But this is a rather difficult matter, since we did not sign the Treaty of Munich, we entered the war two years after it began and would not have entered if Germany had not attacked us.
In 1992, the book “Fascist sword was forged in the USSR” by Y. Dyakov and T. Bushueva was published, as a result, this expression became very popular and rooted in public opinion. The media even claimed that Goering and Guderian himself studied in the USSR, saying that Moscow itself had raised these German commanders “on its head”. The Soviet Union in Lipetsk taught German pilots, tankers were trained in Kazan, and, even worse, Stalin economically supported the restoration of the power of the Third Reich.
First you need to remember that the Soviet-German military projects were launched in the 20-s, in the 1922-1933 years - this time so-called. Weimar Republic. And the Weimar Republic was a completely democratic state, in Germany there was a powerful socialist and communist movement. It was hoped that Germany would eventually become a socialist republic. That is, the very formulation of the question of the "fascist sword" is fundamentally wrong.
German cadets in Lipetsk.
The question is who did you study from whom?
In the 20s, the USSR was an agrarian country with an economy just beginning to recover from the First World War, the Civil War. Teach Germans tanking and combat use aviation we, in principle, could not. So, during the First World War, Berlin issued 47,3 thousand military aircraft, we - 3,5 thousand, the Germans had 70 tanks, we first released in 1920. Russia's first tank, Freedom Fighter Comrade Lenin, was copied from the captured French Renault and released in Nizhny Novgorod (the Krasnoye Sormovo plant). It was quite bad with the release of aircraft engines.
In terms of the availability of qualified specialists, Russia was also inferior to Germany, in Germany compulsory secondary education was introduced back in the 1871 year, we had two thirds of the illiterate population at the end of the Russian Empire.Who could teach in this situation?
Barracks immediately after construction, spring 1927.
Why did Moscow cooperate with the former enemy?
After the defeat in the First World War, Russia and Germany were the most “offended” states. Their territories were rejected, the German army was turned into decorative. Russia needed to build new armed forces, almost from scratch, in conditions of international isolation. In addition, we must remember that Russia has lagged far behind the advanced powers in a number of military technologies, for us cooperation with the technologically developed power has become a matter of survival. It is possible to draw a parallel with the modern Russian Federation: at present, an alliance and large-scale cooperation with Berlin would not prevent us from doing so.
In this most difficult situation, the two “rogue” countries extended their hands to each other. In April, 1922, during a conference in Genoa, Berlin and Moscow signed the Treaty of Rapall. Countries renounced claims to each other, Berlin recognized the nationalization of all German property in Russia. Traditional trade ties have been restored. The treaty did not contain military articles, but could serve as a basis for cooperation in the military field. Germany needed test sites where it was possible to test equipment far from the observers of the Entente, Russia needed German experience in the production and use of the latest technology. Therefore, in the middle of 20-ies, an aviation school in Lipetsk, a tank school in Kazan, and two aero-chemical stations near Moscow and near Volsk were established.
View of Lipetsk.
The Fokker D XIII fighter was the most common aircraft in the Lipetsk Aviation School.
Fokker D XIII on the snow skiing.
School in Lipetsk
The agreement on the establishment of an aviation school in Lipetsk was signed on 15 on April 1925 in Moscow, in the summer of the same year it was opened. It was created with the money of the Germans and the Germans, the planes (bought in Holland supposedly for Argentina) were bought by the Germans. German cadets came to Russia under the guise of tourists and employees of firms. The school was headed by a German officer: in 1925-1930. Major Walter Star, then from 1930 to 1933. Major M. Mohr and Captain G. Muller. The flight crews were Germans, gradually the number of German staff grew to 60 people. 360 pilots graduated from the school, including 220 Germans, 140 Russians and 45 Russian aircraft mechanics. This is quite a bit, for example, only in 1932, at the schools in Braunschweig and Reichlin, the Germans trained almost 2000 pilots. The maintenance costs were also borne by the Germans, they also delivered all aviation materials and paid transportation costs.
The Fokker D-XIII fighters, which were bought by the Germans, formed the basis of the fleet of aircraft; in the summer of 1925, the 50 of packed in aircrafts was transported by sea from Stettin to Leningrad. In the summer of 1926, the Heinkel HD-8 two-seater reconnaissance aircraft were supplied. By the end of 17, the park grew even more.
In general, the school in Lipetsk cost Berlin 2 million marks annually, in some years more. This is excluding construction costs.
That is, the Germans for their money prepared the German and Soviet pilots, mechanics, shared a unique experience, the latest technical advances. And after Hitler came to power, the school was closed, all equipment went to the USSR. As a result, we can say that the Germans forged the "Soviet sword".
Heinkel D 17.
Scout Albatross 84 on trial, 1931 g.
Tank School in Kazan
The school was created at the end of 1926, the principle approach was the same - the German staff with auxiliary staff from the Soviet side: carpenters, mechanics, drivers, painters, a cook, a caretaker, security, etc. The head and teachers are Germans. The school was located in the former barracks of the 5 th Kargopol Dragoon Regiment.
Again, all the costs of maintenance, arrangement were assigned to the Germans. The Germans were forced to pay even for the congress of units and military schools that were located here. Training tanks were provided by the Germans.
The preparatory work went on until the summer of 1928, the Germans had equipped the training room, workshops, and prepared the ground. Only in the spring of 1929, studies began. When 10 tanks were brought from Germany, they were called “tractors” for conspiracy.
Before closing in 1933, the school managed to make three graduations; in total, it released 30 German tankers (not enough for the “German sword”) and 65 commanders for tank and mechanized units of the Red Army. The myth claimed that the famous Guderian had also studied there, but this is not so. Guderian was in Kazan, but as an inspector, with a short visit.
Soviet tank (Russian Renault system - Fighter for the freedom of Comrade Lenin. Released by Sormovsky plant in the number of 17 pieces).
Col. J. Harpe
Since 1929, Led Colonel V. Malbrandt led the school, the project was named KAMA (Kazan + Malbrandt) in his honor. Then the school was headed by L. von Radlmeier, in 1932-1933. - Colonel J. Harpe.
As in the case of the Lipetsk school, the Germans prepared their own and our tankers with their own money. None of the great German military leaders in the USSR did not study, they came to the inspection (like Guderian and Lutz in Kazan in the summer of 1932). Or observers came to the Red Army maneuvers: Colonel Brauchitsch, Lieutenant Colonel Keitel, Captain Kretschmer came to the 4 of the day to look at the teachings of the Belarusian Military District; Major Model on 2 week at the location of the 9 Rifle Division in Rostov, etc.
KAMA Tank School, Kazan (1929 year).
Teaching at the KAMA tank school, Kazan.
Tomka Chemical Object
The joint aeronautical testing agreement was signed in August 1926. The picture was about the same as in Lipetsk and Kazan. Only in the Saratov region there were other tasks - joint research.
The USSR provided a training ground and provided working conditions, the Germans undertook to train Soviet specialists during the experiments. The main tasks were not training, but research. The technical leadership was in the hands of the Germans, administrative in the Soviet.
The first tests took place near Moscow at the Podosinki training ground; about 40 sorties were carried out, and it was proved that aviation should use mustard gas against living targets, to infect the territory and settlements. In 1927, the construction of the Tomka facility near the town of Volsk in the Saratov region was completed and the tests were moved there. We worked on methods of chemical attack, tested chemical means, studied the animal damaging properties of mustard gas, methods of cleaning the terrain. The first project manager on the German side was Col. L. von Sieherer, from 1929 to 1933 for years, General V. Trepper. Most of the project financing was taken over by the Germans.
Was this collaboration helpful?
Without a doubt - yes! Berlin, violating international obligations, at its own expense created the newest military training and research centers in the USSR. We did not break any contracts - we were not even invited to Versailles.
The USSR had to create many military areas from scratch, and here the help of Germany was invaluable. The Germans shared their experience, knowledge, technology for free! For example, in ten years, Soviet chemical troops were created almost from scratch, scientific research was organized, production of chemical weapons and remedies. In the 1931, the USSR already had, in addition to the 400, thousands of old shells of the First World War, which were to be reloaded, 420 thousand of new ammunition (with mustard, phosgene, diphosgene). Remote chemical projectiles and fuses for them were tested. The Air Force adopted 8 and 32 kg of a mustard gas bomb (to infect the territory), 8 kg chemical fragmentation bombs with chloroacetophene to destroy enemy manpower. By the end of 1931, they were preparing to adopt the 50-ti and 100 kg bombs with remote-acting yperitum, drums with phosgene. There were 75 kits for aviation equipment VAP-4 and it was planned to create 1931 in 1000. Bottling stations with a capacity of over 5 million shells and bombs per year were created.
Thus, the USSR in the shortest possible time eliminated the backlog from the leading powers in the field of chemical weapons and became equal with them. The USSR created its own excellent school of military chemists.
Other areas of cooperation
The Red Aria and the USSR, thanks to cooperation with Germany, received excellent cadres of pilots, tank crews, chemists, and after the termination of cooperation, the objects themselves with equipment. In Lipetsk, the Higher Airborne Tactical School of the Air Force was opened, in Kazan - the Kazan Tank School, in the Saratov Region we remained a training ground, part of the Tomka property went to the development of the Institute of Chemical Defense.
But there were other areas - cooperation in the development of modern weapons. At the end of the 20s, the German designer E. Heinkel developed the HD-37 fighter for the Soviet Air Force, in the USSR it was produced as the I-7, only 1931 to 1934 were produced by the aircraft. Another plane built by Heinkel for Moscow is the marine intelligence officer Henkel-131, we called it the KR-55, and it was in service until the 1 year.
Marine intelligence officer "Henkel-55", we called it the KR-1.
In addition, they ordered a K-3 catapult from Germany to launch the KR-1 from the battleship "Paris Commune", and at the end of the 30-s purchased two K-12 catapults for the Voroshilov and Kirov cruisers.
For the tank industry: in the T-26, BT, T-28 German welded hulls, surveillance devices, sights, the idea to pair a gun with a machine gun, electrical equipment, radio equipment. For artillery: 76-mm 1931 anti-aircraft gun of the year, through its modernization created 76-mm anti-aircraft gun 1938 model of the year and 85-mm anti-aircraft gun 1939 of the year, also the 76-mm system of naval anti-aircraft guns. They bought the Germans 37-mm anti-tank gun, by upgrading it created the famous 45-ku 1945 model of the year. From 1932 to 1942, more than 16 thousands were built. At its base they created 45-mm tank guns, they were armed with almost all Soviet tanks, which were released before the war.
For the Naval Forces of the USSR, submarines of the “Series IX” were designed, at the end of 1934, the 3 PL: H-1, H-2, H-3, with the 1937 of the year “C” - “medium” were laid at the Baltiysky plant ). Many design solutions and mechanisms of "German" were used in subsequent, already Soviet, projects. On the basis of this project, they launched the “IX-bis series”, the main difference between them from the “German women” is the replacement of German diesel engines by the Soviet ones and in small changes to the fencing of the wheelhouse. By the beginning of World War II, 20 Submarines had been built, or were almost ready, and 18 was still being built.
Thus, not the "German sword" was forged in the Union, but rather the opposite, The Germans helped us in the 1920-beginning of the 1930-s to create the basics of modern tank, air, chemical troops and military-industrial complex branches.
It turns out that Moscow was not distinguished by stupidity in those years, but by a high state mind, using the maximum benefits of cooperation with Germany.
fighter HD-37, in the USSR it was produced as an I-7.
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