Military Review

Special Forces of China: in the Army

30
Special Forces of China: in the Army



History Chinese special forces began with the history of the formation of airborne troops. From the beginning of the civil war in the country and up to 1949, paratroopers who had been trained in America had opposed the communists. As a result, their own airborne troops were created in the country in the 50s. The main task that was set for them was to repel the possible attacks of the Taiwanese nationalists. The baptism of the Chinese paratroopers took place in Korea. Later, in the 60s, several airborne divisions were equipped with the assistance of the Soviet Union, and by the end of the decade there were already three such divisions in China.

The reforms that began in China at the end of 1978 of the year were not spared by the PLA. The armed forces were largely reduced, first of all, the reduction affected the ground forces. But even so, the Chinese army currently remains the largest in the world in terms of numbers. Due to the fact that the number of recruits significantly exceeds the required level, the command of the army has the ability to select the best soldiers for intellectual and physical indicators. In addition, the army’s reserve consists of approximately 40 million people in case of war.

The PLA has two types of special forces: ground and naval. Until 1988, there were no special operations ground forces in the Chinese army. Their functions were carried out by intelligence units, which were widely used to perform combat missions for special reconnaissance, ambush and raids, intelligence gathering and capture of prisoners. Intelligence units were actively used during the Sino-Vietnamese armed conflict of 1979, just as in the 80's border clashes. At that time, the reconnaissance units did not differ from the usual army ground units in terms of organizational structure and equipment, and therefore were far from the forces of special operations of modern times.

In the mid-eighties, the command of the Chinese army began to gradually move away from the concepts of popular war and came to an understanding of the characteristics of local conflicts occurring more rapidly with the use of modern technical means and types weapons. The planning officers were well aware that a transient local war was more likely for them than a global armed conflict involving large army units and the popular masses. And the conflict with Vietnam demonstrated that in such a local war, regular army units would be attacked by sabotage enemy groups, which could cause significant damage.

For the same period, the appearance of the command’s interest in the methods of conducting special operations also falls.

In 1988, the first rapid response unit was formed on the basis of the intelligence unit of the Guangzhou Military Region. Before him, the command set special tasks. New equipment and weapons were received. Then the unit proceeded to special training, which included sailing in full gear, survival, parachute training, disembarking from helicopters. Soon there was a transformation of other intelligence units, after which they also proceeded to the development of special actions.

As of today, there are seven groups of special operations in the ground forces of the Chinese army. In each military district there is one special unit that is directly subordinate to the district chief of staff. Special Forces units in military districts are painted as follows: “Dunbei Tiger” in Shenyang District, “Magic Sword of the East” in Beijing, “Flying Dragon” in Nanking, “Sharp Sword of Southern China” in Guangzhou, “Night Tiger” in Lanzhou, “Hawk” in Jinan and Falcon in the Chengdu District.



In addition, under the “lightweight” spetsnaz program, several army units are being trained: 162, 63, 149, high-readiness divisions, 1, 54, 39, 38 armies of rapid response. There are also special forces of the armed militia and special forces of the public security forces. In addition, there are such units, information about which is practically not available. This, in particular, "Panther" and "Snow Wolf".

For designation of special units in the PLA, the term “special reconnaissance group” or “special purpose group” (DaDui, that is, a regiment consisting of three battalions, and the number is about one thousand) is used.

In each of the battalions there are a certain number of groups. It depends on what combat missions they face. So, for example, groups of two people are used to conduct special intelligence. In addition, as part of field divisions, regiments and army groups, there are also units engaged in special reconnaissance. All of them can also be considered part of the special operations forces of the Chinese armed forces, since in terms of training and equipment, as well as in the combat tasks they perform, they are comparable to the special-purpose groups of military districts.

The training of Chinese special forces is divided into two main parts: basic and professional. Basic training includes all physical exercises for agility, strength and endurance, hand-to-hand combat and self-defense without weapons, the ability to survive in extreme and field conditions, crossing water obstacles, mountaineering training, and in addition, digging shelters in the ground and snow, setting tents, first aid and rescue skills, the study of methods of surprise attacks and ambushes, weaning weapons. To this is added landing and ski training and orientation in the area.

In addition, depending on the assigned combat missions, some special units additionally learn to operate in the conditions of a city or in coastal areas. Of great interest is the training of survival skills, in particular, the training of breathing rhythm and body movement, with tied legs and arms in the water. In addition, the fighters receive special specialties: a signalman, demolition man, translator, computer technician

Physical training is very hard, and some elements seem fantastic at all. So, the day usually starts at half past four in the morning. Almost immediately, the fighters are expected to climb down the hill or march with shoulder backpacks (they put 10 bricks in them). The distance in 5 kilometers is necessary to overcome the maximum in 25 minutes. It should be noted that other types of exercises are the same complex. For example, the “iron palm” (each fighter must strike 300 with a bean bag, and later with iron filings). Similarly, elbows, fists, feet and knees are “worked out”. Another exercise is to break the wooden bars with your head, and over time, the fighters will move on to breaking bricks and bottles. In addition, the special forces should be able to climb the brick wall of the 5-storey building in 30 seconds without equipment, swim 5 kilometers with full equipment in no more than 1 an hour 20 minutes, climb the bar every day and push out on the bars 200 times, perform a prone position 100 times, 60 times lift dumbbells weighing 35 kilograms per minute, 100 times throw a grenade at a distance 50 meters. And also to hit a human target with 200 meters from a moving car and throw a grenade from a distance of 30 meters into a car window.



As for professional training, it consists of subversive and subversive training, training in working with explosives (it includes an understanding of the characteristics and types of these substances, methods of neutralization and installation), wiring, penetration in disguise at a given place.

The units of the special operations forces of the Chinese army have much more complete and modern equipment and armament than conventional ground forces. So, the fighters of the Chinese special forces are armed with a 88 Type sniper rifle, a standard 95 Type machine gun, a 79 Type machine gun, a 64 Type gun, a 92 Type gun, and a rocket-based anti-tank grenade launcher. Some of these types of weapons are equipped with special devices: for carrying out secret special operations, flameless and silent firing.

As for equipment, the special forces soldiers have various kinds of radio stations, body armor, night vision devices, laser range finders, portable television systems, GLONASS and GPS positioning systems. From the transport at the disposal of the special forces there are helicopters that are used to bring special forces groups to the enemy’s rear over short and long distances; jeeps designed to transport personnel of units and conduct actions in the enemy rear; as well as “buggy” vehicles, which are used to launch operational strikes against the enemy. In addition, some special groups master paraplanes, using them to penetrate at critical heights in the territory of the enemy.

Special units of the Chinese army, like similar units in other countries, are engaged in performing special tasks: conducting special intelligence, collecting intelligence information, direct actions, anti-terrorist operations and unconventional methods of war.

As part of the direct actions, the special forces perform the following tasks: conducting short clashes and non-scale offensive actions in the enemy's rear.



Special forces pay great attention to conducting special intelligence not only at the tactical level, but also in the context of real military operations. As a rule, the conduct of special intelligence is enhanced in the case of preparation for the offensive. Intelligence groups are sent around the front in order to identify the enemy’s positions, his staffs, and to identify weak points in the defense. In the future, the information collected by them helps the command to correctly determine the direction of the attack. In order to force the enemy to show their positions, check his reaction and determine intentions, reconnaissance groups are moving to active reconnaissance activities, which include raids, offensive operations and reconnaissance by force. As part of army groups and other military units, there are intelligence units that also carry out such tasks. They are capable of reconnaissance on 10-20 kilometers, or collect information about the enemy, acting on the flanks. Armed with such intelligence units are motorcycles, light vehicles and all-terrain vehicles. In addition, some of them use unmanned aerial vehicles to collect information. They can be launched not only in manual mode, but also from transport.

The forces of special operations of the People’s Liberation Chinese Army are in close cooperation with the departments and intelligence services of the army in collecting data on locations, weather conditions, command posts, weapons of mass destruction, deployment of reserves, ways of possible attack, positions of combat support groups.

The army special forces are engaged in conducting raids on vital positions and objects of the enemy, freeing their prisoners and capturing aliens. The main objectives of their activities are airfields, command posts, seaports, communications, weapons of mass destruction, as well as air defense systems. By conducting sabotage or destroying these objects, the special forces greatly reduce the combat capabilities of the enemy.

Special units are also actively engaged in the fight against terrorism, in particular, they are engaged in the release of hostages. This line of activity became necessary due to the increasing activity of separatist groups in remote areas of the country.

Quite often, spetsnaz groups interact with the police.

It should be noted that the special units of China have repeatedly participated in competitions and combat operations. So, starting from 1998, they are regularly invited to Estonia to the ERNA competitions, where they win most of the prizes. In addition, the Sokol fighters assisted the security forces of Afghanistan in the fight against terrorist groups and the release of the hostages - the Chinese workers.

As is known from the media, the Chinese special forces, without a single shot, freed the hostages and captured the terrorist 21, for which they received the highest appreciation of the American special services.



In addition, it should be noted that in 2013, a special operations unit for women was formed as part of the PLA. Its appearance can be considered an innovation, despite the fact that women's units previously existed as part of the army (in the marines and fighter aviation, military medicine, communications, communications, logistics).

The formation of women's special forces was primarily dictated by the experience of the war with Vietnam, when it was the women's units that showed great fanaticism and zeal in the performance of combat missions.

The training program for women’s special forces includes the acquisition of skills for handling small arms, driving a car, parachuting, and mastering the basics of climbing. Much attention is paid to self-defense, hand-to-hand combat, orientation to the terrain.

Selection to the new women's division was held in twelve Chinese provinces. Most women were born in the 1990s and have a university degree. According to the commanders, in spite of the fact that women are physically much weaker than men, they compensate for this with scrupulousness, patience and a sense of duty.

Based on the foregoing, it can be concluded that, despite the rather short period of existence of the MTR of the ground forces of the PRC, these units have a very high level of training and can effectively solve any tasks assigned.

Materials used:
http://otvaga2004.ru/krasny-drakon/krasny-drakon-stat/specnaz-podnebesnoj/
http://srdo.5bb.ru/viewtopic.php?id=2337
http://www.rusarmy.com/forum/topic9572.html
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30 comments
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  1. Floock
    Floock 18 February 2014 07: 56
    +6
    At least 10 thousand people, who, in addition to everything, can throw a grenade from 30 meters into the window of a moving car, is strength. And imagine broken them into groups of 2 people. 5 thousand of these groups will make a noise in any sector of the front.
    Threat I'm afraid that, for example, they will take control of the border with Kazakhstan by hundreds of such groups. We even have one conscript (Chelakh) was able to kill the entire outpost.
    1. just exp
      just exp 18 February 2014 19: 34
      0
      if someone doesn’t know, then the nails are pulled out not with other nails, and all the more so not with rivets, but with a nail puller, such paragraph groups are vulnerable, provided that they are opened, and if you equip the army and border guards with normal detection systems, from even a couple of hundred thousand groups , they won’t win the war.
  2. Stiletto
    Stiletto 18 February 2014 08: 59
    +1
    So after all, in any way in an armed confrontation, no country in the world will have enough ammunition for all the Chinese. Therefore, even the slightest bit large clashes will be resolved not in the format of special forces, but by the method of a large "Bara-boom". Although I would not like, of course.
    1. makst83
      makst83 18 February 2014 12: 20
      +2
      Of course! With 400 million potential draftees, they can give up on lyama per day! Neither their ammunition to shoot, nor protection for them is not enough! lol
      1. just exp
        just exp 18 February 2014 19: 37
        +2
        they also need to feed the prisoners. no, it’s better to go directly to the furnace.
      2. Interface
        Interface 18 February 2014 20: 36
        0
        The size factor is not of key importance.
        The proof is logic: if military equipment is knocked out during intense battles (which is inevitable today), then this 40 million will have nothing to fight. The Chinese have most of the tanks-- copies of the T-72 and 64. New samples, such as Type 99 G, etc., have so far only been shown and produced in relatively small series.
    2. just exp
      just exp 18 February 2014 19: 38
      +1
      "invite" - just add wooooodyyyyyy.
      Kitaaaaay - just add nuclear weapons.
  3. Dimsan
    Dimsan 18 February 2014 09: 18
    +5
    to swim 5 kilometers with full equipment in no more than 1 hour 20 minutes - not well, I believe that this is a record of one of the special forces, but that everyone can lie like that !!!
    1. vanaheym
      vanaheym 18 February 2014 14: 47
      +3
      I think that the Chinese have no problems out of the order of one and a half billion people to select those who can do this.
      1. Massik
        Massik 18 February 2014 18: 12
        +1
        The question is what does the full equipment include and how do they float? laughing If this is an unloading machine, 4 magazines and 2 grenades, and they float without any additional means, you can believe. If this is serious armor and a helmet weighing under 25 kg, an automatic machine gun or a machine gun, 300 rounds of ammunition in magazines or ribbons and 5 pieces of grenades, then it is unlikely that anyone will sail with this at least 100 meters without an air bag or something like that ...
        1. vanaheym
          vanaheym 18 February 2014 21: 07
          0
          The Russian army, as in the former Soviet, had its own standards for military-applied navigation. It clearly stated that this was swimming with weapons, in clothes and shoes removed, fixed to the body. I think that the Chinese have similar standards.
          1. Massik
            Massik 18 February 2014 23: 39
            0
            And you never know there are special "spetsukhovskie" laughing In my entire service, I swam once with all the equipment, when they decided to work out the forcing on the equipment, and the batter of 1 meters did not reach the shore, when the command "C ****** those out of the car!" we already sounded inside to the chest ... It was lucky that the swim was about 40-7 meters, now without a shudder I can't remember the armor, the machine gun and the tank were desperately pulling to the bottom ...
            Someone dropped the armor by the way, but then dived after it on a chilly October evening ...
          2. vietnam7
            vietnam7 19 February 2014 11: 51
            0
            They write with full equipment, if similarly to our equipment in Dagestan, then offhand: from AKMS or the like, 4 or more equipped magazines, cartridges in bulk about 200 more, two rgd 5, two f1, nr, signaling devices, RPG26, one each , the equipment of the group (communication equipment, explosive devices, surveillance equipment) well, they took quite a bit of devour. It seems that everything is necessary for special operations if the guys are swimming with all this, then of course the Chinese special forces for all rexes are rexes. About daily push-ups and other daily sporting activities in general, laughter is not enough even to estimate the time of day
  4. Vasia kruger
    Vasia kruger 18 February 2014 10: 05
    +1
    At the beginning of the article there is a phrase stating that the Chinese have 40 million people in reserve in case of war ... that’s why it makes me cold.
    1. Alex_Popovson
      Alex_Popovson 18 February 2014 11: 14
      +5
      Well, I would have noticed that the nature of battles has changed since WWII. Now this is not positional firefights and sitting in trenches. In the presence of those "high-precision systems" about which they pour into our ears on the news, and all kinds of installations like the same Iskander, the size of the army does not really matter.
      You must admit that some specialists cannot win the war, and those 40 million are not so much an advantage for China, since there is a drawback. Supply, coordination - it is extremely difficult to organize such quantities.
      Then, you need to remember that China is not a great expert to fight. I always recall that wonderful campaign when the Chinese popped into Vietnam, where they actually grabbed nuts. And here we must remember - that Vietnam was completely ruined by the war, and China had the freshest, well-trained troops, excellent equipment, including Soviet, and even the case of Mao was lively in his hearts. They raked, although they bashfully shout about a draw, although the forces were not comparable.
      Of course, cap-sentimental moods not only cannot be allowed, but also eradicated in every way. And yet, to look at all this Chinese power from the perspective of history, including even from the perspective of the beginning of the XNUMXth century.
  5. AX
    AX 18 February 2014 11: 15
    +1
    We will drop a rubber bomb ... laughing
  6. heruv1me
    heruv1me 18 February 2014 11: 38
    +1
    And why didn’t they tell about the Chinese anti-tank detachments armed with screwdrivers and wrenches? : ((
  7. Yozhas
    Yozhas 18 February 2014 12: 24
    0
    The second photo is clearly not a Chinese commando, but a French legionnaire mercenary with a FA MAS rifle.

    so for accuracy wink
    1. vanaheym
      vanaheym 18 February 2014 14: 49
      +2
      So for accuracy, this is a Chinese with a Chinese automatic machine QBZ-95
      1. Alex_Popovson
        Alex_Popovson 18 February 2014 17: 18
        0
        Apparently, not quite a Chinese, rather even a Taiwanese, and even a very Indo-Chinese, but armed and really Tipo.
        On the other hand, is that the difference?
        1. vanaheym
          vanaheym 18 February 2014 21: 16
          0
          He cannot be a Taiwanese in any way for two reasons - Taiwan does not have machine guns of a potential enemy in service, and the photo itself hangs on Chinese sites in photo collections with the caption "training of PLA scouts"
    2. Winged
      Winged 18 February 2014 18: 14
      +1
      You are mistaken, this is the Chinese special forces soldier and in his hands QBZ-95
  8. polkovnik manuch
    polkovnik manuch 18 February 2014 12: 24
    +2
    In vain we laugh, “what we fought for, we ran into it.” There will be no fronts in future wars, there will be local strategic operations, and as you know, the role of special forces in this matter is great or even the main one.
  9. lukke
    lukke 18 February 2014 12: 58
    +1
    Of great interest is training in survival skills, in particular, training in the rhythm of breathing and body movement, with legs and arms tied in water
    as I understand it, if a commando is captured, the first thing they do is bind his hands and feet and throw him into the water ?! The Chinese apparently took over this circus from American seals (they are often seen with them if they are discovered). We deviate more on other exercises.
  10. alert_timka
    alert_timka 18 February 2014 13: 30
    +1
    Quote: Hedgehog
    The second photo is clearly not a Chinese commando, but a French legionnaire mercenary with a FA MAS rifle.

    so for accuracy wink

    In the second photo, there is just a Chinese with his type 97 or whatever. Famas has a longer handle.
  11. Nikaviz
    Nikaviz 18 February 2014 16: 48
    +3
    It seems not an advertisement ... !!! ??? But there is something from the realm of fantasy .. This is not training - it's the Gestapo. lol what
    1. Massik
      Massik 18 February 2014 18: 25
      +1
      Imagine honestly a folded brick wall 25 meters high (5 floors) without protrusions and crevices, maybe this is the reincarnation of Spider-Man?
      daily rise on the crossbar and do push-ups on the bars 200 times, perform an emphasis lying 100 times,
      I’ll believe in 2-4 approaches per day ..
      And also - hit a human target from 200 meters from a moving car and throw a grenade from a distance of 30 meters into the car window.
      If a shot occurs on a site with smooth asphalt, this can be learned in 2 months on average, like throwing a grenade into a straight car ...
    2. Shur
      Shur 18 February 2014 23: 34
      +1
      Normal workouts. They not only need to bring and rustle, but also take everything with them is not measured laughing So they are preparing already so that the adversary could fire 15-20 bricks to himself .. Commercials will pass like locusts .. and only ... with braids stand .. and silence ..
  12. Tyundey
    Tyundey 18 February 2014 17: 13
    0
    Quote: Alex_Popovson
    Well, I would have noticed that the nature of battles has changed since WWII. Now this is not positional firefights and sitting in trenches. In the presence of those "high-precision systems" about which they pour into our ears on the news, and all kinds of installations like the same Iskander, the size of the army does not really matter.
    You must admit that some specialists cannot win the war, and those 40 million are not so much an advantage for China, since there is a drawback. Supply, coordination - it is extremely difficult to organize such quantities.
    Then, you need to remember that China is not a great expert to fight. I always recall that wonderful campaign when the Chinese popped into Vietnam, where they actually grabbed nuts. And here we must remember - that Vietnam was completely ruined by the war, and China had the freshest, well-trained troops, excellent equipment, including Soviet, and even the case of Mao was lively in his hearts. They raked, although they bashfully shout about a draw, although the forces were not comparable.
    Of course, cap-sentimental moods not only cannot be allowed, but also eradicated in every way. And yet, to look at all this Chinese power from the perspective of history, including even from the perspective of the beginning of the XNUMXth century.


    Such a mass of soldiers needs to be concentrated somewhere, dressed, shod, fed, organized latrines (and they will spoil the whole district anyway), then transported to the place of military operations on something, delivered them fuel, ammunition, and fed them again. There are so many division commanders that it is not clear who will command them. It is unrealistic to gather so many people at once - such an army will destroy itself due to a mess.
  13. cobalt
    cobalt 18 February 2014 21: 40
    +1
    I found a short video of Chinese soldiers, they seem to fit under special forces, perhaps a mountain rifle unit, they show the current training routines, like diligent guys.
  14. cobalt
    cobalt 18 February 2014 21: 49
    +1
    And the Chinese apparently have a special building, such animals, they don’t even give out weapons, hammers and shovels. They do everything with their hands.
    1. Shur
      Shur 18 February 2014 23: 40
      +2
      Not all Chinese are equally solid .. laughing I wonder if their bricks are the same as their metal?
      And so yes animals .., that’s why you need to shoot very well and from an bow, including, well, it’s not realistic to dial all the cartridges;)))
      Yes, and to fall in battle from a nail is also sad ... here one must think, maybe special chain mail from Yudashkin, such an easy one?
      Of course, they copy everything like monkeys, well done .. And the guys in green and slippers ala master-kung-fu apparently directly from Shaolin from the courses ..
      Here is how our partners would not send these hunhus to our heads ..
  15. Megatron
    Megatron 19 February 2014 03: 59
    0
    In a global conflict with China, it is not necessary to use nuclear weapons. It is enough for them to blow up a couple of dams and wash off the floor of China in waves. This is the end of the war.