Of the two hundred countries of the world, only two were able to establish mass construction of URO destroyers. The rest of the modern fleets for various reasons, one has to compromise and be content with ships of a lower rank.
Warships with a displacement of 4-6 thousand tons, the main purpose of which is to fight with the air and underwater enemy, accompanied by the main forces of the fleet and especially important convoys at any distance from the coast. In terms of the effectiveness of anti-aircraft / anti-missile systems, modern frigates are close to destroyers, but they are inferior to the latter in seaworthiness and strike aspect (lower ammunition, lack of tactical SLCM ammunition in the nomenclature, smaller caliber artillery).
These modest ships acquired the greatest popularity from European customers: Bundesmarine, Marina Militare, Marin Nacional, Koninklike Marin ... Each of the European fleets is weak individually, but together they can crush anyone who dares to disturb peace in the waters of the European Union. However, all the talk about the opposition of the Russian Mediterranean squadron and European sailors are far from reality: European frigates are peaceful ships. They are focused on solving purely defensive tasks.
Most of the “Europeans” are structurally underloaded due to cost savings. If necessary, you can install them a damn lot weapons. A striking example is the Dutch "De Zeven Provinsien", whose creators saved on the sixth section of the OHR.
As a rule, these are large combat units, whose dimensions closely approach those of destroyers, and the total displacement reaches six thousand tons or more. All of them are the ships of the NATO countries united by common standards and the tactical Link 16 data exchange network, which makes it possible to communicate with any other NATO ship or combat aircraft in real time. Smaller size and ammunition in comparison with full-fledged destroyers are compensated by the technical perfection of their structures. Each eurofreight is a masterpiece of shipbuilding, created with the latest advances in science and technology. For a range of combat characteristics, they can seriously compete with the Russian nuclear-powered cruiser and "shut up" the American super-destroyer Orly Burk.
Despite the apparent diversity, all euro-frigates belong to three large groups.
- Air defense frigates of the “Saxony” type (Germany) - built 3 units;
- Air defense frigates / command ships of the type “De Zeven Provinsen” (Netherlands) - 4 units.
- Air defense frigates of the type "Iver Hyatfeld" (Denmark) - 3 units.
Export: periodically there is information related to plans to build a pair of frigates, like the German Sachsen-Klasse, for the Israeli Navy.
Frigate with guided missile weapons (URO) "Hamburg"
Strong Teutonic character, faceted "tower" of the foremast, coloring "thunder gray" ... The frigates of the northern countries demonstrate the seriousness of their intentions.
The main thing that binds these small but powerful ships - the principle of building air defense. Inside the truncated pyramid in front of the superstructure, there are hidden blocks of the APAR system - a small electronic miracle created by the hands of Thales Nederland's specialists. Multifunctional radar with four active headlights, each array of which consists of 3424 receiving-transmitting modules operating in the X-band.
Frigate / command ship "Tromp" of the Netherlands Navy
In addition to APAR, the radar system of the SMART-L UHF radar (active PAR, mechanical azimuth scanning) is included in the radio engineering complex of means of detecting ships. This radar is designed to control airspace at long range - 480 km, with the prospect of detecting blocks of ballistic missiles at extra-atmospheric altitudes from a distance of up to 1000 km. In fact, each Euro-frigate is a mobile version of a missile attack warning station (EWP)!
Unlike the powerful but farsighted SMART-L, the priority task of the APAR centimeter radar is to monitor the horizon and timely detect targets moving against the backdrop of water. Among other features of the unique station are the work in the surveillance radar mode (automatic tracking to 200 of air targets at a distance of 150 km), navigation and artillery fire adjustment.
APAR's tasks include not only detecting, recognizing and tracking hundreds of low-flying objects, but also controlling anti-aircraft fire: APAR generates “beams” for transmitting commands to the Zur autopilot, and also performs target illumination for semi-active guided missiles (ICWI technology, which had no analogues in the world). The capabilities of the radar allow you to simultaneously coordinate the flight to the ESSM 32 missiles on the main line, incl. 16 at the terminal stage!
"Iver Heathfeld". It is curious that the Danish frigate is built on the basis of the transport and combat ship of the Absalon type (in the background is the Norwegian frigate of the type F.Nansen)
APAR capabilities are clearly excessive in comparison with the ammunition of German, Danish and Dutch frigates. American technologies are used as anti-aircraft weapons - underdeck UVP, anti-aircraft missiles of the “Standerd-2” family and ESSM.
Saxony (Sahsen-Klasse) - 32 cells UVP MK.41. Standard ammunition consists of SM-32 Block IIIA 2 long-range anti-aircraft missiles and ESSM short-range and medium-range missiles (24 in each cell).
"De Zeven Province" - 40 cells UVP MK.41. Standard ammunition - 32 SM-2 Block IIIA and 32 missiles ESSM.
Danish "Iver Heathfeld" - 32 cells Mk.41 to run SM-2 Block IIIA. Also on board is the Mk.56 UVP, intended for the storage and launch of ESSM 24 missiles.
Also, the composition of the armament of the European frigates includes: American Harpun anti-ship missiles (8-16 pcs.), Italian universal guns of the 76 caliber and 127 mm, anti-submarine systems MK.32 and MU.90. Various means of self-defense - the RIM-116 missile systems, the Mauser and Oerlikon automatic cannons with remote targeting, the Goalkeeper anti-aircraft guns; 1-2 helicopter. One of the German frigates (F220 "Hamburg") for the experiment was equipped with a tower with a 155 mm gun from SAU Pz.2000. Germans, Danes and the Dutch tactfully refused to equip their Tomahawk frigates.
At present, the Yankees are scaring Europeans with Iranian ballistic missiles and Russian Iskanders, offering to place Stender-3 interceptor missiles on board the frigates. The proposal sounds quite realistic: the means of detecting and controlling fire potentially allows evrofrigates to hit targets in near-earth orbit.
"Hamburg" accompanies the AUG, led by the aircraft carrier "Dwight Eisenhower"
Due to their outstanding ability to combat airborne targets, euro-frigates are popular in the Pentagon. They are often “invited” to joint exercises and prefer to put aircraft carrier strike groups in the air defense order. If a German frigate comes along, the Yankees can sleep peacefully, no enemy rocket is terrible to them.
Representatives: Frégate européenne multi-mission multi-mission frigates (FREMM).
France - ordered 8 units (subtype “Aquitaine”), 2 is currently built, construction continues. Italy - ordered 8 units (subtype "Bergamini"), in the period from 2008 to 2014. 3 was built, construction continues.
Exports: the frigate "Mohammed VI" - built in France for the Moroccan Navy (2014 g.). Six frigates FREMM planned to buy Greece, but because of the well-known events, the Greeks had to abstain from buying so much expensive equipment. To date, an agreement has been reached on the leasing to the navy of Greece of two frigates FREMM from the composition of the French naval forces.
Cheerful "pasta" that "know how to build ships, but they absolutely can not fight them." And technologically advanced France, which has always adhered to an independent defense policy. The symbiosis of two luminaries of the world shipbuilding gave a logical result - the FREMM frigate went out to everyone to envy.
Strictly speaking, FREMM is a step back and away. The Europeans know how to build and better - even 10 years ago, the bet was placed on air defense frigates of the Horizon type. But this ship turned out to be too expensive - each frigate the size of a good destroyer cost the governments of Italy and France at a price of over 1 billion euros per piece!
Modern FREMM is an attempt to reduce costs, coupled with the desire to increase the situational "flexibility" of the ship. The concept of air defense was completely revised - the place of the unique combination of radar EMPAR (search for NLC) and S1850M (sky survey) was taken by:
On the French ships - a single multifunctional radar Héraklès.
3D radar decimeter range, designed to detect any type of air and surface targets within the radio horizon. The maximum detection range of objects at high altitudes can reach 250 km. It is possible to create dozens of radio channels to control the flight of missiles launched by the missile defense system and the “illumination” mode of targets - despite the fact that Herakles works in conjunction with Aster-15 / 30 missiles with active radar homing.
On Italian ships - KRONOS MFRA.
3D-centimeter-range radar with active lights, capable of tracking movements up to 300 air targets. Designed to provide air defense of the frigate in the near zone, with a partial performance of the function of a radar long-range view. Able to perform the functions of radar flight control anti-aircraft missiles.
Multipurpose frigate of the Navy of Italy "Carlo Bergamini"
Of course, “uniform radar for detecting any targets” is a bitter irony: the Europeans had to sacrifice zone defense and / or weaken control over the near zone. But these are the requirements of the time - the creators of FREMM met the required estimate (from € 470 million for an export frigate for the Moroccan Navy to € 592 million for French frigates, excluding R & D).
In fact, FREMM is a whole family of multifunctional frigates: “Aquitaine”, “Berganini”, FREDA ... for every taste of the customer!
Franks bought two modifications for their Navy:
Multipurpose "Aquitaine" equipped with two types of UVP - 16 cells SYLVER A-43 to launch anti-aircraft "Aster-15" and 16 cells SYLVER A-70 to launch SCALP Naval (European analogue of the Tomahawk cruise missile).
FREDA air frigate - An updated Heracles radar and 32 UVL SYLVER A-50 cells for launching Aster-30 long-range anti-aircraft missiles.
French frigate "Aquitaine", seen in the distance UDC type "Mistral"
Italians also take two options:
Multi-purpose frigate "Carlo Bergamini" - 16 SYLVER A-50 UVP cells, Aster-15 / 30 anti-aircraft missiles. Reserved space for the installation of UVP with SLCM SCALP Naval, but the money for UVP and missiles was not enough.
Anti-submarine "Virginia Pheasant" - in addition to UVP, a complex of anti-submarine missiles MILAS is being installed. There are differences in artillery - 127 mm universal gun was replaced by a gun caliber 76 mm.
The rest is a typical set: 8 of Exocet anti-ship missiles (France) or Outot (Italy), MU90 small-size anti-submarine torpedoes, 76 mm artillery with the ability to fire guided anti-aircraft ammunition. 1 or 2 helicopter.
A key feature of the "southern" Euro-frigates is their traditional identity. Pride does not allow the use of other people's ideas - in the FREMM design foreign technologies are almost completely absent (with the exception of the licensed GTE of General Electric LM2500 and the accepted NATO communication bands).
Group №3. Copypasters
- frigates of the type "Alvaro de Basan" (Spain) - 5 units;
- Frigate Nansen type frigates (Norway) - 5 units.
- Hobart-type air defense destroyer (Australia) - 1 was laid, plans for the construction of 3-s ships.
A bunch of technically backward idlers, whose mind and talent were only enough to copy the destroyers of the US Navy with the outdated Aegis system.
Joke. The Spaniards - noble shipbuilders. But this time, in an effort to avoid unnecessary expenses, it was decided not to reinvent the wheel, but to base the body and stuffing of the American Aegis destroyer, optimizing it for local conditions. Seeing that the Spanish efforts were crowned with success, the idea of Aegis frigate was adopted by the Norwegians and Aussies. The latter, in view of the heightened sense of their own grandeur, classify Hobart as a destroyer.
In fact, “Alvaro de Basan” is a “castrated” version of the destroyer “Orly Burke” of the IIA sub-series, which inherited from the latter all the hereditary advantages and disadvantages. The number of Mk.41 cells was reduced from 96 to 48 units, the displacement decreased, the third anti-aircraft fire control radar disappeared somewhere. As a result, Basan, with its two SPG-62s, is completely unable to repel massive air attacks. Only two simultaneously illuminated targets - one each on course and stern corners. Compare this with the German Sachsen-Klasse (32 control channel, including 16 at the terminal site)!
However, in some ways the “Spaniard” turned out to be even better than its progenitor: Navantia engineers managed to rebalance the ship and ensure greater installation height of the AN / SPY-1 (D) radar antenna arrays without any loss of stability. The extra 5 meters of the antenna suspension height have extended the radio horizon by several kilometers, thereby winning a dozen or so precious seconds while repelling low-flying anti-ship missile attacks.
The rest of the "Basan" - a typical frigate: 32 ZUR large and 64 ZUR medium range, 8 PKR "Harpoon", 127 mm gun Mk.45 (old version), funny Spanish 12-barrel "metal cutter" Meroka 20 mm mm 12M. torpedoes (they were not stingy here) and the Si Hawk antisubmarine helicopter.
In addition to anti-aircraft and anti-ship missiles, the Yankees tried to sell the Spaniards SLCM "Tomahawk", but those who realized what it was, from the "lucrative offer" refused. Possession of a cruise missile capable of hitting a specified house at 1600 km distance not only enhances self-esteem, but also entails economic responsibility. In the event of a new local war, the Yankees will politely “ask” the Allies to defuse the ammunition of their ships at targets in enemy territory. Thus, saving "Uncle Sam" a good hundred million. And then you have to buy again the rocket in the United States. But for my money.
Norwegian Fridtjof Nansen turned out to be no less cheerful. The Vikings even more "cut off" the Spanish frigate, leaving only one 8-cell UVP. According to the Norwegian sailors, they needed a large patrol frigate to protect their arctic treasures. Obviously, the Norwegians do not notice any real military threats in that region. To combat walrus and seals, the 32 medium-range / short-range ESSM is sufficient.
HNoMS Fridtjof Nansen (F310)
From this angle, the desert deck is clearly visible in the bow with the only section of the OHR
Launch of the frigate "Thor Heyerdahl", 2009 year