From the background and stories Sevastopol
Slavic-Russian presence in the Crimea can be noted from ancient times. Not for nothing in the times of the Old Russian state the Black Sea was called “Russian”. Crimea during this period had a mixed population - the descendants of the Scythians, Goths, Greeks and Slavs lived on the peninsula. In addition, the Old Russian state with the centers in Novgorod and Kiev was formed on the basis of the unification of the state traditions of Novgorod-Ladoga Russia (associated with the Varangian Russia in Central Europe) and Azov-Black Sea Russia (Secrets of Russian history: Azov-Black Sea Russia and Varangian Russia).
In addition, we should not forget that representatives of the Russian (Slavic) historical school, which opposes the pro-Western, "classical" school, believe that Russia-Russia is the direct successor of the Scythian state. Azov-Black Sea Russia inherited the traditions of Scythia-Sarmatia. Thus, the presence of the Rus superethnos in the Black Sea and Crimea can be noted from time immemorial.
The collapse of Russia led to the loss of access to the Black Sea. Crimea became part of the Horde, and then became the center of the Crimean Khanate. The Crimean Khanate was a robber-parasitic public entity that lived on raids on Slavic and Caucasian lands, on the basis of human trafficking (Robotic parasitic Crimean Khanate and the fight against it). For several centuries of the existence of the Crimean Khanate, millions of Slavs were killed because they did not represent "commercial value", or were taken to the slave markets of the Middle East, Central Asia and North Africa.
Several centuries passed in a difficult and stubborn struggle with the Crimean Khanate and the Ottoman Empire that stood behind it. Gradually, Russia moved in its southern policy from a dead defense to active offensive action. In 1796, Azov was captured, ships of the Azov flotilla reached the Azov, and then the Black Sea. Russia needed to solve the problems of entering the Black Sea and eliminating the hostile Crimean Khanate. Peter builds Taganrog. The Azov-Black Sea basin ceases to be a "Turkish lake". However, it was not possible to finally gain a foothold in the Black Sea in Russia under Peter Alekseevich. After the unsuccessful Prut campaign in 1711 (War with Turkey 1711 of the year. Prut trip), Russia had to temporarily retreat. Taganrog was destroyed, and Azov left.
During the Russian-Turkish war in 1736, the Russian army under the command of Field Marshal Burkhard Minich stormed the Ottoman fortifications from Perekop and occupied Bakhchisarai. At the same time, another army under the command of Field Marshal Peter Lassi, with the help of the Don Flotilla, laid siege to Azov. In 1737, the Lassi army invaded Crimea again. The Crimean Tatars were defeated in a series of battles and the Russian troops occupied Karasubazar. As a result of this war, Russia regained Azov. However, the task of access to the Black Sea has not been solved. The Belgrade Peace Treaty of 1739, in fact, nullified the successes of the Russian army.
Elizaveta Petrovna tried not to enter into conflicts with the Ottoman Empire. In addition, Russia was mired in European intrigues, it was dragged into the Seven Years' War with Prussia. The task of access to the Black Sea was relegated to the background. The government of Empress Catherine II has already returned to the solution of this strategic task. Russia by this time already had all the necessary military, political and financial capabilities to wage a war with Turkey. Under Catherine II, a maximum task was set in St. Petersburg: to oust the Ottomans from Europe completely, not only to seize the lands of the Northern Black Sea region, but also to liberate Slavs and Christians from Southern Europe from the Turkish yoke. The victorious point of this process was to be the Russian flag on the walls of St. Sophia and the transformation of Constantinople into one of the capitals of the Russian Empire. The Dacian Project meant the restoration of the Byzantine Empire under the protectorate of Russia and with one of the members of the Romanov dynasty on the Constantinople throne (as the emperor of the Byzantine Empire, Catherine saw her beloved grandson, Constantine). It is clear that with such a super-goal, the minimum program was fully implemented: Russia was able to solve the “Crimean question” and conquer the Northern Black Sea region.
In 1768, the next Russian-Turkish war began. In 1771, the Russian army under the command of Prince Vasily Dolgoruky stormed the Perekop and Arabat fortresses, stormed into the Crimea and captured the main enemy strongholds: the cities of Gozlev, Ak-Mosque, Kerch, Balaklava, the Enikale fortress. The Crimean Khanate was forced to declare its independence from Porta and passed under the protectorate of Russia. In 1774, the Kyuchuk-Kaynardzhi peace treaty was concluded. The Great and Small Kabarda, Azov, Kerch, Enikale and Kinburn, the Black Sea steppe between the Dnieper and the Southern Bug, moved to Russia. Crimean Khanate was declared independent of Turkey. Russian merchant ships were able to engage in commerce on the Black Sea and go to the Mediterranean.
The Russian Empire received huge and then sparsely populated territories (raids of the Crimean Tatars turned huge territories into the so-called “Wild Field”), which needed to be settled, developed, and developed. New lands were called "Novorossiya" ("New Russia"). The main conductor of this responsible mission was the talented statesman Grigory Alexandrovich Potemkin. His will and energy for the arrangement of the New Russia mobilized huge material and human resources. New cities and settlements were being built, the development of the national economy was going on, they began to build the Black Sea Fleet, the coastal infrastructure. They were based Ekaterinoslav (Dnepropetrovsk), and Kherson Nikopol. Peasants from the central regions of Russia and Little Russia, settlers from Western Europe, were resettled to empty lands. Taking into account the maximum program, even the cities were given Greek names known from ancient chronicles. The real locations of many ancient cities were not known to science then; therefore, the new settlements were named mostly erroneously. So, Kherson was supposed to be located on the site of Sevastopol, and Sevastopol - on the site of Sukhumi. Guessed only once, when Cafu renamed to Feodosia.
However, for the full development of the region it was necessary to eliminate the Crimean Khanate. In the Crimea, there was a strong pro-Turkish party that did not accept defeat and was waiting for the right moment for an uprising. At first, St. Petersburg took part in the conflict between two khans - the pro-Turkish Devlet-Girey and the pro-Russian Shagin-Giray, who planned to carry out reforms in Crimea, modernizing the country according to European standards. In 1776, the Ottomans landed troops on the peninsula to support Devlet, while Russian troops occupied Perekop, and in the spring of 1777, troops entered the Crimea. It went to a new war between Russia and Turkey.
In the 1778 year, under the pretext of protecting the Christian population, the Crimean Christians, who were the main tax-paying population of the Khanate, were evicted to the Azov region, forming the economic basis of the Crimea. Thus, the Khanate was deprived of the second most important source of income. It was impossible to make robber raids; now the Crimean Tatars have been deprived of the opportunity to exploit Christians.
One of the main problems that Russia began to solve in the Crimea, was the creation of military installations. Thus, in 1778, on the orders of Alexander Suvorov, the Russian garrison was located in Inkerman and Balaklava, and temporary earthworks were built on both banks of the Akhtiar (Sevastopol) bay and deployed along the 3 infantry battalion. During this period, the Russian military were looking for a place where it was possible to deploy a large fleet in order to consolidate the Russian presence on the Black Sea. None of the ports that existed in the Azov Sea region in the Crimea and the Northern Black Sea Coast was suitable. Alexander Suvorov immediately drew attention to the huge and deserted Sevastopol Bay, which could accommodate a large and powerful fleet. Suvorov noted that "such a harbor not only on the local peninsula, but also on the entire Black Sea will not be found."
True, in St. Petersburg they were still thinking about the future of the Crimea, it was possible to save the Khanate if the Crimean nobility were more loyal to Russia, therefore initially Kherson was planned to make Kherson in the Dnieper delta, where relevant work was being done, as the main base of the Black Sea Fleet.
The Crimean Khanate at this time finally degraded. The political and economic crisis, the lack of external assistance from Turkey and the decisive actions of the Russian army made the Khanate unviable. In 1783, Shagin-Giray abdicated the throne and went to live in St. Petersburg. Empress Catherine II Manifesto from 8 (19) in April 1783 of the year included the Crimean peninsula in the Russian Empire.
At the end of 1782, two ships housed in the Akhtiar bay for the winter: the “Brave” and the “Wary”. In 1783, the frigate “Caution” under the command of Captain II Rank Ivan Bersenev inspected the bay near the village of Akhtiar and recommended it as a strategic base for the ships of the future Black Sea Fleet. After the signing of the Manifesto on the entry of the Crimea, a squadron of ships under the command of Vice-Admiral F.A. Klokachev, which was composed of ships of the Azov flotilla. 2 May 1783, the officers of the Crimean corps, whom Suvorov then commanded, saw a Russian squadron on the horizon. The sailors were in awe, the bay was abolished. On May 7, the Dnieper Flotilla entered the Akhtiar Bay.
3 (14) June 1783, the house of the commander, the chapel, the forge and the marina (Grafskaya quay) were laid. In fact, the first commander of the port of Sevastopol was Rear Admiral Thomas Fomich Mekenzi (before coming to Russia, Thomas McKenzie). Under his leadership, ship crews cleared the shores from the forest, began to build shops, hospitals, barracks and apartment houses for officers, arrange quarries and kilns for burning lime. As a result, soon the local economy began to give most of the items needed to supply the fleet and the existence of crews. Thus began a new page in the history of the Heraclean Peninsula, which in ancient times was the territory of Tauric Chersonesos.
The name of the city was given by the Decree of Catherine of 10 (21) February 1784 of the year. The name of the city consists of two Greek words “Sevastos” - “highly esteemed, sacred” and “polis” - “city”. At the same time, the word “Sevastos” is the equivalent of the Latin title “Augustus”, therefore, Sevastopol means “the most august city”, “imperial city”. The city's name can also be translated as "the great city", "city of glory." In 1787, on the eve of the war with Turkey, on the initiative of Potemkin, Catherine staged a “propaganda play”. She was accompanied by the Austrian Emperor Joseph II, many foreign envoys and ministers traveled to New Russia. The end point of this expedition was Sevastopol. By this time, the city and the fleet, which created from scratch, grew so much that they threw foreign representatives into shock, clearly showing the full power of the Russian Empire.
Russia had to shed a lot of blood for the Crimea after the annexation of the peninsula. In Port, they did not immediately accept the loss of the Crimea. The Western powers, not wanting to further strengthen Russia, skillfully played on the desire of the Ottomans to take revenge. In 1787, the Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia. Russian soldiers and sailors under the command of Rumyantsev, Potemkin, Suvorov and Ushakov defeated the Ottomans. Defeated at sea and on land, Porta asked for peace. The Yassy peace treaty secured the Crimea for Russia, the entire Northern Black Sea region. Ushakov, who was appointed commander of the port and the Sevastopol squadron in 1788, did a great job in arranging the city.
By the beginning of the nineteenth century, about 30 thousand people lived in Sevastopol. Sevastopol became the largest city on the peninsula. The city had a plumbing system, a hospital for 300 people and an admiralty. In 1797, Emperor Paul I renamed Sevastopol to Akhtiar (the former name was returned in 1826). In 1804, the main base of the Black Sea Fleet was transferred from Kherson to Sevastopol. The city has long been a military, providing a fleet. So, there was no international trade port in Sevastopol until 1867 a year, and the Russian domestic commercial port was either opened or closed again.
Aivazovsky IK. Review of the Black Sea Fleet in 1849
During the reign of Paul I and Alexander I, when almost all of St. Petersburg's attention was focused on European affairs, the attention of the government to the southern military strategic direction was greatly weakened. Russian-Turkish war 1806 — 1812 mainly conducted on the Danube theater of operations, and the Russian-Turkish war 1828 — 1829. in the Balkans and Transcaucasia. The Black Sea Fleet was involved only in local operations.
The beginning of a new stage of rapid growth of Sevastopol was associated with the name of Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev. In 1832, he became the chief of staff of the Black Sea Fleet, and in 1833 - the chief commander of the Black Sea Fleet and ports of the Black Sea, and in the summer of 1834 - the commander of the Black Sea Fleet and commander of the ports of Sevastopol and Nikolaev. On the eve of the Crimean War, the population of Sevastopol grew to 50 thousand people. Lazarev created the production base of the fleet - the Admiralty with the ship repair and shipbuilding enterprises on the banks of the Ship and South bays, with unique dry docks, and then proceeded to the reconstruction and development of the city. In 1840, the first master plan of Sevastopol was adopted. Five strong stone forts were built to protect the city from an attack from the sea. The city acquired its inherent layout so far and was decorated in a classical architectural style. On the initiative and with the active participation of Lazarev, the Peter and Paul Cathedral and the Maritime Library were erected. In 1842, a stone building of the first theater appears. Slums on the "Ridge of Lawlessness" (Central, or City Hill) were demolished, and buildings in the spirit of classicism are being built in their place. The Black Sea Fleet receives the first ships. In the 1851 new master plan provides for further development of the city was adopted. But the Eastern (Crimean) war prevented its implementation.
During its existence, the city has repeatedly justified its name. Sevastopol twice became the “cemetery” for the enemy - in the Eastern (Crimean) War of 1853-1856. and the Great Patriotic War. For exceptional heroism shown by Russian soldiers and sailors during the Great Patriotic War, Sevastopol was awarded the title Hero City.
A. A. Deineka. Defense of Sevastopol, 1942.
Currently, Sevastopol, as well as the Crimea, is part of Ukraine.
In 1991, the external and internal enemies of Russia were able to break a single Russian superethnos and Russian civilization into several parts. Today the next stage of the fragmentation of Russian civilization has begun. The geopolitical opponents of Russia-Russia intensified the process of crushing Little Russia (Ukraine). In Poland, Hungary, Romania and Turkey, they began to recall their “rights” to the Russian lands. The role of the “fifth column” of the Western and Islamic projects in Ukraine is played by liberals, neo-Nazis (Bandera), Crimean Tatar ethnic separatists and Islamists.
If Kiev does not show political will and in the most severe way does not suppress the hotbeds of distemper, the whole of Little Russia will become a battlefield, cruel and bloody. Taking into account the size of the territory of Ukraine, its population, the combat arsenal left over from the USSR, the fighting potential of the Rus, the war in the Ukraine will be more serious than in Syria or Yugoslavia. Suffice it to recall that the struggle against Bandera in the Stalinist USSR, when they did not stand on ceremony with bandits and murderers, was conducted until the 1952 year.
Apparently, the citizens of Ukraine will have to pay in full for the geopolitical error of 1991 of the year. Residents of Russia, too, should prepare for the worst. A blow to Russia is applied in several directions at once. Smoot in the Middle East is a blow to the Caucasian and Central Asian areas. Representatives of the Islamic project have already declared themselves on the Volga Route (Volgograd and Kazan). Ukraine is a new front of global turmoil. It is to be expected that soon neoliberals, nationalists, separatists and Islamists will try to organize the “Moscow Maidan”. The social base for this is already there. Two decades of ideological emptiness filled the minds of young Russians with a variety of ideas - from “independent Ingermanlandia”, “Karelian, Ural, Siberian and Far Eastern republics” to “independent Tataria” and “Great Cherkessia”. Islamists have a developed underground in almost all regions of the Federation. The ideas of regional separatism strengthened. The idea of "stop feeding Moscow" is very popular with local authorities.
The collapse of Ukraine will put before Moscow the question of the need to integrate the Crimea, the East and the South into the composition of the Russian Federation. This will be the first step in restoring the unity of the Russian civilization and the Russian people ... Sevastopol is a city of Russian glory, and it should be part of the united great Russia.