which (and this is still the least) are concessions of the Western powers. What is lacking is only authoritarian kings, and then the resemblance becomes simply stunning. And what is most interesting - the kings were.

"DEMOCRACY" AND "LAW"

Indeed, after gaining independence, the Baltic countries enthusiastically began building democracy: they adopted constitutions, created parliaments, and gave free rein to political parties (in one Latvia, 109 (!) Pieces were registered). But then it somehow went wrong. The wave of the global crisis that covered the Baltic states aggravated the already difficult situation of the economies of the Baltic countries, intensified protest moods in the society and exacerbated the interclass contradictions. The result of all this was chaos in the higher authorities - in the same Latvia, before 1934, the 18 (!) Of the cabinet ministers changed. And the most intelligent and decisive people - from the right-wing parties and the military - realized that it was time to “tie up” with democracy.

As a result, in the Baltic republics, almost simultaneously, there were coups that led to the regimes, which are now called authoritarian and reprimand in every way.

In the night from 15 to 16 in May 1934, Prime Minister Karl Ulmanis with the assistance of the Minister of War, gene. Balodis made a coup d'état: military and police units with the support of the Latvian nat. the guards (the so-called “aizsargs”) occupied all the government buildings in Riga, and Ulmanis, by his order, suspended the constitution and dismissed the Saeima (Latvian parliament) - “until the reform of the constitution”. Which, naturally, he didn’t intend to conduct - until the entry of Latvia into the USSR neither the Seimas nor the constitution functioned.


Karlis Ulmanis


Further Ulmanis acted as decisively:
- all political parties were banned;
- All opposition newspapers quickly shut down;
- martial law was introduced for up to 6 months (which was extended up to 1938);
- a ban was imposed on all political meetings and demonstrations;
- almost all the leaders of the Social Democratic Labor Party (Latvian Social Democratic Labor Party), as well as some other political activists were arrested - in total, about 2000 people.

We must pay tribute to Ulmanis - he gave President A. Kviesis the opportunity to finalize his term (until April 1936). And after that he himself appointed himself president and prime minister.

In Estonia, a coup occurred almost against a carbon copy from Latvian: in the same 1934, and the Prime Minister also made it - only now Konstantin Päts.


Konstantin Päts


Just like Ulmanis, he introduced a state of emergency, closed the parliament and repealed the constitution. And then he consistently suppressed all the hints of opposition: he closed down all independent newspapers, dissolved all political parties, banned demonstrations and strikes. And in 1938, Päts was elected president (before that, he assumed the position of Estonian State Protector - no more, no less).

In fact, even the reasons for the two coups were almost the same - adjusted for the specifics of each country. What Ulmanis, what Patsa to the coup made the threat come from the right, frankly fascist parties (now it looks something completely surrealistic - against the background of how the governments of the modern Baltic states are carrying out an openly fascist policy). Only if Ulmanis himself was right and acted on the principle “If I don’t do this today, tomorrow someone else will do it, but I won’t get the power”, then Päts adhered to neutral, and sometimes you can even say, pro-Soviet views. And he was completely unhappy with the coming to power of the Vapsov party, a veteran organization whose members (Liberation War veterans) held the views of Mussolini and Hitler and wanted to create from Estonia something similar to Italy and Germany. Therefore, in contrast to Ulmanis, who persecuted the left, Päts directed all reprisals against the Vapses and their supporters. And even partially adopted their methods - for example, the leader of Vapsov, lawyer A. Sirk, in August 1937 was thrown out of the window of a house in Luxembourg, where he was hiding after escaping prison in 1935.


Arthur Sirk


As for Lithuania, there was a coup even earlier: on the night from 16 to 17 in December 1926, military units subordinate to General P. Plekhavicius took control of all government buildings in Kaunas, President K. Grinius was deposed and arrested, the center-left ministers The government of M. Slavevicius was also arrested. The state of emergency was reinstated (it had previously operated from 1919 to 1922, and in Kaunas it was maintained even after 1922, it was finally canceled only when a coalition government was formed of Lithuanian communists and representatives of the Peasant People’s Union). President was elected one of the organizers of the coup - Antanas Smetona.


P. Plekhavicius and A. Smetona - the organizers of the coup 1926


As in the case of Latvia, left-wing politicians were repressed: the leadership of the Lithuanian Communist Party was arrested, four of the leaders of the communists - K. Pozela, J. Greifenberberis, R. Charnas and K. Gedris - were shot. In April, Smetona 1927 dissolved the Sejm, declared himself “the leader of the state” and, together with his party, the Lithuanian National Union finally established itself in power - until 1940, when the USSR took up the Baltics seriously ...

SUMMING UP

1. Over the 20 years of independence, the Baltic republics have successfully carried out the degradation of their own industry and the agratization of their economies, becoming suppliers of resources for Western countries.

2. Democracy has once again demonstrated its inconsistency as a form of government in the context of economic and political instability, resulting in the establishment of authoritarian regimes in the Baltic countries.

Thus, the idea of ​​the period of independence 1920-1940's. in the form in which it is vigorously introduced into the minds of people by the modern politicians of the Baltics, it has nothing to do with reality and is a myth. A myth by which one can justify one's own mistakes and inconsistency.

Sources:
1) http://en.wikipedia.org/
2) http://www.runivers.ru/doc/d2.php?SECTION_ID=6766&PORTAL_ID=6763
3) http://istorik.org/2008/01/%D1%8D%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0-%D1%8D%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B8-%D0%B2-1920-30-%D1%85-%D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%B0%D1%85%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BB%D1%8F/
4) http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/dinamika-selskogo-naseleniya-litvy-v-hh-veke
5) Baltic and Central Asia as part of the Russian empire and the USSR: the myths of modern textbooks of post-Soviet countries and the reality of socio-economic calculations / A.I. Kolpakidi, A.P. Myakshev, I.V. Nikiforov, V.V. Simindey, A.Yu. Shadrin.
6) J. Valge. Eesti Vabariigi koguprodukt aastatel 1923-39, Käsikiri. Arvutusalus: A.Maddison, Monitoring the World Economy, Paris, OECD 1995, lk. 189-199; C. Clark. Internationaler Vergleich der Volkseinkommen. - Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, Jaanuar 1938, lk. 51-76.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Did Russia have colonies? Part I. Baltic States as part of the Republic of Ingushetia
Did Russia have colonies? Belated preface
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  1. Name
    Name 24 February 2014 12: 58 New
    +14
    In general, so-without the RUSSIAN WILD MAN ephemeral independence kirdyk .... so it will be.
    1. a52333
      a52333 24 February 2014 13: 01 New
      +15
      Why pay attention to these Baltic prostitutes, whoever dines, dances. Wait a bit, they will crawl and will tearfully tell how they did not like to engage in homosexuality.
      1. Lantau
        Lantau 24 February 2014 13: 14 New
        +14
        I know from a reliable source. In Estonia, at kindergartens at the OFFICIAL LEVEL, educators are forbidden to call a girl a girl and a boy a boy. The explanation is that they will grow up and decide who they are.
        1. Name
          Name 24 February 2014 14: 37 New
          +5
          Quote: Lantau
          educators are forbidden to call a girl a girl, and a boy a boy

          Somewhere Darwin made a mistake about the European version of homo sapiense ...
        2. Fedya
          Fedya 24 February 2014 22: 13 New
          +1
          In lyatva the same thing, but so far the current in Vilnius!
    2. smel
      smel 24 February 2014 13: 39 New
      +6
      The balts to Stalin overwhelmingly went in wooden ingots. Only after the Second World War began to recover. Yes, it’s not a horse’s feed
      1. RND
        RND 24 February 2014 16: 11 New
        +4
        Quote: smel
        The balts to Stalin overwhelmingly went in wooden ingots. Only after the Second World War began to recover. Yes, it’s not a horse’s feed


        Yes, what kind of food, if they use these pigs instead of the head. They can’t even reach the butt now. As the swamp was, they remained. Objectivity for the sake of ambition added. And with brains, everything is just as sad. Something like this. Or ambition or brains ...
      2. philip
        philip 24 February 2014 16: 20 New
        +3
        I saw it for sure. True, they no longer went to them, probably, but they were in the house. In your komenta I liked the word to come to your senses, it means to stop being a nonsense.
      3. samoletil18
        samoletil18 24 February 2014 21: 41 New
        +1
        In the 30s, people held toilet training campaigns in Estonia
      4. Fedya
        Fedya 24 February 2014 22: 12 New
        +1
        Wooden flowerbed!
      5. AVV
        AVV 25 February 2014 00: 01 New
        0
        Quote: smel
        The balts to Stalin overwhelmingly went in wooden ingots. Only after the Second World War began to recover. Yes, it’s not a horse’s feed

        These ur.ody even know their history ??? Put them all the ports on the joke, let them breathe European freedom !!! All the goods to let go only through the Russian ports, St. Petersburg and others, on sowing. pestilence. ways !!! Then there will be lesser quacking !!!
      6. MrK
        MrK 29 June 2017 16: 10 New
        0
        Yes, it’s not a horse’s feed

        I agree. In those years, the saying went: All the wealth of a Latvian is a member and a soul.
    3. siberalt
      siberalt 24 February 2014 21: 20 New
      0
      Kirdyk will be. laughing

      http://topwar.ru/uploads/images/2014/511/fprp779.jpg
      1. Bezz
        Bezz 25 February 2014 02: 00 New
        +2
        Quote: siberalt
        Kirdyk will be. laughing

        http://topwar.ru/uploads/images/2014/511/fprp779.jpg

        And interesting. Slaves absolutely voluntarily assert their right to be slaves and impose their way of life on others.
        "Yesterday, the slaves of Rome protested against the uprising of Spartacus in the south of the Roman Empire. They carried posters -" Spartacus - the secret protege of the Carthaginian Union! "," Carthage - hands off Rome, "We are your faithful slaves - Rome," Patricians and horsemen are our wise leaders "," Long live the federal slave system - the most advanced and correct. "

        At a rally in the Coliseum, a statement was drawn up in protest against the increasing anti-constitutional uprisings of slaves. "We demand that all conflicts between slaveholders and slaves be resolved only in the legal field, in the court of the patricians." After this, a crowd of slaves, chanting “Long live the great Rome!”, Under the supervision of the Praetorians, went home.

        Caesar and the Roman Senate expressed satisfaction and stated that there are no such law-abiding and patriotic slaves anywhere in the world. All slaves were given an extra bowl of bean porridge as a reward. It has also been announced that the maximum number of lashes as punishment will be reduced from 40 to 38.

        This news caused a feeling of deep satisfaction among the broad masses of Roman slaves. They expressed great gratitude to Caesar and the Roman Senate for paternal care ""
    4. The comment was deleted.
  2. Genur
    Genur 24 February 2014 13: 16 New
    +8
    Delusions of grandeur have never led to good.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. siberalt
      siberalt 24 February 2014 21: 28 New
      0
      Mania is when business is not confirmed. And with us: who if what, then yes, if so, if not at all ?.laughing

      http://topwar.ru/uploads/images/2014/335/izsk367.jpg
  3. platitsyn70
    platitsyn70 24 February 2014 13: 24 New
    +3
    they have a pension of 300 euros there, while the Greeks have 1000 euros and what the Greeks are on strike incomprehensibly.
    1. siberalt
      siberalt 24 February 2014 21: 31 New
      0
      Not! The geeks sing sincerely. laughing
    2. siberalt
      siberalt 24 February 2014 21: 31 New
      0
      Not! The geeks sing sincerely. laughing
  4. Barakuda
    Barakuda 24 February 2014 13: 24 New
    +7
    In Ukraine, it smells like this scenario. The article does not add that many Baltic cities were founded by Slovenian-Russians and have old Russian names.
  5. Yaroslav
    Yaroslav 24 February 2014 13: 26 New
    +3
    What can I say:
    Lived well, began to live even better!
    What was fed up missing? Yes, he was furious with fat.
    1. Fedya
      Fedya 24 February 2014 22: 18 New
      0
      Wait a lot, especially problems with demography! By the way, according to the latest census, the president of Lyatta ordered that at least 3 million people live in this place! At the moment, 150 thousand can still be crossed out! Many are nostalgic for the Union, but God forbid, say so loudly, you can be an agent of the Kremlin!
    2. MrK
      MrK 29 June 2017 16: 13 New
      0
      Quote: Yaroslav
      Lived well, began to live even better!


      Yes, much better. In Soviet times, they consumed twice as much as they produced.
  6. rasputin17
    rasputin17 24 February 2014 13: 28 New
    +10
    How the author mercifully summed up the results of this article !! And if you look deeper into what is happening now in the Baltic states, the results and conclusions will be much more severe. And the ruling circles of these countries are trying to cover up their shameful ins and outs with frank chauvinism and Russophobia. To distract people's views from pressing economic problems and the collapse of the economy and politics, I no longer cite even examples such as the sale of land to foreigners and the complete collapse of all production created during the USSR !! And what is important is that the common people of the Baltic countries understand this, but dutifully tacitly still agree with this, although they understand what kind of abyss they are going to and that for many people who live there, tomorrow is already gone. Young people flee from these countries in search of a better life in England and the EU where they replenish the army of the homeless and unemployed in the hope of at least somehow building their future there.
  7. Consul-t
    Consul-t 24 February 2014 13: 29 New
    +7
    Good article, only few of the Balts will understand this. They have their own truth.
    They’re on the forehead, on the forehead.

    Stupidity comes from the west, blue and pink ...
    They will be the first to fall ...
    There are actually few blue ones, but they are aggressive and thereby create the appearance of the majority.
  8. Roman 1977
    Roman 1977 24 February 2014 13: 29 New
    +9
    Formally fighting on the side of the whites against the reds, Estonia waged a double game, mercilessly bargaining for participating in hostilities with the whites, and for not participating in the reds. From the commander of the White Guard North-West Army, Nikolai Yudenich, Tallinn demanded that the coast of the Gulf of Finland be ceded to Oranienbaum, and so far the court has appointed Pskov as the deputy governor of the former red commander Stanislav Bulak-Balakhovich. The same formally obeying Yudenich really spit on him and robbed the occupied territory in the interests of Tallinn bosses. When the brutal Yudenich threw the dad out of Pskov, he fled to serve the Poles, and the Estonians practically stopped fighting, which significantly contributed to the defeat of the White Guards, although they bravely protected them from the Reds. In the end, having secured from the Bolsheviks a concession to the border lands, they disarmed the remnants of the whites, robbed them to the skin and drove them to logging sites, peat mining and shale mines, where Russian allies died of starvation and typhoid in thousands. The behavior of the Estonians looks especially vile, if you remember that without the help of the white, the Bolsheviks would have entered Tallinn, even in the winter of the 1919 of the year - however, such a behavior is natural for a small proud country.
    And what a triumph of democracy has come ...
    Latvia. In May 1934, Mr. Ulmanis staged a military coup. He banned all parties to hell, imposed martial law, comforting everyone with the fact that it only lasted for 6 months (and lasted for 6 years, until the arrival of the Soviet troops), quickly set up concentration camps, sold the farms for 26 debts, and eventually passed a law according to which no worker had the right to choose his own place of work himself, but was obliged to humbly obey the instructions of the Central Directorate of Labor (again, before Stalin). Well, the books were burned at the stake, they shot at the demonstrators, with taxes from the peasants they provided 000% of the state budget (and now they screw us up that the Soviet troops in Latvia “overthrew the democracy”, Herods).
    In Estonia, the same picture. Ahead of the Latvian brothers by a month, Prime Minister Päts and General Laidoner started a coup d'etat with the same results, but with specific national differences: for example, they created "camps for idlers", where they drove all those "staggering without work and without means of livelihood." General Laidoner casually borrowed marks from the treasury of 200 000, but he didn’t give it out of oblivion ... Päts didn’t remind him of delicacy: his own man, what really ...
    In Lithuania, nothing of the kind happened then - solely because in 1926 Mr. Smetona arranged a coup and showed everyone “mother Kuzminskas” ...
  9. parus2nik
    parus2nik 24 February 2014 13: 32 New
    +3
    What then, what now ... the Baltic countries are not ahead of Europe in everything, in the economic sphere, in the political sphere .. The same poor economy, the same totalitarian regimes covered by the screen of "democracy"
  10. rugor
    rugor 24 February 2014 13: 42 New
    +5
    the population of the Baltic peoples expanded and grew


    More like the TV show "In the world of animals" laughing
  11. Barakuda
    Barakuda 24 February 2014 13: 55 New
    +6
    I was in Riga a couple of years ago, the members of the forum met (the previous one in Kiev, not on this forum), well, beautiful, people seem to be not poor, but they work mainly in the service sector, there are a lot of dissatisfied people, there is no production as such, they curse Europe. Most of them are nice, friendly people, especially if you say that you are from (from) Ukraine. But young people in kind are uneducated, I want to send them all to Zadornov’s website, he regularly lives in Riga. Not that history, geography, few know for the 8th grade. And politicians are all looking to the West who will throw a bone. What the hell is independence ..? She does not smell.
    1. Passer
      Passer 24 February 2014 23: 25 New
      +1
      Quote: Barracuda
      I was in Riga a couple of years ago

      Recently, too, visited, to recall youth. All polite, courteous ... do not scream, with foam at the mouth, as 20 years ago: "Occupants, Get out !!!"
      They invited me to come again ...
  12. Support
    Support 24 February 2014 14: 14 New
    +5
    European cheap prostitutes ....
  13. gladysheff2010
    gladysheff2010 24 February 2014 15: 04 New
    +3
    It’s a pity and a shame for those, including and the Russians, who remain hostages of a "democratic society." Talking about the womb is not accepted there now.
    1. luka095
      luka095 24 February 2014 17: 52 New
      +1
      Not that it’s not accepted, it’s dangerous. They can plant ...
  14. Yuri Sev Caucasus
    Yuri Sev Caucasus 24 February 2014 15: 18 New
    +3
    that's how pseudo-shit democracy walks around the world !!! starting with small and poor and ending with .....?
  15. maratenok
    maratenok 24 February 2014 15: 38 New
    +3
    the author wrote well, this article refers to "little is written, but you need to turn on your brains" and everything becomes clear
  16. Barakuda
    Barakuda 24 February 2014 17: 27 New
    +2
    Quote: maratenok
    the author wrote well, this article refers to "little is written, but you need to turn on your brains" and everything becomes clear

    It is necessary to include, But who will turn them on in the field? Give me the money, I keep the club on my own drums and connections. Although I’ll send 30 fighters now, everyone is good.
  17. kind
    kind 24 February 2014 18: 32 New
    0
    And I always thought that the Baltics is just a territory, and it turns out that some kind of evil Europedics live there!
  18. APASUS
    APASUS 24 February 2014 18: 49 New
    +4
    The author spent a lot of research, analysis and formulated a cool article. Only the Balts do not need it, and we already know that they would go to the ranks of sheep under Hitler. That the occupiers do not build factories and do not teach the children of their slaves in institutes, but we will still remain villains for them.
  19. polkovnik manuch
    polkovnik manuch 24 February 2014 19: 43 New
    +2
    Which colony? Why inflate this nonsense? As were the "forest brothers" and remained, only ambition really got better. They should pray for the Russian Empire and the USSR, even though they kept their nationality!
  20. Ursus
    Ursus 24 February 2014 22: 26 New
    +2
    Quote: gladysheff2010
    It’s a pity and a shame for those, including and the Russians, who remain hostages of a "democratic society." Talking about the womb is not accepted there now.


    in Lithuania for denying, “occupation” a criminal article. here so guys ...
  21. shelva
    shelva 24 February 2014 22: 43 New
    +1
    Judging by the national costumes, they are all grooms and laundresses. I got this from a Soviet geography textbook for elementary grades.
    1. Alex 241
      Alex 241 25 February 2014 01: 11 New
      +2
      Ukrainian nationalist youth undergoes a sabotage and terrorist training course led by NATO instructors at a military base in Estonia in the summer of 2006. These are not tourists and not a folklore ensemble, but future saboteurs: