Military Review

"Manta" against the cruiser

15
Sea mines, even the most primitive ones, still remain one of the main threats to warships and ships at sea, especially in shallow coastal areas, narrows and harbors of ports and naval bases. A vivid example of this is the detonation of mines during Operation Storm in the Desert on one day at once two large warships of the US Navy.


"Manta" against the cruiser


Early morning 18 February 1991, about half past five in the morning, the Persian Gulf. Operation Desert Storm (Operation Desert Storm) is in full swing - the multinational coalition forces are preparing to liberate Kuwait and make final preparations.

Tripoli helicopter carrier (USS Tripoli, LPH-10), type "Iwo Jima", which during the operation played the role of the flagship ship of mine-transport equipment and on board which at that time was a large group of minesweeper helicopters from 14 the squadron of the minesweeper helicopters was sent to a predetermined area, where its helicopters had to perform an important combat task — to conduct a trawling of the coastal water area, where an amphibious landing force was to be landed.

Suddenly, a huge ship shakes a powerful explosion on the starboard side. What is it? Torpedo? Mine? Yes, the mine - giant Tripoli became a victim of the Iraqi anchor contact mine LUGM-145, which was produced in Iraq, had a mass of 145 kg explosive and was not much different from its older “horned girlfriends” who had sent to the bottom of World War II oceans and seas are not one hundred warships and ships. The explosion struck a hole about the size of 4,9 x 6,1 m in the area below the ship’s waterline, four sailors were injured. Moreover, “Tripoli” was still lucky - soon after the explosion, when the ship stalled the course, two minesweepers accompanying it discovered and dragged three more mines from the helicopter carrier.

The team needed 20 hours to seal the hole and pump out the water that entered the hull, after which the ship was ready to continue solving the combat mission. However, this was not possible - during a mine explosion, fuel tanks with aviation they were damaged by fuel, and the helicopters of the 14th squadron had no choice but to remain in the Tripoli hangar (in total, according to reports, Tripoli lost about a third of all the fuel on board at the time of the mine detonation). Seven days later he headed to Jubail, a port and naval base in Saudi Arabia, where the 14th squadron was relocated to another landing helicopter carrier, the New Orleans (USS New Orleans, LPH-11), type Iwo Jima and then Tripoli went to Bahrain to carry out repairs. Only after 30 days the ship was able to return to combat fleet, and its repair cost the Americans $ 5 million, despite the fact that the cost of one mine of the LUGM-145 type is only about 1,5 thousand dollars.



But it was still flowers - four hours after the detonation of Tripoli, a Ticonderoga-type American cruiser URO (USS Princeton, CG-59), about 28 miles from the Kuwaiti island of Failac, exploded on the mine on the left flank of the coalition ship grouping. At this time, the hero was a mine "Manta" of Italian production, which was in service with the Iraqi Navy. Under the cruiser, two mines worked at once - one exploded directly under the left-hand steering device, and the second - in the bow of the ship on the starboard.

After two explosions, the left hand drive was jammed and the right propeller shaft was damaged, and as a result of damage to the chilled water supply pipeline, the section of distribution boards No. 3 was flooded. In addition, the ship’s superstructure got some damage (as they say, the superstructure “led”), and the cruiser hull received local deformations (experts counted three strong dents with a partial hull break). Wounds of varying severity were received by three members of the crew of the cruiser.

However, the personnel managed to quickly restore the combat readiness of the ship - after 15 minutes, the Aegis combat system and the weapons complexes located in the bow of the ship were ready for use in their entirety, which allowed Princeton after he was taken out of the minefield The base minesweeper "Adroyt" (USS Adroit, AM-509 / MSO-509), type "Ekmi", remain in the patrol area for 30 hours, and only then it was replaced by another ship. For the courage and heroism shown in this episode, the ship and its crew received the Combat Action Ribbon, a special award - the bar awarded for direct participation in hostilities.



Primary repair the cruiser was held in Bahrain, and then with the help of the shipowner destroyers "Acadia" (USS Acadia, AD-42), the type "Yellowstone", he moved to the port of Jebel Ali, near Dubai (UAE), and then was transferred to dry dock directly in Dubai, where major repairs were carried out. After eight weeks, the cruiser URO "Princeton" under its own power went to the United States, where it carried out the final repair work.

In total, the repair of the ship cost the budget of the US Navy, according to official data of the Research Department (report by the head of the Directive Admiral Nevin? P. Carr at the regional conference on the use of mine and mine weapons MINWARA in May 2011 of the year), almost 24 million dollars (according to other data, the work on returning the ship to service cost the US Navy and 100 million dollars altogether), which is disproportionately more than the cost of two in general, not particularly technologically complex "shallow-water" bottom mines, each of which costs the buyer approximately 15 thousand dollars. In a peculiar way, the Italian developers of sea mines took part in Operation Desert Storm.



However, the most significant result of the “Iraqi mine threat”, the seriousness of which was confirmed by the undermining of “Tripoli” and “Princeton”, was that the command of the coalition forces refused to conduct a naval landing operation, rightly fearing great casualties. It was only after the war that it turned out that the Iraqis had put in the northern part of the bay, in the landing-dangerous areas around 1300 sea mines of various types.
Deadly "Manta"

Mina MN103 Manta (Manta) was developed and produced by the Italian company SEI SpA, located in the town of Ghedi, equipped with two types of proximity fuses and is classified in the specialized literature either as anti-airborne or as ground. In particular, in the “Jane's Underwater Warfare Systems” (“Underwater Warfare”) reference book, the Manta mine is classified as a “subtle anti-landing mine for shallow depths” (“stealth shallow water anti-invasion mine”).



If, as they say, to look at this issue extensively, then we can conclude that both of these options are correct, since the Manta mine is installed at the bottom at depths from 2,5 to 100 meters, but the most priority scenario for its combat use is to mine shallow water in the system of anti-airborne obstacles, as well as in narrow places, straits, in roadsteads, in harbors and ports. According to Russian terminology, “Manta” is a non-contact ground mine.

The main targets for Manta are amphibious ships and boats launched during sea amphibious operations in shallow water, as well as combat surface ships and ships of small and medium displacement, various boats and submarines operating in shallow areas. However, as was shown at the beginning of the material, the “Manta” mine is a very formidable and dangerous enemy for even larger-displacement warships - up to URO cruisers.

The manta mine kit includes:

- fiberglass hull, having the shape of a truncated cone and in the lower part filled with ballast, and in the upper part - having free volumes, filled through the holes with water after the mine is placed on the ground;

- explosive charge (located at the bottom of the mine);

- ignition device;

- safety devices for the safe transportation of the mine, its preparation and staging (the detonator is isolated from the explosive charge before the dive to the specified depth;

- devices of multiplicity and urgency;

- devices to ensure the remote control of the mine by wire (from the coastal post, etc.);

- equipment of contactless fuses (acoustic and magnetic fuses);

- Power Supply;

- elements of the electrical circuit.



The design features of the Manta mine (low silhouette, non-magnetic fiberglass hull, etc.) provide it with a high degree of secrecy even when the enemy uses modern systems such as anti-mine search devices with side sonar stations during trawling, not to mention the use of traditional sonar systems. mine detection stations for mine-sweeping ships, trawls of various types or optical-electronic detection devices (TV cameras). It is possible to assess the degree of danger posed by the Manta mine for warships and auxiliary ships of the enemy, according to the photo, which shows such a mine just a week after its installation on the ground. In addition, the design of the mine hull and its mass-dimensional characteristics, which were successfully selected by the developer, ensure its secure fixing on the ground, including in coastal and torrential zones, characterized by strong tidal currents, as well as in the waters of rivers and canals.

The laying of Manta mines can be carried out by warships and boats of all classes and types, as well as by airplanes and helicopters, without the need for a substantial amount of work to adapt them for this purpose. Target detection is carried out by the on-duty channel of an explosive device of a mine that activates an acoustic sensor, after which the combat channel of a mine is put into operation. In the domestic literature it is indicated that magnetic and hydrodynamic sensors are included in the battle channel of the Manta mine, but there is no mention of a hydrodynamic sensor in foreign specialized literature.

It should also be mentioned about the possibility of delaying the time of bringing the Manta mine to a combat state, up to 63 days, which is ensured by an urgency device having a one-day step. In addition, it is possible to control the mine explosions by wire from the coastal post, which significantly increases the effectiveness of combat use of mines of this type as part of the anti-amphibious or anti-submarine defense system of the coast, harbors, ports, naval bases and bases.



The company develops three versions of the Manta mines: combat, intended for use in its main purpose; practical, used in the process of training miners, during exercises, testing of various mine action tools and collecting various statistical data, as well as training mines or mock-ups, which are also used to train specialists, but only in training classes and classes on the coast (ship) .

The combat modification of the mine has the following tactical and technical characteristics: maximum diameter - 980 mm; height - 440 mm; weight - 220 kg; explosive mass - kg 130; type of explosive - trinitrotoluene (TNT), HBX-3 (phlegmatized trotyl-hexogen-aluminum) or solid thermobaric explosives of the PBXN-111 type (molding composition on a polymeric binder); setting depth - 2,5 – 100 m; the radius of the danger zone of mines (affected areas) - 20 – 30 m; admissible water temperature - from –2,5 ° C to + 35 ° C; the term of combat service at the position (on the ground in the firing position) - not less than one year; Storage time is no less than 20 years.

Currently, the mine "Manta" is in service with the Italian Navy, as well as the naval forces of several countries of the world. It is hardly possible to establish exactly which countries in particular, since the presence in the arsenal of such means of armed struggle of the owner country is usually not sought to advertise. However, one such country, the owner of Manta-type mines, manifested itself, as mentioned above, during the first Gulf War of 1990 – 91. In total, according to the data of the mentioned reference book “Jaynes” for 2010 – 11 years, more than 5000 mines of the type “Manta” have been released today.
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15 comments
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  1. Papakiko
    Papakiko 24 February 2014 08: 23
    +3
    Yes, mine - Tripoli giant fell victim to Iraqi anchor contact mines LUGM-145, which was produced in Iraq, had a mass of explosives of 145 kg and was not much different from its older "horned girlfriends," who sent more than one hundred warships and ships to the bottom of the oceans and seas during the Second World War. The explosion punched a hole about 4,9 x 6,1 m in size below the ship’s waterline,
    And for comparison:
    Under the cruiser worked immediately two mines - one exploded directly under the left steering device, and the second - in the bow of the ship on the starboard side.
    After two explosions, the left rudder jammed and the shaft of the right propeller was damaged, and as a result of damage to the chilled water supply pipe, the switchboard compartment No. 3 was flooded. In addition, some damage to the ship’s superstructure (as they say, the superstructure “led”), and the hull the cruiser received local deformations (specialists counted three strong dents with a partial break in the hull)
    .
    According to the logic of the damage, it was necessary to disassemble and dithyrambit mine LUGM-145Iraq Prospect.
    But Volodya decided to sing the mantra to pasta adversary and diluted with another example:
    Combat modification of mines has the following tactical and technical characteristics: maximum diameter - 980 mm; height - 440 mm; weight - 220 kg; explosive mass - 130 kg; type of explosive - trinitrotoluene (TNT), HBX-3 (phlegmatized trotyl-hexogen-aluminum) or solid thermobaric explosive type PBXN-111 (injection molding composition on a polymer binder); setting depth - 2,5–100 m; the radius of the danger zone of the mine (zone of destruction) - 20-30 m; permissible water temperature - from –2,5 ° C to +35 ° C.
    Apparently the pasta sold Iraq a training or semi-combat mine.
    1. tlauicol
      tlauicol 24 February 2014 08: 48
      +8
      The Iraqi contact mine exploded when it hit the hull, and Manta - the bottom contactless mine - hence the difference in damage. She could work 30 meters from the cruiser or at great depths
      1. Papakiko
        Papakiko 24 February 2014 09: 47
        +1
        Quote: Tlauicol
        and Manta is a bottom contactless mine

        T.E.- Does she exclusively suppress fish?
        Quote: Tlauicol
        Iraqi contact mine exploded on impact

        Moreover, the damage was caused by the vokurat only by the very impact of the mine on the hull !!! laughing
        1. Rakti-kali
          Rakti-kali 24 February 2014 17: 25
          +4
          Quote: Papakiko
          T.E.- Does she exclusively suppress fish?

          Its advantage is much greater secrecy and resistance to mine action than a conventional anchor contact mine.
          By the way, now there are also reactive sea bottom mines combining the best qualities of bottom and contact mines.
          1. tlauicol
            tlauicol 24 February 2014 17: 53
            0
            as well as lower mining density: one non-contact mine instead of 20-30 contact mines will close an equal area
          2. Papakiko
            Papakiko 24 February 2014 18: 00
            +3
            Quote: Rakti-Kali
            By the way, now there are also reactive sea bottom mines combining the best qualities of bottom and contact mines.

            Even anti-helicopters forgot to remember.
            Quote: Rakti-Kali
            Its advantage is much greater secrecy and resistance to mine action than a conventional anchor contact mine.

            What exactly do you mean by plain anchor mine in modernity and contact not contact?
            With all its sophisticated innovations, "manta" showed the worst performance! This is the main thing.
            From the fact that it is "difficult" to detect it, the defending side is still a loser. From one mine of "collective farm" production, the UDC went to the hangar. And from 2 mega-minded ones in 15 minutes I continued to work and for another 30 days I split the expanses of the sea. I'm talking about this sad fact.
            1. tlauicol
              tlauicol 24 February 2014 19: 00
              +3
              if there were ordinary anchor mines there, the cruiser would pass by at 30, 10, and at least three meters and nothing would have happened, and Manta worked. And vice versa, if the cruiser lane directly on the mantle, it would be torn in half
              1. Papakiko
                Papakiko 24 February 2014 20: 12
                +2
                Quote: Tlauicol
                And vice versa, if the cruiser lane directly on the mantle, it would be torn in half

                Two mines fired immediately under the cruiser - one exploded directly under the left steeringand the second - in the bow of the ship on the starboard side.
                From 130 kg. explosive, do you believe in this holy? belay
                1. tlauicol
                  tlauicol 25 February 2014 06: 40
                  +1
                  near Tirpicz, two tons of explosives exploded and another six tons around. But the setting depth of 40m and more + range saved him ... managed a slight fright
                  "directly under the left steering gear" is a free translation of the author from English, and the second mine detonated from the first and even further from Princeton

                  P.S. battleships and 90kg were enough, contact with 130kg would break Princeton.
                  You probably firmly believe that the new weapon is much worse than the samples of the 1st-2nd MV, and is made only for cutting the dough? And what is "sold a semi-combat mine"? - What is it like ?
            2. Rakti-kali
              Rakti-kali 25 February 2014 12: 55
              0
              Quote: Papakiko
              From one mine of "collective farm" production, the UDC went to the hangar. And from 2 mega-minded in 15 minutes I continued to work

              Hydro and gas dynamics in liquid media is a complicated thing, and each detonation should be considered individually, if you share a report from the appropriate management of the US NEVI, according to the damage received by these ships, we can try to figure out the mechanics of their receipt together.
          3. Warhead-xnumx
            Warhead-xnumx 25 February 2014 05: 08
            +3
            Quote: Rakti-Kali
            By the way, now there are also reactive sea bottom mines combining the best qualities of bottom and contact mines.

            Actually, the RM-1 was put into service in 1960, by the way all rocket mines and systems are anchor. The main advantage of such mines over contact mines is that they are installed on a large recess of 300-400 m, which makes it difficult to trawl them with a contact trawl (for example, our minesweepers mainly use the GKT-2 max recess 200m.) I hear about reactive bottom mines for the first time , can share a reference?
            1. Rakti-kali
              Rakti-kali 25 February 2014 13: 04
              -1
              Quote: CU-3
              Actually, the RM-1 was adopted in 1960

              AND? And RM-2 in 1963, so what? They ceased to be in service?
              Quote: CU-3
              By the way, all jet mines and complexes are anchor

              AND? The same RM-2 is placed both on the bottom and on the anchor, respectively, at depths of up to 150 and 300m (passive ASOC normally recognizes the acoustic field of ships at 140-150m).

              Quote: CU-3
              I hear about jet bottom mines for the first time

              The same RM-1 - bottomanchor reactivelypop-up
              1. Warhead-xnumx
                Warhead-xnumx 26 February 2014 02: 45
                +2
                Quote: Rakti-Kali
                By the way, now there are also reactive sea bottom mines combining the best qualities of bottom and contact mines.

                Quote: CU-3
                Actually, the RM-1 was adopted in 1960,

                Quote: Rakti-Kali
                AND? And RM-2 in 1963, so what? They ceased to be in service?

                It was just the same that jet mines have been in service for a very long time.
    2. poquello
      poquello 24 February 2014 15: 13
      +4
      Quote: Papakiko
      ...
      According to the logic of the damage, it was necessary to disassemble and dithyrambit mine LUGM-145Iraq Prospect.
      But Volodya decided to sing the mantra to pasta adversary and diluted with another example: ....
      Apparently the pasta sold Iraq a training or semi-combat mine.

      The Italian is more complicated, those are more interesting, and the limited opportunities for export weapons are normal. In general, the topic of mines is interesting.
      1. Papakiko
        Papakiko 24 February 2014 18: 04
        +6
        Quote: poquello
        In general, the topic of mines is interesting.

        Support.
        But the dish must be cooked correctly, otherwise there will be a baland.
        1. Kir
          Kir 24 February 2014 20: 04
          +3
          So I join in the interest of the topic. And from myself I look forward to continuing on the topic.
  2. dustycat
    dustycat 24 February 2014 17: 43
    +4
    Judging by the pieces of cargo beams hastily welded to the hull and board of Princeton at the site of the defeat and to a fair deformation of the side sheets, the geometry of the hull and the power set was pretty distorted.
    Lead Iraqis more mines and if there were two more three explosions - On Princeton it was necessary to carry out only a rescue operation.
    He entered the mine can purely by the edge.
  3. Kukota
    Kukota 25 February 2014 21: 20
    +2
    Quote: dustycat
    moreover, its repair cost the Americans $ 5 million, despite the fact that the cost of one mine of the LUGM-145 type is only about $ 1,5 thousand.


    Invalid comparison. As if in response to the appearance of the ship, the Iraqis released 1 min into free swimming. negative
  4. Warhead-xnumx
    Warhead-xnumx 26 February 2014 02: 37
    +2
    Quote: Rakti-Kali
    The same RM-1 - bottom-anchor reactive-floating

    In your previous Commentary, it was specifically about a bottom rocket mine, a bottom-anchor mine - whatever you call it, this is an ANCHOR mine, it has an anchor, there is a minrep. Bottom mines are deprived of this; therefore, they are bottom ones.
    Quote: Rakti-Kali
    AND? The same RM-2 is placed both on the bottom and on the anchor, respectively, at depths of up to 150 and 300m (passive ASOC normally recognizes the acoustic field of ships at 140-150m).

    As for RM-2, I don’t know for sure, we had RM-2g at the department, that it recognizes the acoustic field of ships at 140-150m, and so what? The engine starts only when the target enters the affected area, and it is somewhere around 25m on the surface of the water and has the shape of a cone, i.e. for a submarine, the affected area will decrease with increasing depth.
  5. xomaNN
    xomaNN 15 March 2014 17: 37
    0
    VV is apparently not enough in "Manta", even if 2 (!) Mines that exploded did not send 8-10 thousand tons to the bottom of the KR. displacement.