Military Review

Exploration of the moon is still difficult

26
2013 year was marked by the launch of the first Chinese lunar rover, called “Yuytu” (“Jade hare”), to the natural satellite of Earth. Yuytu was the first spacecraft to land on the Moon after a long break. The last soft landing on our satellite was carried out back in 1976, by the Soviet space station Luna-24, and the last rover, the Soviet spacecraft Lunokhod-2, visited it more than 40 years ago. His program was completed on 11 May 1973. At first, the Chinese program was developing quite successfully, but then it ran into difficulties. The recent failure of the Lunokhod just reminded of how difficult it is for humanity to take every step on a natural satellite.


The Chinese lunar rover is a unique six-wheeled vehicle that can move across the lunar surface at speeds up to 200 meters per hour. The tasks of the apparatus include the study of the geological structure of the moon and its soil.

Lunokhod received an unusual name in honor of one of the famous characters of Chinese mythology. According to legends, the jade hare lives on the Earth’s satellite and is preparing immortality powder there.

The Jade Bunny was delivered to the moon using the Chanhe-3 spacecraft (according to Chinese mythology, it is the moon goddess) December 16 2013 of the year. Successful landing of the "Yuytu" was the first, since 1976, the appearance of an earth apparatus on the surface of the moon.

Immediately after landing, the lunar rover sent a number of color photographs to Earth, one of which clearly shows the moon rover and the Chinese flag above it. Immediately after the successful landing of the moon, the representatives of the People's Republic of China started talking about the fact that in the year 2017 they were planning to launch another research satellite probe, “Chang'-4”, on the moon. The objective of this space program is to deliver soil samples from the Moon to Earth.

Exploration of the moon is still difficult
Chinese moonwalker "Yuytu"


However, at the end of January 2014, the Chinese lunar rover failed. Experts have fixed problems in the system of mechanical control of the Lunokhod. Chinese engineers explained the problems and disruptions on his board that were caused by the “complex surface topography of the moon” in the area of ​​the “Jade hare”. Currently, work on the restoration of the functioning of the Lunokhod continues.

According to the original plan, the Chinese space agency expected that the device would leave the natural satellite of the Earth in March 2014. At the same time, it is currently not known whether the apparatus’s damage will affect the schedule of the lunar expedition. It is also worth noting the fact that the malfunction of the “Yuytu” lunar rover was the first public failure of a rather ambitious Chinese space program. Prior to this, for several years, the People's Republic of China successfully launched various manned spacecraft into space.

All this is interesting in the light of the upcoming lunar program of Russia. In 2016, the Russian spacecraft Luna-25, the vanguard of the Russian landing force, which consists of 5 stations, will go to the surface of the moon. Will be among them and your moonwalker. Fortunately, the experience of sending such ships to the moon has our country. At one time, the USSR sent two planetary rovers to the surface of the Moon: Lunokhod-1 and Lunokhod-2. At the same time, the "Lunokhod-1" became the first rover in stories humanity.

"Lunokhod-1" conducted a detailed survey of the lunar surface on an area of ​​80 thousand square meters, passing on the moon 10 540 meters. The device has moored the 17 of November 1970 of the year, the last successful communication session with the Lunokhod was held on the 14 of September of the 1971 of the year. The device has transmitted more 200 lunar panoramas to Earth, as well as more 20 thousands of images of the lunar surface. However, he was engaged in the transfer of not only visual information, conducting in the course of movement of physical, mechanical and chemical studies of the properties of the soil. The duration of the active functioning of the apparatus on the lunar surface was 301 day 6 hours and 37 minutes.

Chinese boarding module


The second Soviet spacecraft to study the lunar surface, the Lunokhod-2, successfully sunk into the 15 of January 1973. After landing it turned out that his navigation system was damaged. As a result, the ground crew constantly had to navigate the sun and its surroundings. Despite such damage, the device managed to overcome a much greater distance compared to its predecessor. This was due to the experience of the Lunokhod-1 control and a number of innovations in its design. Over the 4 months of operation, the unit overcame 42 km. 86 panoramas of the Moon and more than 80 of thousands of frames of photography were sent to Earth. The operation of the device was terminated earlier than scheduled due to overheating of the device and its failure.

Against this background, problems and unfavorable factors that should be taken into account when creating lunar vehicles are of interest. According to the official Chinese media, the cause of mechanical problems on board the Jade Hare was the complex situation on the lunar surface. According to the bloggers, he didn’t have solar batteries when preparing the device for putting to sleep during a moonlit night. The reason for this was either a computer failure, or the presence of small particles of soil in the mechanism. Ban Zhihao, who is a member of the National Academy of Space Technologies, identified the following probable causes of the malfunction: weak gravity, strong radiation and significant temperature fluctuations.

Various Soviet and American vehicles have been landing on the surface of the Moon since the 1960s. Therefore, the conditions that exist on its surface have been known for a long time to designers. These are radiation, vacuum, very low temperatures at night (up to -180 degrees Celsius), as well as loose soil. The Russian “Luna-25” device will also plunge into sleep on 2 weeks while the local night lasts on the moon, noted Igor Mitrofanov, head of the laboratory of gamma-spectroscopy of the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

"Lunokhod-2"


The specialist notes that the most effective way of normal functioning of the apparatus on the Moon is the direction of all the energy that is produced on board, to its own heating. The spacecraft is wrapped with a multilayer film and a special blanket. In conditions of a very cold night on the moon, he will be able to maintain minimal performance due to this. In order to minimize the effects of radiation, it is necessary to use radiation-resistant element base. In order to protect the logically active part of the apparatus and its main nodes from possible failures that may be associated with particles of cosmic rays, it is necessary to duplicate its systems.

Thanks to the Soviet lunar rovers, scientists around the world learned about the cunning of lunar dust. Electrified, moon dust sticks to the solar panels of the device, reducing their impact, which, in turn, does not allow you to fully charge the batteries. According to Alexander Zheleznyakov, academician of the Russian Academy of Cosmonautics, you need to orient the panels so that the dust particles on them fall less. At the same time, there are simply no unambiguous solutions to brush them away. On the "Lunokhod-2" there was just such a nuisance. While driving, the device unsuccessfully tilted and scooped up some amount of lunar dust, which covered its batteries, and then destroyed the device. It is necessary to work on the creation of algorithms that would avoid such troubles.

According to Zheleznyakov, creating his moonwalker "Yuytu", the Chinese probably foreseen such moments. At the same time, the incident with their lunar rover will be taken into account by Russian specialists who are working on the creation of new Russian lunar vehicles. Despite the paucity of information about the state of the Chinese lunar rover, Alexander Zheleznyakov is sure that additional attention of the Russian developers will be drawn to this situation, although he believes that no serious improvements of the devices will follow.

The lunar day has already arrived, the satellite has become warmer. According to plans, 8-9 February 2014, the Chinese lunar rover was supposed to wake from hibernation. Even if this does not happen, Chinese experts will still be able to get the necessary and invaluable experience. In any case, the mission can be recorded as successful, as there were no problems with the lunar rover landing platform, which has its own set of equipment and tools, among which there is an ultraviolet telescope that transmits the first astronomical observations from the lunar surface in history.

Information sources:
http://rus.ruvr.ru/2014_02_02/Lunohod-2-pogubila-pil-3712
http://www.interfax.ru/world/txt/354142
http://back-in-ussr.info/2012/02/lunoxod-1
http://ru.wikipedia.org
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  1. kaktus
    kaktus 11 February 2014 07: 00 New
    16
    This is where the energy that is wasted on all kinds of Maidan should be directed
    1. Turik
      Turik 11 February 2014 11: 37 New
      +1
      Here engines of a new generation are needed, while the cost of putting a kilo of cargo into orbit rolls over 40 bucks you can’t dream of any lunar programs - you won’t pay off, even if the moon is made of solid gold.
      1. Geisenberg
        Geisenberg 11 February 2014 14: 16 New
        +2
        Quote: Turik
        Here engines of a new generation are needed, while the cost of putting a kilo of cargo into orbit rolls over 40 bucks you can’t dream of any lunar programs - you won’t pay off, even if the moon is made of solid gold.


        While bucks are printed on paper, you can fly on old engines. Paper is not a pity.

        Purely my opinion. It is already necessary to begin automated orbital plants to build slowly and produce some spacecraft directly in orbit.
      2. georg737577
        georg737577 11 February 2014 22: 29 New
        +2
        ...- will not pay off, even if the moon is made of solid gold ...


        Science exists to gain knowledge, not things ...
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Geisenberg
      Geisenberg 11 February 2014 14: 14 New
      +1
      Quote: kaktus
      This is where the energy that is wasted on all kinds of Maidan should be directed


      Do you want the moon torn ???
  2. paul72
    paul72 11 February 2014 08: 02 New
    +2
    Mars rovers have been walking on Mars for years.
    are the conditions on the moon harsher than on Mars
    1. Kapitan Oleg
      Kapitan Oleg 11 February 2014 09: 07 New
      +1
      So on Mars there is some kind of atmosphere, and on the moon there is a vacuum.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. ybrcfy27
      ybrcfy27 11 February 2014 15: 50 New
      0
      Of course, Mars is a planet with the force of gravity, there is an atmosphere and there are no such sharp changes in temperature, and also not such a terrible relief
      1. postman
        postman 11 February 2014 17: 52 New
        0
        Quote: ybrcfy27
        and there are no such sharp changes in temperature, and also not such a terrible terrain

        not:
        meteorites
        -hard radiation
        -T oscillations (from −160 ° C to +120 ° C)
        - gas content day / night = fluctuation in 2 orders (100 times)
  3. saag
    saag 11 February 2014 08: 11 New
    0
    Here they bother, invent and send moon rovers, but it was just necessary to send spare parts to already existing moon rovers and that's all. they would still work
    1. Moore
      Moore 11 February 2014 13: 29 New
      0
      Late spare parts to send. Twenty years already, how late ...
      http://rus.ruvr.ru/2013_06_03/Sovetskij-Lunohod-2-dvadcat-let-prinadlezhit-ameri
      kancu-2603 /
      The question is, who would do the unit repair there - I do not even ask.
    2. Petrix
      Petrix 11 February 2014 13: 42 New
      0
      Spare parts are not needed. It is only necessary to wipe with a cloth. Or blow a jet. Everything will work.
    3. The comment was deleted.
  4. poccinin
    poccinin 11 February 2014 08: 33 New
    +1
    so they all send lunar rovers to the moon, which is good, but no one directs them to "suspicious" objects of which there are a whole bunch of on the surface. I think the Americans were told that --- THE SPACE IS TAKEN. THEREFORE, THEY BROKENED THEIR LUNAR PROGRAM. Now the Chinese are trying to negotiate smile
    1. Fuzeler
      Fuzeler 11 February 2014 09: 40 New
      +2
      Well, this is more from conspiracy theory than from something serious.
  5. Isk1984
    Isk1984 11 February 2014 09: 56 New
    +4
    HERE right now Volkhov he will come to all of you quickly Explains that there is a secret Nazi base ...
    1. Toporkoff
      Toporkoff 11 February 2014 11: 07 New
      +1
      HERE right now Volkhov he will come to all of you quickly Explains that there is a secret Nazi base ...

      yes yes yes, I saw a movie on the Internet ... the Nazis moved to the moon ... and the Americans cannot lie in films)
  6. USNik
    USNik 11 February 2014 12: 38 New
    +2
    Looking at the photograph of Lunokhod-2, I just can’t imagine how the operators managed to draw dust if the battery is on the roof ??
    On "Lunokhod-2" just such a nuisance occurred. During movement banked badly and scooped up some moon dustthat covered his batteries
    They are there, what did somersaults try to do on it?
  7. Black
    Black 11 February 2014 13: 00 New
    +1
    The first should go and go machines. That China has grown .....
    It’s a pity that we are not up to the Great Cosmos now, although there are enterprises and organizations in the country that have unique experience in developing such systems as planet rovers and devices for delivering lunar soil to Earth. It is not really needed on its own, but it is a great platform for the development of future technologies.
  8. KG_patriot_last
    KG_patriot_last 11 February 2014 13: 44 New
    +1
    Since the dust on the elements is evil, why not come up with cleaning them from it and go everywhere, instead of trying not to raise the dust so that the dust does not deposit while greatly reducing their capabilities?
  9. Azaat
    Azaat 11 February 2014 14: 32 New
    0
    The Chinese must send a teikonaut with a rag and a brush.
  10. Aydin
    Aydin 11 February 2014 14: 45 New
    +1
    And it’s better to pay the lunatics, they would make repairs.
  11. tankovod
    tankovod 11 February 2014 15: 04 New
    0
    Quote: Chen
    This is a great platform for the development of future technologies.

    But do those in power need this? No, perhaps. For many years now, the largest manufacturers, governments, bankers, politicians have been planning the development of their states in all aspects. What kind of cars we will drive, what electronic devices to use, what medicines to treat, what we think, whom to read and who to hate.
    Cosmos, this quintessence of the best achievements and technical solutions, always carried many innovations and the most unexpected discoveries, which sometimes radically change the idea of ​​the nature of things. All this introduces a strong element of surprise in the development of society, and as applied to corporations and companies, there are great risks associated with sharp changes in the market due to new discoveries in the science of technology. All this is not necessary for businessmen and politicians, it will become much more difficult to control the development of society, and accordingly it will become more difficult to manage it.
    Imagine you are a farmer, you have a sheepfold. You feed them, protect them, but this is quite difficult, and the herd is a bit crowded in the corral. Nearby there is a beautiful forest glade with a lake and wonderful grass, but you do not have the strength and means to protect this glade and turn it into a new pen. And letting out sheep means losing the source of food and income.
    With people on Earth a similar situation. Of course, many will argue that, where they are going to go, these space colonists, without supplies from the ground, will stretch their legs in the first year. But let's remember the story. The USA was also a colony, now it is the strongest state, which itself dictates its will to half the world. People at the helm of their countries and nations have hardly forgotten about this.
    The option that the Moon and other planets are already occupied is also not worth sweeping aside, remember, the American Indians, too, did not suspect that white aliens would come with a level of technology beyond them, and there would be almost no Indians left in the Americas. Perhaps those same "green men" clearly marked the border beyond which the Earthly aborigines should not meddle.
    But, despite all these obstacles, the path to space is necessary for people. It is crowded on mankind on Earth, if not physically, then spiritually, the world is torn by contradictions, there are no common global ideas and tasks, everyone is trying to grab more from his neighbor, he answers with the same coin, the tension is growing, the prospects are not encouraging. Space exploration would be a way out, but whether the powers that be will go for it is a big question ....
  12. Azaat
    Azaat 11 February 2014 15: 04 New
    0
    I'm afraid they do not know the renminbi exchange rate with their currency. Afraid to overpay.
  13. alal
    alal 11 February 2014 16: 34 New
    -1
    Quote: paul72
    Mars rovers have been walking on Mars for years.
    are the conditions on the moon harsher than on Mars

    On Mars - American Mars rovers. Russians are better than Americans, but they are not there yet. At the bottom of the Pacific Ocean, the whole group is going ...
  14. alal
    alal 11 February 2014 16: 52 New
    0
    Quote: Kapitan Oleg
    So on Mars there is some kind of atmosphere, and on the moon there is a vacuum.

    not quite so - technically, there is an atmosphere on the moon
  15. alal
    alal 11 February 2014 18: 51 New
    -1
    Quote: alal
    Quote: paul72
    Mars rovers have been walking on Mars for years.
    are the conditions on the moon harsher than on Mars

    On Mars - American Mars rovers. Russians are better than Americans, but they are not there yet. At the bottom of the Pacific Ocean, the whole group is going ...


    Ahahaha ... minus ... what are you unhappy with? What he said wrong, or the truth hurts his eyes :)
  16. studentmati
    studentmati 11 February 2014 23: 54 New
    0
    The hare was not a timid dozen ... !!!
  17. Shur
    Shur 12 February 2014 01: 16 New
    +1
    On materials with the same dielectric constant, no charges are formed. Those. somehow it is necessary to select the material and make options for changing the charge relative to the dust, so as not to stick (discharge or repel). There is nanoceramics (quartz-silicon compound, silicon and quartz particles less than 10 in -9 m), which exhibits antistatic properties and are hydrophobic.
  18. nod739
    nod739 12 February 2014 02: 50 New
    0
    Quote: alal
    not quite so - technically, there is an atmosphere on the moon


    Mars and the moon have different conditions., different temperature drops, and in general different troubles, the Martian atmosphere compared to the lunar atmosphere is like comparing air with water, they descend to Mars by parachute, on the moon on jet thrust, because on the moon the temperature difference is almost twice as much, and therefore the dust is "biting" - not hewn
    it’s far to fly to Mars (it’s a long time to prepare the gravitsap), and the signal goes for at least 20 minutes, and the moon has a little more than a second, but on Mars, as it were, the climate is milder, it’s easier on a number of parameters, and therefore it has already been studied more than the moon
  19. Awards
    Awards 12 February 2014 03: 50 New
    0
    Yes, it’s Chinese, it’s broken, at my place you know how many Chinese broken phones, for more than a year I haven’t survived.
  20. kgbers
    kgbers 13 February 2014 01: 31 New
    0
    Quote: Awards
    Yes, it’s Chinese, it’s broken, at my place you know how many Chinese broken phones, for more than a year I haven’t survived.

    That's right. Like all world commodity markets, the Chinese will take space not by the quality of their devices, but by their quantity.
  21. nod739
    nod739 13 February 2014 11: 21 New
    0
    Quote: kgbers
    He’s Chinese, he’s broken


    Quote: kgbers
    the Chinese will take space not by the quality of their vehicles, but by their quantity.


    but I have a BBK player, 8-9 years ago I bought a thousand for 2, and then my neighbor bought a "pioneer" three times more expensive
    he has already changed the current even after the pioneer, and my little Chinese, tyufutfutfu, still works)))