Military Review

"Zuev Republic" in the territory of occupied Belarus in 1941-1944

36
"Zuev Republic" in the territory of occupied Belarus in 1941-1944



Contrary to popular belief, the occupation regime in the territories seized by the Nazis was not the same everywhere. There were areas with varying degrees of independence. The most famous so-called. Lokotskaya republic, in whose territory almost 600 thousand people lived. The “Zueva Republic” is less known (due to its smaller scale), but no less interesting.

Drang nah Osten

Byelorussia end of summer - beginning of autumn 1941. German soldiers briskly walk along Russian roads. A few more weeks - and the war will end. Month, from the strength of two. The soldiers believe in the military genius of the Fuhrer, whom they adore. The generals do not doubt the victory, although many of them are already tormented by a worm of doubt: the troops are not moving as fast as we would like, and the losses are higher than planned. Apparently, the victory will not be so quick and not so easy.

Where did elders come from

Capturing vast territories, the Wehrmacht moved forward, leaving small settlements in the settlements of strategic importance (bridge, road, warehouses, railway junction), headed by orts commanders. Arriving in some distant village, the commandant appointed the headman from among those who expressed a desire to cooperate with the new government, or simply the first old man with a military bearing. After leaving home, the commandant preferred to make such voyages as seldom as possible because of their danger. In many villages lost in the wilderness, the Germans have seen 1-2 times during the entire war, or even never. Often the peasants themselves put forward a respected fellow villager as a candidate for the post of elder.

Therefore, when Mikhail Zuev appeared in Polotsk and introduced himself as the elected headman of the village of Zaskorki, the commandant did not see anything unusual in that and approved him in the position. Very soon, the Zasorki elder drew the attention of the commandant, and the name Zuev often flashed in the documents of the Polotsk commandant's office.

Starover Zuev

The village of Zaskorki was inhabited by the Old Believers. The community, united by common faith and many years of persecution by secular and ecclesiastical authorities, in the conditions of a vacuum, the authorities quickly organized themselves and advanced from their midst a leader who possesses the necessary abilities and is ready to accept the “burden of power”. Mikhail Yevseyevich Zuev was earnestly a believer, for which he suffered twice from Soviet power. For “anti-Soviet agitation” (and actually for religious propaganda), Zuev served a total of 8 years, returned to his native village in 1940 year. His two sons were also arrested and convicted, but they did not return home - they perished in the camps. So it is not surprising that at the village meeting the community chose him as its head and handed over the full power in the village.

Zuev, who had practical wisdom and decisively, distributed collective farm land on shares, restored the Old Believers Church. The peasants were satisfied and dreamed of living a quiet, peaceful life in conditions of maximum self-isolation from the outside world. But Zuev understood that even in a bearish corner it would not be possible to sit out from the terrible war and waited for the war to come to Zorkorki when this would happen. And it happened.

First blood

In November 1941 of the year 7 of armed men came to Zorkorki, declaring themselves partisans. Who were these people is impossible to say. How many sources, so many versions:

1. The Red Army soldiers, who did not change the oath.
2. Convinced communists and Komsomol members fighting for Soviet power.
3. Russian patriots who fought against the invaders.
4. The employees of repressive bodies who had not evacuated had nothing to “catch” under the new government.
5. Deserters and felons who have committed robbery under the guise of partisans.

Whoever these people are, they needed food. Moreover, they were going to make Zaskorki their base. Zuev laid the table, set a bottle of moonshine, and secretly sent his daughter to collect old people. While the guests ate and drank, the crowd consulted how to proceed. They decided to kill the aliens, weapon to hide.

1941. The war with the partisans

Soon the armed people came again, and again they asked for bread and meat. Zuev gave the request and asked not to come again. But they came. This time, except for Zuev, partisans were met by village men armed with captured weapons. Guests had to leave with nothing. In the evening, Zuev handed out weapons to young guys, set patrols. The partisans who came at night met with gunfire.

Realizing that the village is unlikely to be left alone, Zuev set about organizing a self-defense detachment and drove the partisans a few more times. Soon, walkers from two nearby villages, also inhabited by Old Believers, arrived in Zaskorki and asked to be taken under protection. The population of the “Zuev Republic” exceeded thousands of people for 3. A permanent combat core was created, a surveillance and warning system was developed. Secrets were exhibited around each village.

By December, the number of repulsed attacks reached 15. Began running out of ammo. They could only be taken from the occupiers. In December 20, Zuev went to Polotsk to ask the Germans for ammunition.

In union with the Germans

So, the headman of a village lost in the forests came to the Polotsk commandant and asked for weapons and ammunition to fight the partisans. It is clear that the commandant met the request with caution: it is still unknown who Russian men will shoot from rifles issued to them. But on the other hand, there is a great opportunity to clear the area of ​​partisans by the forces of the Russians themselves!

After long hesitations and several meetings, contrary to all prohibitions, the commander of Polotsk, Colonel von Nikish, issued Zuev 50 rifles and several boxes of ammunition. Zuev, in turn, promised to establish regular supplies of provisions to the occupying authorities and ensure the absence of guerrillas in the territory under his jurisdiction.

Having received the weapon, the Zuev people felt much more confident. The Hungarians, who were standing in Polotsk, had a resourceful headman who traded Soviet machineguns for 4 products. "Self-defense forces" became known as the "army". Discipline in the "army" was harsh. Punished for the slightest offense - they put him in bread and water in a cold cellar, they flogged me. For serious misdemeanors, a meeting of selected respected old men was judged, which also handed down death sentences.

1942. Between the Germans and the partisans

A few more villages were asked in the “Zuev Republic”, representatives of the villages that were under the control of the partisans also appealed. At the beginning of 1942, Zuev with his “army” made a raid on remote villages, expelling partisans who had settled there. The territory of the republic has expanded. According to the descriptions of officer Abwehr Karov who visited the “republic”, each village was surrounded by barbed wire, a bunker stood at the gate leading to the village, where a fighter with a gun was constantly on duty. There were secrets around the village, with which the boys-messengers kept in touch. After several major battles, the partisan detachments stopped alarming the “republic”. Zuev, in response, pointedly did not notice the partisans operating in the neighboring area, refused to give out his people to participate in anti-partisan actions, avoided contacts with the SD and the Gestapo.

A certain balance was also established between Polotsk and Zaksorki: Zuev regularly supplied the authorities with bread, meat, milk, wool, hay, firewood, and ensured calm and order in his area. The commandant did not interfere in the internal affairs of the "republic", completely leaving them under the jurisdiction of Zuev. The only clause that Zuev did not regularly fulfill was the obligation to release the prisoners of partisans. The Zasorki elder did not betray a single person, preferring to decide their own fate. Who was shot, who was released, and who went into the "republican army."

The events of May 1942 showed how fragile this steady state balance was.

Incident with the SS police battalion

In May, an Estonian SS police battalion approached the village of 1942, the purpose of which was to search for and destroy partisans. The battalion met Zuev told the officer that there was no partisan in the territory he controlled and there was nothing for the battalion to do. If the SS guards try to enter any of the “Zuev” villages, they will be provided with armed resistance by the forces of the self-defense detachments. The policemen had to leave. In the morning Zuev went to Polotsk, where he informed the commandant of the incident and asked for protection. The colonel immediately contacted the command of the police battalion so that the incident would not continue. But this, as it turned out, was not the worst incident.

As a "republic" nearly rebelled

In the summer of 1942, the leadership changed in Polotsk. The new commandant gathered the elders and demanded an increase in the volume of food supplies and a merciless fight against the guerrillas. In the case of the slightest disobedience threatened to burn the village, and the inhabitants to steal in Germany. Although Zuev never disrupted supplies, he did not feel confident in his safety. At the end of August, a messenger rode on a horse at Zaskorki, reporting that a German detachment with a large number of empty carriages was moving along the road. Zuev announced the alarm. At the appointed meeting place, all the forces at his disposal, the 4 machine gun and the company mortar. The fighters took up positions, Zuev went out to meet and entered into negotiations with an officer. Presented receipts Polotsk commandant on the implementation of the supply. At the same time, Zuev demonstrated the power of his "army", and the mortar gave a demonstrative salvo. The officer carefully studied the documents and agreed that, apparently, there was some mistake. The convoy turned back to Polotsk.

For two days, the Zuevites strengthened their positions in anticipation of a punitive “retaliation action”, while Zuev himself was looking for a way out: did the Germans go to reduce the conflict or ask the partisans for help? It was not necessary to choose: by the end of the second day, a sunderferr arrived from Polotsk, who, on behalf of the commandant, proposed to restore the status quo: Zuev continues to supply food in the previous volumes, ensures road safety and does not allow partisans to his area. Instead, the commandant does not send any teams to the area. Zuev accepted the conditions, simultaneously asking to replenish his "army" with ammunition.

A sharp softening by the commandant of his policy was simply explained. The commandant, who did not know the local specifics, was told that in the event of a punitive campaign, another partisan detachment headed by an active talented commander would appear in the area.

1943. The pressure from all sides is increasing

In 1943, the onslaught of the occupation authorities against the “republic” intensified. The millennial Reich demanded more bread, meat, butter, and for the first time demanded a “live tribute” - people to work in Germany. It is not known what measures Zuev took, and on what basis he made lists, but several dozens of Old Believers were sent.
The pressure of the partisans increased. Small detachments of several dozen fighters grew into huge units. Airplanes from the “Big Land” supplied them with weapons, ammunition, and medicines. Now Zuev was forced to negotiate with them, provide small services, supply small groups with food and at the same time keep them from holding shares in "his" territory.

1944. Where to go?

In the spring of 1944, Zuev was summoned to Polotsk, where he was awarded the order in a solemn ceremony. By the three previously received awards from the Germans added the fourth. Then, in private, the commandant suggested that Zuev take over a more extensive area. Together with emergency powers, he will receive small arms, machine guns and even light artillery. His men will be equipped in German uniform with Russian shoulder straps. Zuev this proposal is not at all pleased. He was not going to start a war with the partisans at all (and that was exactly what his new position meant). Thanking for the trust, Zuev rejected the offer. The fact that the Red Army will return, he had no doubt.

But he too was not on the way with the Soviet authorities. Cooperation with the occupiers, battles with the partisans ... The burden of sins was too heavy. Not counting on forgiveness or condescension, Zuev began to prepare for care - he harvested carts, food, horses, weapons. In the summer he left, about 2 thousands of people left with him. On their way, the Polotsk commandant joined them with his detachment. Having sustained several fights with partisans, the group made its way to Poland, and then to East Prussia. There the squad disintegrated.

How did the fate?

The answer to this question is hard to give, there is little data, they are contradictory. Around 200, the Zuevians fell into the Soviet zone of occupation, were tried and got from 5 to 25 years. Most are rumored to have left for South America. So far, Old Believers live compactly in Bolivia in the area of ​​Santa Cruz. Maybe it's the Zuevites.

Zuev himself joined Vlasov, joined the POA, where he received epaulets of second lieutenant. In conversations about the future, he said that he plans to return to Russia and live on false documents. It is impossible to say whether he fulfilled his intention.

But:
Among the convicts and the dead in the Ob ITL are Mikhail Evseevich Zuev, 1884, R., Vitebsk region, Polotsk district. Is he?


Republic without a future

The fate of the “Zuev Republic” is interesting, but if someone thinks that the model of the life of the Russian peasantry under the invaders should have been such, then he deeply mistaken. Only the location in a remote area allowed the "Zuev Republicans" to maintain such a curious status quo. Villages and villages located in the steppe part of the USSR (and therefore quite accessible) fully realized all the “charms” of the Hitler regime. The slightest resistance was punished by the authorities very severely, no autonomy was allowed. I choked on the vine. No equal partnership, only unquestioning obedience.

The “Zueva Republic” existed only because the Germans simply did not reach it. In the future, after the destruction of the USSR, the Nazis would have engaged in partisans, using all their military power. And then it would be the turn of the peaceful "free republics" hidden in the thickets and forests of Belarus. The existence of such here "free enclaves" plans of the Nazis was not provided.

Sources:
http://ru.wikipedia.org
http://hasid.livejournal.com/913053.html
http://reibert.info/threads
http://forum.dpni.org/archive/index.php
http://traditio-ru.org/wiki
http://apologetika.eu/modules.php
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36 comments
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  1. kaktus
    kaktus 11 February 2014 07: 06
    +22
    Interesting information and the right conclusions + article
    1. Nicholas C.
      Nicholas C. 11 February 2014 10: 10
      +21
      At least the author’s approach to the presentation is correct. The proposed circumstances determine a lot. Deafness.

      Unfortunately, when they write about my native land and Lokot self-government, many authors bluntly rewrite the early opuses of the devil who knows. Few as Ph.D. Ermolov I.G., arrived at the place, went to the local archives, talked with eyewitnesses and participants from both sides. And he outlined a reasoned, if not everyone acceptable, point of view.

      And then you read all sorts of nonsense, such as "The owner of the Bryansk forests", or how the Lokotskaya self-government police played some, like, a strategic role in the fight against the Bryansk partisans and even in the protection of railways.

      Guys, where there was this self-government - THERE ARE FOREST. And even his very existence was the result of a compromise. Because the excessively zealous Voskoboinik banged right away, although it was forty or fifty kilometers to go along the fields along the snow track and in the frost - you won’t turn around and you won’t be saved from an ambush. But Kaminsky was more likely to be shot by subordinates - which means that the partisans arranged. Anti-guerrilla actions came down more to when the SD pressed and often, together with the Magyar invaders, drove to burn uncontrolled FRESHWOOD villages. Or those in the forest-steppe, where there was turmoil against the occupation authorities.

      Although everything happened. For example, in a neighboring village, my teenagers made some kind of big slingshot, laid a quarter of a brick in it, and managed to get in and kill the German. The Germans burned the whole village along with the inhabitants. Euro-civilization.

      In April 1943, the Nazi defense line passed along Sevsk - the front of the Kursk arc was formed. Hinelsky forest was in the front line. Large units of local partisans (Kovpak, Naumov, Saburov) had already gone west by then. They remained small under the general guidance of Khokhlov. But even those represented a threat to the German front. As a result, the Germans withdrew a fairly large number of divisions from the front, including tank, but all they could was block the forest. The detachment in which my father fought was only relocated from the dry Hinelsky forest to the swamps near Suzemka.

      So we must first study the area where they fought, and only then spew out the flow of their strategic thoughts.

      In fact, that the Lokot self-government, that this "republic (oh, how, well, in the village of Lokot there was already a whole state and an army) Zuev" were more favorable for the local population than if instead of them there was a direct occupation Hitler regime.

      Quote: Posted by Klim Podkova
      so called The Lokot Republic, on the territory of which nearly 600 thousand people lived.

      Such formulations are the zombie formulas of anti-Russian propaganda. Who began to call the district self-government a "republic", "state", "army", etc.? Why cheating juggling numbers. Yes, in the pre-war eight rural districts (only two cities with a population of less than 10 thousand people), there were about as many people. Only during the war, many were drafted into the army, went into evacuation with collective farms, etc. And how many went to the partisans, only in one Sevsky district, the Khinelsky forest with a call into the Sumy region (Kovpak, Naumov, Saburov, Khokhlov) - did you think how much it was? And the Bryansk forest is much larger.
      And there were also underground workers, like my grandfather, who, as it were, served as an elder, but met the front in a Gestapo prison. Many underground workers sat there, but no one betrayed anyone, not even teenagers. No writer Fadeev was found on them.

      I believe that the raking of insignificant events to the detriment of the memory of the heroic struggle of Belarus and the Bryansk region is not only Russophobic in essence, but also serves to whitewash, for example, Bandera, where Hitler was voluntarily served almost without exception, and not in some kind of village self-defense, but in the military punishers, in the SS, in concentration camp executioners.
  2. Anatole Klim
    Anatole Klim 11 February 2014 07: 34
    +19
    When I served in Belarus I heard a similar story, an old man told whom the Germans appointed a father as headman, counted the inhabitants and imposed a tax on food and provisions. Then the partisans came and he also helped them, so the whole war went on and on. After the war, he received 10 years for cooperation with the invaders, he served and returned, but he was never offended by the Soviet regime, he said such a time.
    1. smersh70
      smersh70 11 February 2014 15: 44
      -5
      Quote: Anatol Klim
      set tax on food and food

      our teacher at the university told me that for 41 years the Germans did not introduce a tax, they said, develop, take it next year. So they did, they took only 10% of the economy. She said that for the first time they had a cow, birds, milk. They lived well. In 42 and in subsequent years they took only 10% and that's it. After hearing about the Germans at school, I did not believe her. Then I began to question others, it turned out that in many places where the partisans did not act, this was ...
      1. Anatole Klim
        Anatole Klim 11 February 2014 16: 38
        +7
        Quote: smersh70
        After listening to the Germans at school

        smersh70! You know perfectly well what plans Hitler had with respect to the peoples of the USSR, archival documents have been preserved (I’m at work, I don’t have time to look), but from memory - 75% of the Slavic population was deported to Siberia, the best lands of Ukraine, Belarus, Russia were to be settled by German the colonists, where the remaining 25% in the position of serfs would work, completely destroyed the Jewish population, the Asian and Caucasian population was also equated with subhuman, with the corresponding attitude and extermination. While the war was on, it was quite possible the Germans might not have committed atrocities somewhere, but the Nazi elite knew what would happen next if they won. I will tell you firmly that we would not have been born if fascism had won.
        1. smersh70
          smersh70 11 February 2014 17: 12
          +1
          Quote: Anatol Klim
          I will tell you firmly that we would not have been born if fascism had won.

          Well of course ....
          Quote: Anatol Klim
          While the war was on, it’s quite possible the Germans might not have committed atrocities somewhere

          Well, that's about it.
  3. waisson
    waisson 11 February 2014 07: 36
    +6
    Thank you for the article hi
  4. Day 11
    Day 11 11 February 2014 08: 07
    -8
    Guys, are you a specialist watching me or something? No, it’s meritorious of course. But still. Come on tomorrow about Volkssturm and Hitler
    1. invisibility
      invisibility 11 February 2014 08: 26
      +2
      Quote: Den 11
      Guys, are you a specialist watching me or something? No, it’s meritorious of course. But still. Come on tomorrow about Volkssturm and Hitler

      Yeah. And aspirated! Time, they say it was.
      I did not understand, I washed away this article! Was it hard offended by Soviet power?
      Quote: Den 11
      The “Zuev Republic” existed only because the Germans simply did not reach her

      And before that Zueva it did not reach? Or was he hoping for the defeat of his homeland?
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. smersh70
      smersh70 11 February 2014 15: 49
      -3
      Quote: Den 11
      ? No, it’s meritorious of course. But still. Come on tomorrow about Volkssturm and Hitler

      Well done, that track the unknown and unsolved. Personally, I’ve heard about the Zuev Republic for the first time and received a lot of interesting information. The true one was the leader and man of his community. This must always be done by leaders who are responsible for the lives of their subordinates (citizens). In general, the Old Believers famously keep their traditions, they have a truly Russian spirit !!!!!
  5. paul72
    paul72 11 February 2014 08: 15
    +7
    you read - and ask questions - who is right, as if he himself had acted in a situation between two fires. no matter how the result of the zuev was logical - the shoulder straps of the lieutenant of Vlasovites. and that's it
    1. smersh70
      smersh70 11 February 2014 15: 50
      0
      Quote: paul72
      shoulder straps of the lieutenant at the Vlasovites. and that's it

      as far as I know, there were no lieutenants in the army of Vlasov. Or am I wrong ....
      1. Sour
        Sour 11 February 2014 18: 49
        +1
        Quote: smersh70
        Or am I wrong ...

        Wrong.
        Here is a list of ranks in the ROA.
        Lower ranks: soldier, corporal, non-commissioned officer, sergeant major (non-commissioners were not divided into elders and juniors, like royal non-commissioners or sergeants in the Red Army)
        Officers: lieutenant, lieutenant, captain, major, lieutenant colonel, colonel, major general, lieutenant general, general. The rank similar to the Soviet junior lieutenant was not in the ROA. However, he was not in the Wehrmacht, and in the SS.
  6. parus2nik
    parus2nik 11 February 2014 08: 23
    +5
    You can’t sit on two chairs .. Besides the Old Believers, always persecuted under any power ..
  7. Day 11
    Day 11 11 February 2014 08: 28
    +2
    "REPUBLIC" ZUEVA

    We give the story of a Russian emigrant who served as an officer in the German army on the Eastern Front. He was a direct witness and participant in the events described. From the authors.
    German troops occupied the Polotsk-Vitebsk-Smolensk area in the early autumn of 1941, and the front immediately withdrew more than 200 km. to the East. The German army at that time was little occupied with the areas occupied or, rather, already completed. In areas of more or less serious importance, an “orts commandant” was appointed with a small garrison, who actually controlled only a very small area around the settlement in which he settled. Usually, such commandants were assigned to places through which at least some decent roads passed. On the map, at the headquarters, a large area was designated and it was theoretically assumed that the appointed commandant would manage this area. But since there were no troops at his disposal and practically, after harvesting, there was nothing for the commandant to do in his vast kingdom, he prudently did not go to the area. Even in 1943, there were still villages in the occupied regions, where, during the war, not a single German soldier had entered.
  8. Day 11
    Day 11 11 February 2014 08: 29
    +1
    In rural areas, after occupying one territory or another, the Germans usually appointed the so-called “burgomaster”, guided mainly by the gallant appearance and military dressing of the candidate. Later, the population began to choose their burgomasters from people they trusted. With rare exceptions, the Germans ousted the burgomaster previously appointed by them and approved the chosen people. I must say that in the majority they were honest and smart people who perfectly protected the interests of peasants before the Germans. Quite often women elected as burgomaster.
    Morally, the peasants felt calm: the Germans did not show themselves, and the Communists, whom they hated, left. Many peasants were sure that the Germans, having removed Stalin and the Communists, would soon go away to Germany themselves, taking whatever they wanted with them for the "service they had rendered" from the country. But this seemed even fair to the peasants, they willingly agreed to the "payment" of such a debt. I myself heard how they talked about this in the villages (village of Kotly, village of Yama - Kingisep district, September 1941): “We will not regret any money for Hitler, we will pay 10 years if he shoots Stalin and his whole scum ". Subsequently, they vaguely imagined the convening of the Constituent Assembly, mainly from the peasants and the establishment of the regime, "as it was under the NEP." I speak, of course, of popular opinion, for there were people among the peasants who thought hard over the question of whether everything would be so simple and whether it would be possible to deal with the Germans so easily.
  9. Day 11
    Day 11 11 February 2014 08: 30
    +2
    But then, in the late autumn of 1941, the first partisans began to appear. The core of them was the parachute landing group, dropped by the NKVD in the German rear. Almost at the same time, the first fugitives from prisoner of war camps appeared who spoke about the horrors wrecked by the Germans in the camps. The peasants began to think: on the one hand, the Germans freed them from the Communists, on the other, the Germans destroy the Russian population.

    In addition, the appearance of partisans, although in very small numbers, forced the Germans to send punitive detachments into the forests and remote villages, consisting mainly of Finns, Estonians and Latvians - distinguished by incredible cruelty.
    Thanks to all this, in remote places, similarities of peasant "republics" began to appear, under the slogan "neither Germans nor Stalin." I had to face two such "republics".

    In January 1944, the part I served in was transferred to Polotsk. Getting acquainted with the situation in the headquarters at the headquarters, I came across several times the things bearing the headings: “Bekirk 3.”, “District 3.”, “request an opinion 3.”, “answer 3.” and so on. And I was extremely surprised to learn that "3." - This is Russian, by the name of Zuev. I knew that the districts and districts were always, at least nominally, controlled by the Germans and the request of the Russian Zuev seemed extremely strange to me. I expressed a desire to see him, but the adjutant of the commandant of the city (and locality) surprised me even more with his answer:
    “It's not at all as easy as you think.” You must first ask 3. if he wants to accept you, and if he wants, then when.
    - How to do this?
    The adjutant said that representative 3. lives in Polotsk, Professor P., through whom I can contact 3.
  10. Day 11
    Day 11 11 February 2014 08: 30
    +1
    Having learned the address of Professor P., I went to him in the evening. The professor occupied a small house on the outskirts of the city, surrounded by a small garden, around which a high fence stretched. When my car drove up to the gate, a strong-built man came out of the yard, armed with a Soviet automatic machine, and very unkindly asked me what I needed. Having listened to me silently, he left, carefully locking the gate behind him. He returned quickly and asked me to follow him. To my question, is it possible to drive a car into the courtyard, and the driver to go into the kitchen to warm himself, he answered shortly: "It is impossible, it is forbidden here."

    I was brought into the house. From the hallway I went to a small reception room, and from it to a large office. A man of about thirty-five, a tall man dressed in a well-worn civilian suit and high boots, came up from behind the table to meet me. I was immediately struck by his penetrating gray eyes and calm, self-confident manner of behavior. He called his name and looked at me questioningly. In turn, I introduced myself and named the part in which I served. Without giving a hand, he invited me to sit down. I began to explain to him my desire to see Zuev.

    “If you need anything regarding your service,” he interrupted me, “I can answer your questions.”

    I replied that I was in Polotsk recently and got acquainted with the situation, but since I met Zuev’s name several times at headquarters, I would like to see a man of such weight with the Germans. Further, I explained that since the name 3. is not mentioned in the lists of Abwehr agents and, as far as I found out, it is not connected with either the SD or the HFP, where Russians usually use influence only when they are bastards, then 3. especially I was interested in and I would really like to know this person.
  11. Day 11
    Day 11 11 February 2014 08: 32
    0
    The professor looked at me in surprise:
    “But you yourself are an officer of the German Abwehr, that is, intelligence and counter-intelligence,” he told me very coldly.
    I told him that it would be too long to tell why I got to this service.

    “I assure you,” I added, “that I serve only because I was convinced of the possibility in this way to help the Russian population free themselves from Stalin’s power. The fate of the Germans interests me a little. Perhaps you will believe me sooner if I offer you my help, for example, in the release of vainly arrested people whom you would consider necessary to be released, as far as, of course, it will be within my power.
    The professor thought.
    “I didn’t think that there are people in exile who look sensibly at our situation,” he said finally. “Who you are, I already know more or less; I also have informants,” he added.
    We talked a little more, and then P. promised that he would notify me when I could visit Zuev, and we parted.

    I left him in a cheerful mood: I did not often meet such people in the occupied regions of the USSR.
  12. Day 11
    Day 11 11 February 2014 08: 36
    -3
    Interesting? Continue?
    1. parus2nik
      parus2nik 11 February 2014 11: 32
      +5
      the story of a Russian emigrant, who also served as an officer in the German army, and even on the Eastern Front .... no need to continue ...
    2. smersh70
      smersh70 11 February 2014 15: 55
      -4
      Quote: Den 11
      Interesting? Continue?

      for many, yes! But you get pecked here laughing announce traitor, servant of the United States, Hitler and generally a supporter of Yanukovych bully
      info-classroom-man freely owns a machine gun in the city center, Professor is a 100 percent resident in the camp of the Germans, has his own agents. So the Germans counter-intelligence regime was not so strong.
  13. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 11 February 2014 08: 38
    +14
    "Zuev, in turn, promised to establish regular supplies of food to the occupation authorities and ensure the absence of partisans in the territory under his jurisdiction."

    In principle, it is a pity for people caught in such a meat grinder. However, Zuev, nevertheless, willingly collaborated with the Germans, and shot the partisans, although both of them asked for one thing - supplies. As soon as the smell of fried, I immediately remembered about the partisans.
    1. Angro Magno
      Angro Magno 11 February 2014 23: 10
      -1
      Judah is a double-dealing.
  14. Day 11
    Day 11 11 February 2014 09: 21
    +1
    The next day I began to collect all possible information about the professor. SD and HFP were very hostile towards the professor, firstly, because he flatly refused to have any business with them and sent back all their gifts, which they tried to attract his sympathies, and, secondly, because they considered his too big patriot, hoping for which, precisely because of his patriotism, was impossible. But in the commandant’s office of Polotsk I found a Sonderführer from the Baltic who spoke with enthusiasm about Zuev and the professor. This recall, partly, of course, was explained by the food (game, meat, butter, honey, skin and wool) that the Sonderfuhrer regularly received from 3. and the professor, but, in addition, the Sonderfuhrer, not a stupid person and not German at heart, - I felt genuine sympathy for both. Sonderfuhrer confirmed to me that both persons of interest to me refused flatly to become German informants-agents. From him, I learned that the professor appeared in the city as soon as the Germans entered and, thanks to a good knowledge of the German language and the local population, rendered them great services and thereby gained a great influence among them. P. was a professor of what science and whether he bears a real name — the Sonderführer could not tell me.
  15. Day 11
    Day 11 11 February 2014 09: 22
    +1
    In the city, the professors knew little, he lived in isolation, did not drink vodka at all, had no mistresses in the city and did not take bribes, although he could have taken them in large quantities. Rumor had it that he was sitting in a Soviet concentration camp under article 58 and either fled or was released from there before the war itself. He got to Polotsk by accident.

    Three days after my visit to Professor P., the same person who met me at his house came to me and said that the next day, at two in the afternoon, Zuev would be glad to see me and would send his sled and follow me horses. To my question, how many sledges will be, the messenger replied that the sleds will be alone.
    - But what about the convoy? I asked.
    “But you cannot go there with an escort,” there was an answer, “all the same, Zuev will not let anyone but you into his place.” And for yourself, do not worry, since Zuev calls you to visit.
    The next day, as soon as I was informed that the sled from Zuev had arrived, I got dressed, called N. and went out onto the porch, which had a sled. A handsome bearded man sat at the irradiation, kindly greeting me.
    “Are you the one who will take us?” I asked him. He answered with a smile that since Zuev had invited me, there was nothing to be afraid of and offered to sit down. The horses were very good, the sleigh quickly rolled and very soon we were already out of town. At first the road went among a shallow shrub, but soon we drove into a rather dense forest. I blinked N. and we took the guns in our hands. We drove for more than an hour, when suddenly, because of a bend in the road, four horsemen armed with carbines emerged towards us. We were alert, and already wanted to shoot, but our charioteer turned around and said that these were Zuev’s people. The riders surrounded our sleigh and we drove on. After driving about 15 kilometers, we saw a small village standing in a large forest glade, but only upon approaching we noticed that this village was surrounded by barbed wire, and there was a small bunker at the gate leading to the village. As our motorcade approached, a young woman came out of the bunker with a machine gun in her hand. She nodded to us and opened the gates made in wire fences. The rider accompanying us turned into an alley, while we drove a little along the main street and drove into a vast courtyard, among which there was a large, good hut built of thick logs. The host was obviously warned about our arrival, because the sled did not have time to stop, when two healthy girls ran up to us and helped me out. Having handed over the K assault rifle, I, accompanied by one of them, headed for the hut. The large room into which I was brought in was lined with green plants in tubs, the front corner in it was entirely hung with ancient, Old Believer icons, lamps were lit in front of them, ancient church books were lying on the tables.
  16. Day 11
    Day 11 11 February 2014 09: 23
    0
    By asking me to wait, the girl left. I was left alone. Having removed my cap and belt with a gun, I began to look at the books lying on the table.
    “Hello, hello,” I suddenly heard a voice behind me.
    Zuev entered the room absolutely silently. He was a man of about 50-55, of medium height, very broad at the shoulders, standing firmly on his feet, shod in soft boots. He was almost bald and wore a huge beard and a reddish-gray mustache covering his face. His small eyes of some indefinite color looked at me from under thick eyebrows, smiling mockingly affectionately. On top of the shirt was an outfit, he was wearing a city black jacket, on the left side of which were attached two bronze orders on green ribbons - “For Courage” - and one silver on a striped ribbon. Orders were without swords, such as the Germans issued to non-military. I was the first to go to Zuev, thank him for the sled and give him a hand, which Zuev shook very firmly, with the clear intention to show his strength. I pretended to be very surprised by his strength and strength, which clearly pleased him.
    “Sit down, sit down,” he told me, pointing to a chair, and the first one sat down in a chair near the table. “I must not smoke,” he said, and fell silent, staring at me intently. The room was very hot, I asked for permission to take off my greatcoat. He shouted something, the girl who met me rushed into the room. She quickly and deftly helped me undress and, taking her overcoat, cap and belt with a gun, went to the door. Zuev waited to make sure that I would not mind, and then, pointing his eyes to the holster with the gun, he asked:
    - Not afraid?
    I silently pulled a pistol from my trouser pocket, which I put in there, taking off my belt.
    “Yeah ...” said Zuev,
    I sat down again and started talking about the Old Believers. In 1941-42 I often had to deal with them in the northern sector of the front. Some of the names given by Zuev were well known to me, which made him extremely happy. Then I began to talk about Nikon, whom Zuev hated, as if it were his contemporary. I scolded Nikon, calling him the Antichrist. So we talked until the same girl came into the rooms, whispering something to Zuev’s ear this time. The latter immediately got up, saying that it was time to have a bite and led me to another room. But I wanted to inspect Zuev’s home in more detail and see someone from his staff, so I warned the owner that I needed to go to the restroom and smoke.
  17. Day 11
    Day 11 11 February 2014 09: 25
    +1
    Zuev immediately shouted to some Vanka or Vaska, and a boy of about fifteen, whom Zuev had instructed to accompany me, ran into the canopy in his shadow. Having smoked in the yard and trying in vain to call my companion into conversation, I returned. Zuev was waiting for me, sitting at a well-laid table. We only had lunch together, the same girl served. At dinner, we drank quite a lot of beautiful moonshine. Zuev hardly spoke, I was silent too. After lunch, the owner suggested that I rest, saying that he also likes to sleep for an hour.

    After the rest, we drank tea, continuing the conversation on religious topics, and when it began to get dark, I asked Zuev to send me home.
    “Spend the night with me,” he suggested suddenly. I politely refused, explaining that the authorities would be worried if I did not come.
    “I'll send a courier,” Zuev said briefly.
    Still, I decided to go. Seeing me off to the sleigh, Zuev asked me to come.
    “It’s interesting to talk with you, you don’t,” he told me, “and you don’t talk about damned politics, you don’t ask about anything.”
    N. was waiting for me at the sleigh and had a very displeased look. When we started off, he said that he was put in a hut, though he was well fed, but they did not give vodka and did not allow smoking. When leaving the village, four horsemen again caught up with us, and this time we were led almost to the entrance to Polotsk.

    I visited Zuev many times after that, but he never wanted to come to me, reasonably indicating that he, in his position, would be shameful to go to the German headquarters, even to visit. The girls who met me for the first time turned out to be his daughters, Zuev's wife died long ago, and two sons died somewhere in the cadets of Siberia.
    In the three months I spent in Polotsk and its environs, I got along well with Zuev. I liked the old man. His views on the future of Russia were sober and healthy. He never reproached me for my, sometimes unbearable, service, and I really could have a good rest with him, when circumstances allowed.
  18. Day 11
    Day 11 11 February 2014 09: 26
    0
    In the spring of 1944, one of my wounds opened and I was sent to Riga, to the infirmary. We parted with Zuev very cordially.

    In April 1945, I finally managed to get a transfer to the ROA and was sent to Heuberg. Upon arrival, I arrived at the command department of the Headquarters of the Armed Forces of the Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia and two days later I was appointed to the intelligence department of the Headquarters. Walking once through the camp, I suddenly saw Zuev. We were very happy with each other. Zuev explained to me that after the evacuation of his area, he came to Germany, arranged a family somewhere in the center, and he himself came to the Headquarters of the Armed Forces of the Armed Forces, hoping to get some appointment. Unfortunately, he said, no one here knows him and he is considered just a soldier.

    And he wanted to get an officer rank and uniform. I explained to him that in this situation, it would be more profitable for him to have civil papers and a civilian suit. But Zuev continued to insist on his own. I reported to my superiors about the benefits that Zuev could bring in general and about his desire to be an officer. This issue was soon resolved; Zuev was promoted to lieutenant. Two days later, our units marched on their last trip.

    We went with Zuev almost all the way together, and during that time he told me the whole story of his “republic”, as he called the locality, which he controlled from the summer of 1941 to the summer of 1944. I already knew a lot in Polotsk, but much was new to me. I knew Zuyev even in those places where his activities had unfolded, and therefore it was not difficult for me to understand that he was really telling the truth, and lying or embellishing reality was not in his character.
    Interesting? This article was published in the "New Journal" in 1947
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 11 February 2014 12: 58
      +2
      А he wanted to get an officer rank and uniform. I explained to him that in this situation, it would be more profitable for him to have civil papers and a civilian suit. But Zuev continued to insist on. I reported to my superiors about the benefits that Zuev could bring in general and about his desire to be an officer. This issue was soon resolved, Zuev was promoted to lieutenant.
      A said, I have to say B. That's it, someone right away, and someone collaborating on a petty scale through an attempt to stay away from the war, but inevitably slipping into open betrayal of the homeland and to actively participate in the war against it. Indeed, in a war of extermination one cannot stand aside. You will either become a hero and about people like you will compose songs. Or you will become a traitor and earn an eternal damnation. The end of traitors is always the same - to be a mongrel at the enemy and die with it.
  19. dmb
    dmb 11 February 2014 10: 56
    +8
    A heartbreaking story was told to us by Den 11, apparently believing that it was a German lackey who came with in their uniform and with their army. and there is that very objective that can truthfully illuminate the history of that time. Traitors always try to justify their betrayal by any means, explaining. that they did it exclusively out of exalted "feelings".
    1. Day 11
      Day 11 11 February 2014 11: 08
      +2
      No, Dima, the story itself is very interesting. This Hauptmann did not betray anyone (because he was born in Germany in an emigrant family). And Zuev is the first bastard
      1. Day 11
        Day 11 11 February 2014 11: 50
        -1
        You see, how do Hans and Vanya fight in me? Are you for the Reds or Ali for the Whites? I'm for the International !!!
      2. dmb
        dmb 11 February 2014 12: 47
        +3
        Do you see Denechka, if at the beginning of your story you call him a Russian emigrant, then this does not fit well with his birth in an emigrant family in Germany. Moreover, from his own words the Germans (with whom he came to us) did not interest him much, but went he, without asking, "liberate" us. Denikin and Krasnov were emigrants. But Denikin did not become a traitor. And Krasnov are trying hard to justify such traitors as himself. So the "writer" is the same first-class bastard like Zuev.
  20. sergey1972
    sergey1972 11 February 2014 11: 07
    +6
    TRADER. Especially smart here, you can now write that it was not so simple, etc., but I will repeat the TRADER again.
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 11 February 2014 13: 01
      +1
      especially smart here you can now write that everything was not so simple
      And what is there to write pi and complicate - a TRAITOR and "."
  21. svp67
    svp67 11 February 2014 11: 21
    0
    The village of Zaskorki was inhabited by the Old Believers.
    Old Believers, Old Believers ... then they will go to the Persians and Turks and then fight with the Russian troops, then they will steal the banner for Pugachev from the Kremlin and thus "pour gasoline into the burning flame of the civil war", then they will bring the keys to Moscow to Napoleon ...
  22. reality
    reality 11 February 2014 11: 25
    +2
    And still there? I want more!
    1. comrade Bitch
      comrade Bitch 12 February 2014 23: 34
      0
      http://ttolk.ru/?p=19756 Республика Россоно: против немцев и большевиков
      there were plenty of such republics ... the Bolsheviks for a long time throughout the entire former Ingushetia raised hatred towards themselves.
      a case in point is western Belarus and Ukraine, in the 39th they were waiting for them hoping for them and in the 41st they spat with hatred
      1. Stanislav Khatuntsev
        Stanislav Khatuntsev 12 May 2021 04: 35
        0
        So.
  23. bistrov.
    bistrov. 11 February 2014 11: 35
    +3
    The whole country was straining its forces in the fight against a strong and cruel enemy, and these ones calmed down in their swamps and were ready to lick their heels both ours and yours, if only they would not be touched. Bastards. Correctly, Stalin shot such people without any pity and sent them to camps.
    1. Prometey
      Prometey 11 February 2014 13: 15
      +5
      Quote: bistrov.
      The whole country was straining its forces in the fight against a strong and cruel enemy, and these ones calmed down in their swamps and were ready to lick their heels both ours and yours, if only they would not be touched.

      And then heel licking. Most of the population lived this way in the occupied territory. The main thing for people was to survive. Another thing is that without scoundrels and traitors it never did.
  24. The comment was deleted.
  25. RUSS
    RUSS 11 February 2014 12: 12
    +4
    Now, if the "Zuevs" break out, there will be more.
    1. Nikoha.2010
      Nikoha.2010 11 February 2014 12: 17
      +1
      Quote: RUSS
      Now, if the "Zuevs" break out, there will be more.

      Maxim is a good day! Will it come from? From the inside or from the periphery? Time is not right and I do not agree with you. No.
  26. polkovnik manuch
    polkovnik manuch 11 February 2014 13: 01
    +1
    This is not news at all! Dear colleagues, I advise you to read OV Romanko's book "Brown Shadows in the Woodland" and everything will fall into place at once, a typical collaborationist territorial formation in the German rear.
  27. Vitaly Anisimov
    Vitaly Anisimov 11 February 2014 13: 12
    +2
    The article is interesting .. there is something to think about and the feeling is twofold .. And the first thing that comes to mind is the expression "talented opportunist" Or, to be more precise, the traitor of course (the Germans regularly paid rent) and he cleaned up quite a few of ours ..
  28. Landwarrior
    Landwarrior 11 February 2014 13: 23
    +1
    Personally, my opinion. That Zuev, that Voskoboinik ... Yes, it was ... Yes, the Germans set up such experiments to see what would happen. But against the background of resistance to the occupants, it was such a drop in the ocean ....
    As one book German said:
    We mess with traitors, we value traitors, but we do not like traitors, whatever the reasons that motivated them to betray.
    (c) Lazarchuk, Uspensky "Look into the eyes of monsters"
    hi

    PS: Printing this text accidentally missed the button while typing the name "Zuev" lol
  29. disa
    disa 11 February 2014 13: 28
    0
    A good example of how hatred does not serve good even if it is implicated in love for one’s small country, land, and faith.
  30. Refugee from Kazakhstan
    Refugee from Kazakhstan 11 February 2014 14: 41
    0
    You, too, had enough "Alash Horde" at that time!
  31. jar.zoom
    jar.zoom 11 February 2014 15: 19
    +2
    Indeed, there were enough corners in Russia where not a single German was seen during the entire war. (During the occupation, of course) I myself am familiar with the people who worked and lived there. People settled down and adapted in different ways. About "the cannibal Stalin" the teeth were already set on edge .My great-grandfather before the war was at one time the chairman of the collective farm, during the war he was the headman. He spun as best he could, both ours and yours. It's a pity I was a kid, I didn't ask him in detail. The village (in after the arrival from the war, the mother gave birth in a dugout, but ... No one had any claims to his great-grandfather. There was nothing to him, no one repressed, he lived and lived on. After the war, he was a brigadier on a collective farm, and even an accountant. He was literate, non-drinker, before the revolution, by the way, he was a church headman, even though he did not believe in God.
  32. wasjasibirjac
    wasjasibirjac 11 February 2014 17: 36
    +2
    the fact that Zuev is a traitor and there is no dispute. paid rent to the invaders, armed a "self-defense detachment" with which he fought against partisans, whom he shot, whom he recruited into his "army", when the Red Army approached - fled with the "army" to the West, where he joined the ROA, received his 30 pieces of silver and ended his journey in a camp grave. there he goes. If in Belarus during the occupation there was such a blissful picture, then where did 1/4 of the population that died during the occupation and thousands of burned villages come from?
    the described behavior of Zuev reminded me of the behavior of the heads of the "treaty regions" in Chechnya in the 90s. EVERYTHING IS EXACTLY THE SAME - do not go here, come on weapons and cartridges, and we will ensure peace in the region. It looks like it, huh?
  33. Rubon
    Rubon 11 February 2014 22: 23
    +3
    I myself from Polotsk, from childhood I heard stories about partisans, about Germans, about local residents ... I regret now that there was no mind to record all this! According to the stories of uncles and aunts, real partisans near Polotsk appeared at the beginning of the year 43, until that time there were different semi-gang members who robbed everyone and everything. Remained in my memory stories of how partisans encroached on the commandant of the Polota station in the summer of 43, he liked to do exercises and take sun baths on the roof ... they shot from a forest more than a kilometer away, they got a foot ... there was a scream! Uncle says the first time a woman saw a smoking woman when artists came to the Germans, people ran to watch how the woman smokes! Interestingly, the half of the village turned into a policeman half a sod for the partisans .... In the late 70s, when I was playing with the boys, I was warned by my aunt that I wouldn’t be with the police brat! laughing
  34. mvv
    mvv 11 February 2014 23: 46
    +1
    Well, here's a good example again: cooperating with the invaders - please give not only food, but also slaves. Then I’m fighting with the local guys (whose relatives I shot, burned, hanged), and they hate you even more Germans. The end is one - to flow from the native land in the EC knows which side. if they don’t catch up.
  35. bublic82009
    bublic82009 12 February 2014 01: 02
    0
    Offended in their state have always been. Germans had the same anti-fascists. someone killed, someone reforged, and someone hid. and we had such. these lands in the old days under every master were both Russians and Lithuanians and Poles. for them, that the Soviet government, that German all were strangers. I do not think that his village was so impregnable for the partisans. would like to burned. if they didn’t burn it, then the partisans needed it.
    1. Rubon
      Rubon 12 February 2014 01: 31
      +1
      Quote: bublic82009
      that his village was so impregnable for the partisans. would like to burned. if they didn’t burn it, then the partisans needed it.

      Almost until the middle of the year 43 there were no normal partisans there, it was then that the Lepel partisan zone appeared, and in 41-42 in this part of Belarus they did not strongly partisan.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  36. Fox
    Fox 12 February 2014 06: 32
    0
    article ... but confuse the Old Believers and the Old Believers! author-determine already.
  37. Dobrokhod Sergey
    Dobrokhod Sergey 12 February 2014 13: 28
    0
    In this world you cannot be "on your own", because loners do not survive.
  38. Mista_dj
    Mista_dj 14 February 2014 12: 25
    +1
    Thank you for the article!
    I read with interest.
    The whole truth about that war - we are not destined to find out.
  39. i.xxx-1971
    i.xxx-1971 15 February 2014 09: 28
    0
    In my opinion, this question should be defined as follows: he killed Russian people, but how many killed Germans? After answering this question, everything will fall into place. Zuev was a traitor and Judas with good intentions, which, as you know, lead not to paradise. Instead of these scum really worthy people died.