Military Review

Russian miracle of the XXI century

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Russian miracle of the XXI century

Embellished reality


More than 50 years ago, in June 1963, the premiere of the film was held at the Kremlin Palace of Congresses, which was attended not only by the leadership of the Soviet Union, but also by the entire diplomatic corps. It was a two-part feature-documentary film “Russian Miracle”, filmed by cinematographers of the now defunct country — the GDR — about another country that had fallen into oblivion — the USSR. Filming was timed to the launch of the first Soviet satellite, and ended after the flight of Yuri Gagarin into space. Just at this time, John F. Kennedy said his textbook phrase: "If you do not want to learn Russian, learn physics."

The film told about how a country with a ruined economy and infrastructure, having lost any technology and organizational culture, completely illiterate, in a short time turned into not only a powerful industrial and military power that won the Great War, but also successfully competing for world domination with the United States of America.

It would seem paradoxical, but already in the 70-80 years repeated attempts to show the film “Russian Miracle” on central television encountered the failures of the top television supervisors acting on orders from the then Central Committee of the CPSU. It was said that "it is not necessary to embellish the reality." The “Russian miracle” of that period was no longer necessary for the overwhelming majority of the ruling party-bureaucratic layer. After all, the main point of the film was that the potential of the country of the Soviets was such that at the end of the twentieth century another Russian Miracle was quite likely. For a quarter of a century after the film was released on screens, Soviet science and technology successfully confirmed the withdrawal of East German cinematographers. Practically in all key areas, from space to seabed research, from biotechnology to power engineering, from computing technology to new types of weapons, breakthroughs were made that, with their engineering and industrial reinforcements, could revolutionize the world economy.

This is not an exaggeration. Immediately after joining Ronald Reagan as US President, the Socrates project was launched at the highest level under the guidance of physicist, Colonel M.Secora. The most detailed, documented and focused to date report on the project "Socrates" was published in Erwin Ekman's book “President Reagan’s Program to Secure US Leadership Indefinitely: Project Socrates”. The main objective of the project was to objectively analyze the level of competitiveness of critical US industries, identify areas of science and technology, where the United States lagged behind the USSR, Europe, Japan and implement extraordinary measures to overcome the backlog and ensure leadership in all critical technologies for the 80- . The project was implemented in all key branches of science, industry and technology of the United States with the involvement of all the largest high-tech corporations, universities, research centers, etc.

In the USSR, perestroika happened at that time. Scientific and technical areas were covered and lost funding literally every month. In general, while the American state took up the elimination of the technological lag, a massive injection of funds into science and technology, the Soviet Union preferred a dead-end model of petroleum consumer socialism. At the same time, in the country, the words of the overseas President D. Kennedy were taken to the leadership to act with exactly the opposite. They quit learning physics and began to learn English.

Despite all the unfavorable circumstances, the islands of high technologies continued to develop within various segments of the Russian economy and, above all, the military-industrial sector. Surprisingly, the Soviet Union achieved the greatest success in most spheres of science and technology at the technological level at the very end of the 80s, when the previously created scientific reserve fully began to operate. The symbol of the triumph of the Soviet technological power has not yet been reproduced in the world, the launch into orbit of a large-tonnage unmanned, returned orbital complex Buran with its successful return to Earth. Another striking illustration of these achievements is the recent pre-New Year publication of one of the largest American magazines, which highlighted the seven most promising energy technologies for the next 15 years in the field of nuclear energy. Five of them for the 1991 year already existed in the Soviet Union, either in the form of prototypes, or brought to the stage of engineering calculations and bench tests.

In the post-Soviet, "democratic, market-oriented Russia" no one ever mentioned the film "Russian Miracle". And no one talked about the embellishment of reality. At the global level, there were already other tasks: recognize the reality as criminal, forget about it and never return to it. These goals were largely implemented. And the main thing is that a stable installation was hammered into the public consciousness that no new Russian miracle could exist anymore, that the new Russia should simply be built into the global process and enjoy the benefits of Western civilization, without pretending to be any primacy or development.

On the threshold of the Third Industrial Revolution

However, what happened happened. After the collapse of the USSR, the mutation of capitalism, consumer finance, finally triumphed in the world. In 90-e zero years, it seemed that scientific and technical progress was stopped forever and all developments boil down to the release of a new ipad model or other gadgets. Perhaps it would have continued if not for the global financial and economic crisis that began in the 2008 year. Under the threat of a total large-scale catastrophe in the West and in the East, scientific and technological forces weakened and suppressed by the collapse of the USSR came into action, which joined with state, venture and risk capital that rose to their feet during the Internet revolution and accumulated huge resources of all types of information giants, and certain political forces interested in the survival of the global world system.

In parallel with the pursuit of partially targeted, and partly spontaneous measures to limit the omnipotence of speculative financial and banking capital, corporate, state and social structures, relying on high technologies, were strengthened as a guarantee for the survival of modern society and ensuring its development.

It is curious that even now, when the country broke out of the chaos of 90, the ideological machine and the left and the right mostly speaks about the difficult prospects of economic and financial development, it has severe social consequences. At the same time, in modern Russian society, the problems associated with the economic wonders of the 21st century, which are discussed in Western and already Eastern society, are practically not discussed.

And the available information shows that with all the undoubted acute problems, contradictions and difficulties that exist in the United States, Western Europe and Japan, the Third Industrial or Industrial Revolution is unfolding and is gaining momentum right before our eyes.

It owes its name to the international bestseller Jeremy Rifkin's Third Industrial Revolution, which has become the reference book for many politicians in both the East and the West. Its author is recognized as one of the most influential economists of our time. He is an adviser to the European Commission. His admirers include Barack Obama, the Politburo of the Chinese Communist Party, the Government of Brazil, and in the post-Soviet space the leadership of Kazakhstan. On the basis of Rifkin’s ideas, a plan was developed for the further economic development of the European Union, which has already been adopted by the European Parliament.

Along with the book of J. Rifkin about the Third Industrial Revolution, two more works were announced. They became reference books not only in high government offices, but, above all, in business, among the new generation of scientific, technical, and programmer classes. These include Peter Marsh’s book, The New Industrial Revolution: Consumers, Globalization and the End of Mass Production (The New Industrial Revolution: Consumers, Globalization). Peter Marsh, editor of one of the world's most respected Economist magazines, a regular contributor to the Financial Times. And Chris Anderson's bestseller Producers: A New Industrial Revolution (Makers: The New Industrial Revolution).

With all the differences in positions, the authors are united in the fact that the production revolution means deep, quick historical perspective, spasmodic (phase) changes in the very foundations of equipment and technologies used in all major sectors of the economy. These changes lead to irreversible and qualitative changes in the organization of labor and production, supply systems, marketing and consumption. The production revolution is changing the basic structures of economic life. Completely rebuilds society and the usual ways of regulating it. Transforms political institutions. Any production revolution has undeniable positive effects and is inevitably associated with a number of negative social consequences and problems for the broad masses of the population.

The third industrial revolution in its scale, consequences and shifts is not only on a par with, and perhaps even surpasses the first and second industrial revolutions. The first industrial revolution of the end of the XVIII - beginning of the XIX century was associated with the textile industry, steam energy, coal, railways, etc. The second industrial revolution of the late XIX - first half of the XX century became the brainchild of electricity, internal combustion engines, the triumph of mechanical engineering and the pipeline, as a method of organizing production.

Already in the initial stages of the Third Industrial Revolution, several defining features can be distinguished:
- first, the simultaneous widespread production use of various independent clusters of technologies. First of all, robotics, 3D printing, new materials with engineered properties, biotechnology, new information technologies and, of course, diversification of the energy potential of production and society;
- secondly, the ever-increasing interaction between individual technological clusters, their peculiar “sticking”, mutual cumulative and resonant influence of a friend on a friend;
- thirdly, the emergence on the borders of technological clusters of fundamentally new, previously non-existent technologies and families of technologies in which the clusters interact with each other.

The basis of the transformation of individual technological clusters or patterns into a single technological package is played by information technologies, which penetrate literally all sides of technological and industrial life, linking separate technological units with each other. The most striking examples of this are such technological patterns as biotechnology, robotic technology, controlled on the basis of big data, etc. In fact, already at the initial stage of the industrial revolution, we can talk about the formation of a single technological package of the Third Industrial Revolution.

In the sphere of organization of production and labor, a distinctive feature of the Third Production Revolution is the miniaturization of production in combination with network logistics and personification of product consumption. As K. Anderson noted in his work: “If earlier effective production and effective marketing and sales networks were only possible for large plants, large retail networks and transnational corporations, then in the very near future it will be available to everyone.” True, with all the miniaturization and democratization of production, the dependence of the small producer on Big Data suppliers, software products and intellectual services, which J.Rifkin believes will remain, the largest information companies such as IBM, Google, Amazon, etc., will simultaneously increase.

In other words, the decentralization of production, the transition to direct relations in the sphere of distribution and personalization of consumption will occur in conditions of preservation of the dominance of digital giants controlling the key technology of the Third Production Revolution - a system for collecting, storing, intelligent processing and distributed delivery of digital data and computer programs of all types and sizes .

The first key direction of the Third Industrial Revolution is the rapid automation and robotization of production. According to experts, fundamentally many elements of automation and robotization could be introduced into industrial production back in the 80-90 years. However, at that time it turned out to be more economically advantageous to use instead of robots practically gratuitous labor of workers from China and other Asian countries. But after nearly a quarter of a century, the situation has changed. On the one hand, labor in Asia has risen in price considerably. On the other hand, the deindustrialization of America, many countries of Europe and part of Japan dealt a severe blow to the economies of these countries. Finally, during this period, fundamentally new software and microelectronic solutions have appeared, which make it possible to significantly increase the efficiency and functionality of robots while reducing the cost of their production. Today, for example, a typical American robot on the conveyor pays off within one and a half, a maximum of two years.

Already in America more than 9 thousand of fully automated productions are operating or preparing for launch in the coming years. And this is just the beginning. In the United States, on 10, 000 workplaces in production account for 870 in fully automated workstations, in Japan - 400, in Korea - 270, China- 32. No less impressive statistics are available for the so-called human-like industrial robots of all types. In 2012, according to the International Federation of Robotics, humanoid robots were most widely used in South Korea. There, 10 000 employed accounted for 400 of such robots, in Japan - approximately 320, in Germany - 250, in the USA - 150.

Currently, the undisputed leader in the production of industrial, high-tech robots are the United States of America. This year, slightly less than 20 thousand units of high-tech anthropomorphic robots were delivered to US enterprises. In our country in 2012, there were only 307 robots. Of these, 65 came from abroad. For comparison, in the tiny Czech Republic of thousands of similar robots.

For the sake of justice, it must be said that the United States is not a leader in industrial robots already established. The first place confidently holds Japan. The second place is occupied by China. And only in third place - the United States. South Korea and Germany close the top five. At the same time, according to experts, Chinese robots are less technologically advanced and are used mainly in elementary assembly work associated with the release of traditional gadgets and household appliances.

The second direction of the Third Industrial Revolution, and in the opinion of Chris Anderson, even its main driving force is the 3D seal. At the heart of 3D printing is a technology called Additive Manufacturing, that is, additive (well, to say "phased") manufacturing. The method implies that the printer forms the product in layers until it becomes final. 3D printers do not paint on paper, but “grow” an object from plastic, metal or other materials.

Methods of three-dimensional printing are also noticeably different. The 3D printer can apply liquid by layer (for example, ceramics or plastic) layer by layer, which solidifies immediately. A more technological method is widely used, where the raw material is powdered metal (for example, steel, titanium, aluminum). In this case, the laser beam slides on separate layers and, according to a predetermined program, melts and sticks together one or another particles with each other. There are many more different types of 3D print. At the end of 2013, over a thousand models of various 3D printers were released, designed for both fundamentally different printing methods and materials used, and for a completely different budget. Currently, a number of major manufacturers of 3D printers have come up with Internet giants, such as Google and Amazon, with a proposal to the US Government to supply 3D printers for the first time to the vast majority, and then to all schools. And in the subsequent to adjust obligatory training at lessons of work to work with 3D printers.

If at the first stage, printers mainly used geeks and advanced designers, then it was the turn of engineers and designers. Leading companies have begun to actively use 3D printing for modeling. Then the 3D print went to the masses. For example, Princeton graduate Marcin Yakubowski created a whole social network that brings together engineers, designers, and 3D print enthusiasts who work together to develop Global Village Construction Set - all you need in a “global village”. The network publishes open access 3D drawings, diagrams, video instructions, budgets and user instructions. The result is what K. Anderson calls the "cloud industry" or "cloud production." According to him: “You upload an order to a global network cloud for a product that interests you, where further this task finds its optimal performer who can do it as quickly, efficiently and cheaply as possible.”

This year there was a breakthrough in the field of industrial use of 3D print by major corporations. 3D print lines are currently being built by Boing, Samsung, Siemens, Canon, General Electric, etc. As a result, by the end of 2013, the global market for 3D printers was estimated from 3 to 3,5 billion dollars and doubled on average over one and a half years, i.e. follows the famous computer law of Moore.

The undisputed leader in the production and use of 3D printers is the United States. They account for almost 40% of world production of 3D printers. About 10% is accounted for - the share of Japan. Almost as much in Germany and China. The top five with 6% closes the UK. Russia in the field of industrial applications 3D printers ranks tenth. As for the sector of using 3D printers as the basis of mini-factories, in Russia, along with Africa, there are no such industries, according to the world's leading expert in the field of 3D printing, with the exception of a few educational laboratories.

The third direction of the new production revolution is the production of new materials, including materials with pre-designed properties, composite materials, etc. The need for the emergence of a wide range of new materials is dictated, on the one hand, by the requirements of widespread introduction of cost-effective, efficient 3D printing, and on the other, by the development of microelectronics, biotechnology, etc.

At one time, new materials science was associated exclusively with nanomaterials, i.e. with new materials produced on the basis of miniaturization. However, the reality was somewhat different. For all the importance of nanotechnology, the production of materials with predetermined, designed characteristics required on the one hand for a product made of this material to perform its function has taken a key place, and on the other hand, the possibility of using new materials for processing such materials, such as 3D print. The leaders in the new materials science and the production of fundamentally new materials are again the United States, Japan and Germany. Russia, in spite of the colossal scientific and partially technical groundwork created in the Soviet years, due to the achievements of the institutes of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the activities of the composite industry, is not currently among the leaders. Although some Russian scientists have some developments. A striking confirmation of this was the fact of awarding the Nobel Prize in physics for the 2010 year to A. Geim and K. Novoselov for innovative experiments with graphene. They received the Nobel Prize as researchers at the University of Manchester, but the work was done while still working at the Scientific Center in Chernogolovka.

The key focus of the Third Industrial Revolution is without a doubt biotechnology in the broad sense of the word. In essence, this includes the industry of individualized drugs, which are relied on by both the pharmaceutical giants and new, young, rapidly developing companies in this field. This also includes various types of regenerative medicine. 3D printing capabilities are widely used for the production of donor organs. Today, this is no longer a fantasy, but a routine that has passed clinical trials, which have been adopted, for example, by medical institutions in France, Germany, the United States, etc. Literally the other day it became known that a “bio-pen” was created and is being industrially produced. It allows you to deliver living cells and growth factors directly to the site of injury.

A special area is bioinformatics. Four years ago, a group of researchers led by John Craig Venter managed for the first time in history to create artificial life using the DNA of one of the viruses. Now this team can, as they say, produce new types of bacteria and living organisms directly from the computer. J. Venter said so that they managed to make "the first self-reproducing biological species on the planet, whose parent is a computer." In the 2009 year, after receiving B. Obama, the studies wanted to be classified. But in the end, they decided to open the development to the world. Today, according to J. Venter, synthetic biology is "a powerful set of tools that in the coming years will lead to the creation of effective vaccines against a wide variety of diseases, ranging from influenza to AIDS." True, he warned of a terrible danger, falling into the hands of terrorists and extremists.

It should be noted that up to 1991, Soviet microbiology and bioengineering occupied leading positions in the world. According to American experts, thanks to the existence of a specialized Russian committee - Glavmikrobioprom, with a large network of subordinated research and production centers and training institutes, the Soviet Union was noticeably ahead of all other countries of the world in many areas of biotechnology and genetic engineering. However, then, under the flag of combating biological weapons and in the conditions of the pogrom of high-tech branches of the domestic industry, a significant portion of the potential was lost. Although, according to foreign experts, with proper mobilization of forces, Russia can, based on existing developments and achievements, operating scientific schools, the diaspora of Russian biotechnologists working abroad, catch up.

The first and second industrial revolutions radically changed the main energy source. If the first industrial revolution was implemented on coal, the second industrial revolution was the brainchild of oil and electricity. Unlike other areas, there is no unanimity among specialists regarding the energy basis of the Third Industrial Revolution. In particular, the author of the first and most popular book about the Third Industrial Revolution, J. Rifkin was a staunch supporter of "green" renewable energy. Moreover, he was one of the initiators of the development of the EU plan for the closure of nuclear power plants, reducing the use, in his opinion, of environmentally harmful power plants for coal, oil, etc. Today, European industrialists, paying tribute to J. Rifkin in other areas, often with an unkind word commemorate the “greening” of energy, as well as the promotion of delusional ideas for replacing gas with wind turbines and similar “green” tricks.

Without undue noise, most theorists, and most importantly, practitioners in high government posts responding to the Third Industrial Revolution, believe that the future belongs not to renewable energy sources, but to fundamentally new types of nuclear energy, advanced technologies for the extraction of gas and oil-containing elements, as well as completely new types of energy.

The core component that permeates all the technological clusters of the Third Industrial Revolution and turns them into a single technological package is, without a doubt, information technologies. In relation to the theme of the Third Industrial Revolution, three key components stand out in the structure of information technologies.

The first. This is Big Data. Big Data - is the collection, storage, digitization, processing and presentation in a user-friendly form at any time and at any point of the totality of information about certain events, processes, events, etc. The key to Big Data is that they allow you to work with all the information online. The main word is "all". The user of Big Data has the whole picture, which does not depend as before on any samples, restrictions on sources, time to provide data, etc. Big Data can include any format - from tables to streaming video, from digitizing old reports, to text recordings made by various sources. Never before, in the history of mankind, those involved in the analysis, forecasting, design and engineering activities, decision making have not been able to operate with all the information. Moreover, it is not easy to operate, but to receive this information in a convenient and accessible form. Today, the undisputed leaders in the field of Big Data are the United States, Britain, Japan and China. In these countries there are a large number of platforms providing work with big data, special training courses, many centers where companies can get advice or services related to big data.

In Russia, I must say bluntly, the situation is deplorable. With the fact that in our country a powerful algorithmic and mathematical base for the intellectual analysis of Big Data has been developed, there is no data itself by and large. What we call the Big Data overwhelmingly is the traditional business analyst used abroad for many years. Specialists in large data in the country are not yet prepared. There are no accelerated retraining centers. Today we have the only book devoted to this topic, which is more likely to be a popular science character rather than academic (W. Mayer-Schönberger and K. Kukier) “Big Data. A revolution that will change the way we live, work and we think ").
By themselves, Big Data is an essential public and corporate asset that, if used properly, provides their owners with daunting intellectual superiority and business dominance.

The second. These are cognitive calculations and expert systems. Over the past two to three years, the United States and part of Britain have managed to make a genuine breakthrough in the field of creating expert systems based on so-called cognitive calculations. The basis of cognitive calculations are programs that, to a certain extent, simulate and mimic some well-known psycho-physiological processes. Due to this, programs have been created that have the capacity to self-write and improve, taking into account the mistakes they made when solving various tasks. The most famous expert system based on cognitive computing was the famous IBM Watson computer, which won the completely human game “Own Game”. After the victory on the playing field, Watson showed high results as an expert system in medical oncology, pharmaceuticals, police investigations, exchange business. According to estimates of various experts in the coming 7-12 years, he can suppress up to 70% of workers engaged in routine mental work in various fields of activity. The main thing is not even that. Expert systems give their owners and users immense intellectual power, putting at the service the wealth of human knowledge, multiplied by the power of computational algorithms. It should be noted that IBM is no longer a monopolist. The active work in this direction was announced by Google, Facebook, Amazon.com and so on.

Third. This is cloud and distributed computing. As it is easy to see, the enormous power and software resources required to work with Big Data, cognitive computations, the creation of powerful Watson-class expert systems are affordable for the largest corporations. Under these conditions, the development of cloud-based distributed computing, i.e. Creating platforms that can be used by dozens, hundreds, or even millions of users simultaneously makes Big Data, cognitive computing, and the most powerful expert systems accessible to the smallest business and individual citizens. Already today, IBM has opened cloud Watson for third-party developers, and they make custom programs for small businesses.

In other words, the three components of information technology allow us to endow decentralized small and ultra-small production based on robotics, 3D printing, biotechnology, and so on. powerful intellectual resources provided by major corporations.

True, the price of such an endowment and the general use of intelligent cloud technologies is the rejection of the Third Industrial Revolution, such as J. Rifkin and C. Anderson, which is proclaiming by a number of pioneers, an exclusively democratic, fully networked character of the Third Industrial Revolution, where there will be no hierarchy. This, of course, is an illusion. But it does not in any way cancel the future that comes in countries where the Third Industrial Revolution unfolds literally not by day, but by the hour.

Currently, information technologies are a kind of platform for technological development, just as during the second industrial revolution, mechanical engineering was such a platform. The era of digital production is coming.

Digital production takes the most unexpected forms. Currently, several US companies engaged in the production of robots and 3D printers, including Google, are engaged in the implementation of the project Factory-in-a-Day. The first mini-plants of this kind are meant to be launched in 2015 year. The project should allow to deploy automated production not only in large enterprises, but also in medium, small and superfine, no more than in 24 hours. These plants are equipped with flexible multifunctional robots, 3D printers, laser cutters, etc. Robots, printers and other equipment come with the most popular programs already loaded in them, ensuring their efficient operation. Those. The plant is shipped in the same way as a smartphone or tablet with software preinstalled today. Everything you need during the day can be obtained from the cloud. In advance, before the delivery of the enterprise, its owners and staff receive a training course on a computer game enterprise that emulates and trains real activity. During the operation of the plant, as well as in the case of 24 home appliances, a support service and consultation is in touch with users for hours per day. Plus, from the cloud, it is possible to load the necessary additional programs, receive expert advice, and process Big Data.

Fab lab producers went even further. These production laboratories are equipped with multifunctional machines, 3D printers, other necessary devices. The peculiarity of these laboratories is that they not only allow one to produce this or that development or invention in nature, but also have the potential for their own expanded production. In other words, the fab lab is designed in such a way that, using the existing equipment, it is able to complete and expand the existing functionality. Never before has this been foreseen. It is well known that there have always been enterprises for the production of means of production for the production of means of production, etc. Now, within the framework of one enterprise, it is possible to expand both the enterprise itself and produce means of production, and items for the final personalized user.

The ideologist of the fab labs - a teacher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Neil Gershenfeld argued that the production revolution had already taken place, only it is in a latent stage: “The Internet coverage has doubled every year for about ten years. It seemed that the Internet appeared out of nowhere, but in fact it was just developing for a long time and few people noticed it. The same thing is happening now with fab labs, hackerspaces and makerspaces. Or another parallel: when personal computers began to appear, almost all manufacturers of large computers decided that they were toys, something frivolous. And they all collapsed, except IBM. The same with new machines for digital production: they replace the familiar industry and create a new one, undermining the established order. ” There are already hundreds in the world, and next year thousands of fab labs will be created. In 2013, the first fab lab in Russia was opened in Moscow on the basis of MISIS by Neil Gershenfeld.

One of the first fruits of the early stage of the Third Industrial Revolution is the return of production to America and Europe. In 2013, more than half of the companies with a turnover of one billion dollars announced that in the next few years production from China and other Asian countries would fully return to the United States. In the USA lately the growth rate of industry exceeds the dynamics of many other sectors of the economy. More than 500 thousand non-seasonal jobs created. This of course cannot be compared with 6 million jobs lost by the US industry. But these are places in their mass that meet the requirements of the Third Industrial Revolution with the corresponding indicators of productivity and efficiency. It should also be borne in mind that 75% of new developments and technologies and almost 90% of new, registered patents are created in the US in the field of industrial production. It should also be noted that, at present, the United States controls more than 65% of high-tech developments and 55% of high-tech patents in the world. Similar processes are actively developing in South Korea and Japan. The re-industrialization of Great Britain began. Germany remembered, having long rested on the laurels of the most successful highly industrialized economy of the 21st century. He is trying to deploy the Third Industrial Revolution and China. Although it is in China, due to the extremely high excess share of the rural working-age population, and employment by traditional industrial labor of the main part of the urban population, it is very hard to realize the achievements of the Third Industrial Revolution. And what about Russia?



Russian breakthrough

It is clear that in the new conditions the old economy, based on nationwide rent appropriation and squeezing the last remnants of the accumulated technological potential, no longer works. The point of no return is indeed passed. The only way out in this situation is the implementation of the Third Industrial Revolution, and in a variant that is much more decisive and uncompromising than abroad.

In the United States, Europe, Japan and China, there are quite a number of enterprises and powerful transnational groups that belong to them, which belong to the traditional, gradually leaving economy. At one time, the economic breakthrough of the FRG and Japan, and later of China, was largely due to the fact that they created their production potential, in fact, from scratch. The old potential either did not exist or it was destroyed during the war. Instead of hostilities, we had thoughtless market reforms and structurally destructive privatization. Therefore, the field for the Third Industrial Revolution has now been largely cleared. Weakened and groups that link their existence with the traditional outgoing ways. Instead of these groups, we have groups of receivers of various types. But, as history shows, it is easier to counteract renters than monopolistic groups with special interests.

Finally, unlike most of the countries of the world, due to the long neglect of education and qualification training, there are no powerful professional groups that will impede the Third Industrial Revolution. For example, today in the United States lawyers, psychoanalysts, mid-level office workers, etc., are already active in this direction.

It is difficult to prevent that which is incomprehensible, unknown, and, most importantly, is not taken seriously at the moment. And the effect of surprise, again, as evidenced by world experience, with proper will and consistency, allows one to go through the first, most critical phase of technological transformations. As for the skills and knowledge necessary for confident work in the framework of the Third Industrial Revolution, today there is already a whole range of relevant training courses, practical platforms, methods of obtaining not so much knowledge as skills. They can safely use, and not reinvent the wheel. As a last resort, translate key courses into Russian and agree on the possibility of conducting practical exercises, again in Russian. Experience shows that the world's leading universities, as well as manufacturers of robots, 3D printers, cloud platforms, etc. willingly go on it and support relevant initiatives.

The third industrial revolution in Russia is not only possible, but also highly likely. After all, it is not some kind of “Russian miracle”, but a kind of production necessity that needs to be implemented calmly, soberly, systematically and disciplined.

A practical approach to the implementation of the Third Industrial Revolution requires an end, first and foremost, of the "devastation in our heads." It is permissible to take any measures that will make people turn their faces to reality and begin to think more technologically rather than politically.

The third industrial revolution has nothing to do with the X-NUMX s supermobilization projects of the last century, various kinds of “emergency” or driving everyone into giant, highly integrated corporations that will create tens of millions of jobs according to a single plan. Despite the fact that such projects have filled not only the Runet, but also the pages of serious publications, we must be aware that what worked once will not work today. Moreover, the very nature of the Third Industrial Revolution provides for a combination of maximum decentralization, mini-production with access to giant centralized platforms, which are mostly not organizational, but technological. Within the framework of the Third Industrial Revolution, technological expediency becomes the sole criterion for choosing one or another organizational form or property relationship.

Russian breakthrough directions

In each country and region, the Third Industrial Revolution should be carried out and implemented on the basis of national objectives, taking into account regional and country specificities and the current situation.

For the Russian industrial revolution, the refusal of breaking anything effective and working should be the immutable law. The principle “to the ground, and then” was repeatedly used in the history of our country and, by and large, showed its extreme inefficiency.

When it is said and written that the economy of our country should not depend solely on the fuel and energy complex - this in no way means that this complex is not, in fact, the only working sector of the economy that actually provides for its current livelihoods. Therefore, the Third Industrial Revolution should unfold in this complex. This is facilitated by at least three circumstances.

The first. Last year, the President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin, said: “All mineral resource users, without exception, are obliged to comply with the existing conditions for the development of deposits, to fully extract minerals in the entire area provided, and not to work on the principle of“ skimming ”. Here we have in mind, above all, of course, the use of appropriate technologies ... ”The overwhelming majority of such technologies are well known, and practical testing has passed. Many of them are of domestic origin. Others are our foreign partners of the largest Russian corporations. Therefore, the case for small - start doing business. Moreover, the conjuncture of the oil and gas market leads to this.

The second. Russia in recent years, primarily in the face of the fuel and energy complex, and above all, of Gazprom and Rosneft, is returning to the Arctic. Moreover, it does this on a long-term system basis. Literally in the most recent months, Gazprom launched a unique oil-producing platform on the Prirazlomnoye field on the Arctic shelf. The giant international project Yamal LNG is increasing its production volumes. Gaining capacity located on the Taimyr Vankor field of Rosneft. The preparatory work for the development of the project for the development of the largest deposit of rare-earth metals in Yakutia is nearing completion, where Novosibirsk scientists, private business, the kutia authorities and the federal center have combined their capabilities. Coming to the Arctic, and in general to the North, means not only the creation of new production platforms, but also entire life-support, transportation and logistics infrastructures.

In contrast to the insane projects of Gaidar’s reformers, who suggested simply leaving the European and Asian north of Russia, the largest Russian oil and gas companies with predominant state participation, together with their foreign partners, are actually creating a new Arctic cenosis. This coenosis includes the most advanced technological clusters that form an integral technological package of the Third Arctic Industrial Revolution, complex systems of constant human activity in these areas, the most advanced environmental technologies that protect the ecology of the region, guaranteeing it from repeating the fate of the Gulf of Mexico. It is quite obvious that with a thoroughly thought-out approach, the creation of the Arctic industrial cenosis can become one of the main locomotives of the Third Russian Industrial Revolution.

Here, of course, it is important to overcome the intrinsic desire of the internal bureaucracy to use the development of cenosis to obtain bureaucratic rent, which is typical of any large corporation all over the world, and to cut off advanced solutions and technologies not directly related to corporations from mastering coenosis. This is not a purely Russian, but a global task, and it can be solved only by ensuring transparency, discipline and mutual cross-control of all project participants.

The national task of developing the Arctic cenosis and the implementation of the technological package of the Third Industrial Revolution there should not be questioned in the event of an adverse change in energy prices. There is a significant risk of such a turn of events. However, the task of developing the Arctic cenosis is not the task of a year or even a decade. Therefore, at some stage it is necessary to be prepared for the fact that the development of the Arctic cenosis will be a costly task when state corporations will have to be dated in a targeted way. In this sense, it is extremely important and far-sighted to attract as junior partners foreign participants who are interested in long-term access to the Arctic resources and who can share with our side the burden of creating a technocenosis during the years of unfavorable market conditions.

Third. In the course of the deployment of the Third Industrial Revolution in the world, there is a sobering up regarding various types of advanced nuclear energy technologies. A number of such technologies, often completely ad-free, and sometimes covertly where possible, have been launched in the past few years in the United States, France, the United Kingdom, and China. We are talking in particular about thorium energy, ultra-small nuclear reactors, etc.

The current Rosatom is without a doubt the world leader and confidently controls not only the domestic market, but also highly competitive abroad. In Russia, the nuclear industry and the energy sectors close to it have accumulated enormous potential for fundamentally new projects that are in a high degree of readiness, and with due political will and vigilant control, as well as targeted allocation of resources for such projects, they can be launched and implemented even faster. and better than their foreign counterparts. As abroad, one largely has to start in this area either from scratch or use old Russian patterns.

A separate, fundamentally new task is connected with the unfolding of the Third Industrial Revolution along those lines, within the framework of those clusters and technopacks that are currently being formed in the West and the East. Our big advantage is that the initial work, as they say, the zero cycle was carried out for us by others. Today, the main directions of the Third Industrial Revolution, its main clusters, basic technologies, qualification skills needed to work in new conditions, etc. are clear.

In order to begin this work in our country as quickly and decisively as possible, first of all, organizational measures are needed, as well as changes in some of our usual behavioral attitudes and attitudes.

As practically all the experts seriously involved in both the state and corporate levels of the Third Industrial Revolution note, its main clusters began to form as early as the 70 years of the last century and under the influence of the rapid development of information technologies, before our eyes turned into a single technological package.

Despite all the troubles and troubles that lay in wait for Russian science and technology, it does not represent an absolutely scorched earth. Moreover, in the field of information technology, we have something to boast. In this regard, you need to take for granted the event. It is necessary as soon as possible to conduct a full and detailed inventory of existing developments and technologies included in the clusters of the Third Technological Revolution, with a definition for each technology of its readiness for practical use, etc.

Of course, the subtle point is always the evaluation procedure itself. But in general terms, without further ado, use the world experience. From the point of view of commercialization or practical application the end user should be the main evaluator. In some cases, they are the relevant state structures, in others - interested representatives of the business community, in the third - specialists in technology commercialization in foreign markets. Of course, no inventory takes place without the involvement of experts. But here it is important to rely not on hunters of various kinds from grants from the Russian jurisdiction, but in cases where there are no restrictions on the secrecy regime, to widely attract practitioners from the Third Industrial Revolution from abroad. The huge factography convincingly shows that such experts in the vast majority of cases do not act as industrial spies, but, on the contrary, perform the functions of mentors and consultants. Examples of Singapore, Malaysia, Brazil - the best evidence of this.

There is reason to expect that in a number of areas of the Third Industrial Revolution, the results of the inventory of domestic scientific and technical developments will be disappointing. Despite the undoubted sadness of such a statement, there is, in general, nothing terrible in it. Not so long ago, a well-known researcher Amy Chua published a book, The Day of the Empire, which immediately after the release became very popular in high political and business circles in various countries of the world, including America. The book is devoted to the sources of power of the so-called world "hyperpowers". A Chinese-American American, a professor at Yale University, found that one of the main sources of empire prosperity is their openness to the world, tolerance and goodwill for foreigners, willingness to attract them to the service, to take from the world all the best that has been accumulated.

Actually, for connoisseurs of Russian history in the findings of Amy Chua there is nothing new. It is well known that in the Russian Empire the same Catherine the Second actively attracted the best scientists of the world to the Russian Academy of Sciences, and in order to master the rich soils of Novorossia and the Volga region, she strongly encouraged peasant migration from Germany. During the years of the Russian economic miracle 90-ies of the XIX century many specialists from European countries worked in Russia. There are closer examples. For many years, the role of foreign participation in Soviet industrialization has been diligently hidden. Not that books, but also historical publications, or dissertations on this topic can not be found. Meanwhile, a total of tens of thousands of engineers, designers, highly skilled workers from many countries of the world worked on the industrialization sites. Dozens of factories were designed in architectural and design firms of the United States of America. Hundreds of the largest Soviet enterprises were equipped with the latest technology equipment leading American, German, British, etc. firms.

Therefore, if the Third Industrial Revolution is carried out resolutely in Russia, it is necessary to make maximum use of foreign experience and opportunities in various forms. At the same time, the creation of subsidiary structures of Western giants in Russia is by no means the only, or even the main, best form of technology transfer of the Third Industrial Revolution. It is well known that the developers of this technological wave are universities, as well as small fast-growing companies, which are then often bought by giants, ranging from Google, to Lockheed Martin.

No one is stopping Russian structures from participating in buying up such companies. An impartial analysis of publications on transactions in the high-tech market in America shows that in recent months, 2013 has increasingly become buyers, for example, Chinese, South Korean, and Brazilian companies. There is no reason to believe that the regulators of the United States, Western Europe, and Japan will treat Russian buyers worse than Chinese ones. Considering the opposite would be just another propaganda ploy and unproven judgment.

For the success of the Third Industrial Revolution, one should make maximum use of the network of international scientific and technical cooperation, the possibility of acquiring small foreign high-tech firms and startups, fully utilize the social capital of cross-border Russians employed abroad in the high-tech sector on a permanent basis, or working there on temporary contracts. Naturally, such engagement should be accompanied by the attentive attitude of the state and society to the needs and interests of these people.
A reasonable combination of the internal and external potential of the Third Industrial Revolution, given the weakness of the institutional barriers that hinder it, and groups of special interests, will enable this revolution to be launched in Russia at a faster pace than in many other countries.

The third production revolution. Necessary and sufficient conditions.

For all the importance of technological aspects, the prose of life remains, connected with finances, the organizational support of the Third Industrial Revolution.

By itself, the Third Industrial Revolution is a cost-effective and self-sustainable item in a relatively short run.

However, in any case, the start of technological innovations, especially given the lack of a developed private venture capital infrastructure, will inevitably require a lot of money. And one can hardly expect any significant distractions of funds from the state budget, which for many years will probably be very tense due to unpredictable energy prices.

In this regard, it is hardly worth inventing clever schemes, and it is better to use the already existing domestic and foreign experience in mobilizing resources for high-tech projects.

During the current year, a package of laws will be adopted, envisaged in the speech of the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin, connected with the decisive deoffshorization of the Russian economy. The purpose of the laws, as is known, is to take the business out of offshore and, among other things, replenish the state treasury.

The state gained the necessary set of procedures, methods and regulatory approaches to correcting previously existing legislative deficiencies and various kinds of abuses generated by them in their experience in fighting offshore companies. The matter remains for small - to extend this experience to the sphere of financing the technological breakthrough. Moreover, do it in such a way as not to get into the treasury, not to use additional funds from the state budget.

Given the trend of charity that has spread widely among billionaires and millionaires in the world, it seems that you can find very serious and influential, extremely wealthy people who would find it difficult for their colleagues to refuse to request a Russian charitable technology foundation. At the same time, the key point should be that everyone who received super profits on privatization and on work with the state should contribute funds to this fund. Moreover, it is probably not the state that should manage this fund, but some other structures. A similar experience can be seen in America in the era of the creation of universities.

Of course, the issues of taxation of companies of the third technological wave, working within the framework of the Third Industrial Revolution, including “closing” technologies, are important. In principle, with some modifications, the Skolkovo regime may well be suitable for these purposes. In this case, the projects will undoubtedly serve the good of Russia.

If you wish, you can also find a considerable number of quite legitimate, strictly corresponding generally accepted world practice principles and methods of financing the “Russian miracle of the 21st century”.
Author:
Originator:
http://zavtra.ru/
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  1. Oleg_Merser
    Oleg_Merser 10 February 2014 10: 02
    -14%
    some nonsense)) didn’t even read to the end
    1. Vovka levka
      Vovka levka 10 February 2014 15: 34
      +12
      Quote: Oleg_Merser
      some nonsense)) didn’t even read to the end

      A mixture of a bulldog with a rhino.
      In a country where the cost of mining is very, very small compared to sales, it is very difficult to make a technical revolution. As a rule, laziness wins.
      Why should the powers that be soar their brains if everything is so cool?
      The technical revolution cannot appear from scratch; prerequisites and conditions are needed. And the best condition is a vital necessity.
      1. mirag2
        mirag2 10 February 2014 15: 46
        +1
        The film mentioned in the material.
        Offhand, there you can see with subtitles)
        DEFA Studio 1959-1963, directors Annele and Andre Thorndike
      2. S_mirnov
        S_mirnov 10 February 2014 15: 53
        +16
        “Given the widespread trend of charity among billionaires and millionaires around the world, it seems that one can find very serious and influential, extremely wealthy people who would be difficult for their colleagues to refuse to create a Russian charity technology fund. that the funds in this fund should be contributed by everyone who received super profits from privatization and working with the state. Moreover, the state should probably not manage this fund, "
        fool
        Our billionaires are a privatized criminal product! By and large, the results of privatization - the essence of the robbery of the Soviet people, national property! Instead of returning the loot and spending superprofits on the needs of the country, the author suggests begging alms from the oligarchs!

        Who are they - domestic patron oligarchs? laughing
        “In the SUMMER of 1995, B. Berezovsky appeared in B. Yeltsin’s office. He painted the master of the Kremlin a depressing picture: there was less than a year left before the presidential elections, and there was no money to win them. A month and a half later, a decree was issued on the creation of Sibneft.” The new company Noyabrskneftegaz, Omsk Oil Refinery, Omsknefteprodukt, etc. “unsubscribed”. The process of creating the company, as they say, cost the initiators 50 cars - from “Lada” to American jeeps.
        51% of the shares of the new company remained with the state, but not for long. In December, he was put up for mortgage auction. Victory was ensured by the same Berezovsky. Specially for the auction, he and Abramovich registered more than a dozen firms. Among others - CJSC Oil Financial Company, which won at the auction. This company did not have a single employee who would be paid a salary, and did not conduct any activity. Nevertheless, in exchange for shares, she issued a loan of $ 100 million to the government. Where does the money come from? In debt - from the SBS-Agro bank. By the way, if you look, these 100 million belonged to the same state: there was no treasury then, and budget money was stored in authorized banks, including SBS-Agro. Just in time for the auction, the 1st Deputy Minister of Finance A. Vavilov placed $ 137,1 million in budget funds at SBS-Agro. Time passed, there was no money to buy back the pledged stake from the state, and Sibneft went into private hands.
        In 1997, the Audit Chamber revealed that the state lost $ 2,7 billion in this “privatization”. In other words, Sibneft got 25 percent cheaper for new owners than it cost. So what? Never mind. Sibneft is still working, capturing new oil pieces. And something unlike hard times awaiting her.
        Abramovich bought a stake in the Moscow Oil Refinery and a network of gas stations in the capital and the region. The last major deal of Sibneft was the acquisition in 2002 for 1,86 billion dollars of 74,95% of the shares of the Russian-Belarusian company Slavneft. The Bratsk Mozyr oil refinery opened the gates to Europe for Abramovich's oil products: his Omsk refinery was still unsuccessfully located for export. "
      3. Setrac
        Setrac 10 February 2014 21: 35
        +1
        Quote: Vovka Levka
        In a country where the cost of mining is very, very small compared to sales, it is very difficult to make a technical revolution. As a rule, laziness wins.

        At the same time, Russia has the highest cost of oil in the world.
        1. Vovka levka
          Vovka levka 10 February 2014 21: 45
          +3
          Quote: Setrac

          At the same time, Russia has the highest cost of oil in the world.

          No, the highest cost of shale oil production in America.
          1. Setrac
            Setrac 10 February 2014 21: 50
            +4
            Quote: Vovka Levka
            No, the highest cost of shale oil production in America.

            This oil is not available on foreign markets, the United States produces from the principle of spite of Russia
            "to spite my mother's ears frostbitten", damn it like children.
            1. Vovka levka
              Vovka levka 10 February 2014 22: 03
              0
              Quote: Setrac

              This oil is not available on foreign markets, the United States produces from the principle of spite of Russia
              "to spite my mother's ears frostbitten", damn it like children.

              Time will tell how it’s not a joke on me.
              1. Setrac
                Setrac 10 February 2014 23: 34
                +1
                Quote: Vovka Levka
                Time will tell how it’s not a joke on me.

                It WILL NOT be a joke when the price per barrel is for $ 300, there are similar technologies in Russia, but so far they are not in demand.
                1. Vovka levka
                  Vovka levka 10 February 2014 23: 51
                  +1
                  Quote: Setrac

                  This WILL NOT be a joke when the price per barrel is for $ 300.

                  Of course it will, only the dollar will not be the same. This is called inflation.
                  1. Setrac
                    Setrac 11 February 2014 11: 22
                    0
                    Quote: Vovka Levka
                    Of course it will, only the dollar will not be the same. This is called inflation.

                    Excuses to sculpt - great skill.
    2. major071
      major071 10 February 2014 16: 14
      +23
      Phew! Finally I mastered the article. request I'm going to make sense now request if I don’t come back, consider me an economist! Here! laughing
      1. aviamed90
        aviamed90 10 February 2014 16: 38
        +7
        The author "smashed all the brains into parts, braided all the convolutions"!

        Is the author not trained in the great Russian language?

        Or do we simply have to know what a "fab lab" or "cloud industry" is, "and if someone" does not know - "let him go ..."?

        Such ambitious articles are simply amazing. For which audience are they written?

        And to begin with, the followers of this nonsense did not try to build an ordinary plant (for example, in the field of IT technologies or simply for the production of cast iron), effectively manage it, launch and develop production, and make a profit? And it's not stupid to steal from your people and come up with all sorts of "3D printers" and "clouds".

        If gentlemen science fiction writers do not know how to properly manage what is now, then what are all their rants and theories about the "industrial revolution" worth?
        1. And Us Rat
          And Us Rat 11 February 2014 04: 18
          +1
          Quote: aviamed90
          Such ambitious articles are simply amazing. For which audience are they written?

          Possessing average intelligence and broad-mindedness, but I agree that for a graduate of a vocational school who abuses alcohol and spends most of his free time burying himself in football on television - such an article is useless, his brain is not intended for such loads. hi
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. Polovec
        Polovec 11 February 2014 00: 15
        0
        I read and cried! Did the guy get to the right site?
    3. voliador
      voliador 10 February 2014 18: 52
      0
      And you, Mr. Icelander, do not. This is not for those who have fallen from the country.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Polovec
        Polovec 11 February 2014 00: 16
        0
        A check mark does not mean that he has fallen out of the country. He’s just in this country now.
    4. stillrat
      stillrat 10 February 2014 22: 47
      -2
      But in vain the guy said everything correctly. In general
    5. The comment was deleted.
    6. Polovec
      Polovec 11 February 2014 00: 12
      +3
      In my opinion, Akunin wrote. He wrote and admired himself. In fact, some nonsense. Continuous contradictions. The conclusions do not come from evidence and arguments, but from the author’s dreams. Clinic.
      1. And Us Rat
        And Us Rat 11 February 2014 04: 22
        +2
        Quote: Polovec
        In my opinion, Akunin wrote. He wrote and admired himself. In fact, some nonsense. Continuous contradictions. The conclusions do not come from evidence and arguments, but from the author’s dreams. Clinic.

        That's right! wassat Criticism and the blasphemy of other people's endeavors - morally free from the need for any action aimed at self-improvement. laughing
  2. AVV
    AVV 10 February 2014 12: 13
    +17
    Before carrying out the third technological revolution, a revolution in the minds is necessary !!! And the return of our best brains from behind a hill !!! Restore education in accordance with education in the USSR !!! After all, space achievements, including Buran, nuclear industry, military industry, Biotechnology relied on knowledge of Russian science and education !!!
    1. Armata
      Armata 10 February 2014 15: 17
      +17
      Quote: AVV
      Before carrying out the third technological revolution, a revolution in the minds is necessary !!! And the return of our best brains from beyond the hill !!! To restore education in accordance with education in the USSR !!!
      Believe me, now there are a lot of young minds in the country. They just need a good push, motivation. And here about motivation. If there are mastadons in power who are not profitable to move the young, but it will be nicer to rest on their laurels, nothing will be. Therefore, young people are not interested in pushing new things; it is easier for them to sit as traders and to lose potential, it is more useful for nerves.
      1. varov14
        varov14 10 February 2014 19: 28
        +1
        "A practical approach to the implementation of the Third Industrial Revolution requires first of all to put an end to the" chaos in the heads. " will we ?. I especially liked about the northern territories. How many people are needed to develop these territories, it seems, no more than 15 mln. we are released, and where else? Isn't it better to drive money into the latest technologies where you live, and whether there will be oil and gas in Western Europe somehow according to FIG. Let them give money, we will master it in the north with a population of 15 million, and you have to spend your own money wisely where you live and join new technologies in places of residence. The trouble is that our heads are in complete ruin.
      2. alone
        alone 10 February 2014 21: 50
        +2
        Quote: Mechanic
        Believe me, now there are a lot of young minds in the country. They just need a good push, motivation. And here about motivation.

        hi Well, yesterday we calculated the motivation for young minds. Someone told me that there are 50 of them. If you give everyone 000 million rubles (pres. bonus), then you get 2,5 billion years
        The amount is certainly large, but the money invested in science quickly returns with a profit.
    2. vo.dum
      vo.dum 10 February 2014 16: 52
      0
      That's it — they want a third technical revolution — teaching people not knowledge but working skills — that is, such a robot is still cheaper — the very inside of the country, and the principles of life in the country need to be changed — and this is even with the technical revolution — delaying the end ... and a step towards the theory of the so-called golden billion ... some of our leaders consider themselves to be the same to this billion, I don’t ... and what should everyone die? Change everything like that ... but how?
    3. Luzhichanin
      Luzhichanin 10 February 2014 20: 18
      0
      Quote: AVV
      Before carrying out the third technological revolution, a revolution in the minds is needed !!! And the return of our best brains from beyond the hill !!! Restore education in accordance with education in the USSR!

      What are you about??? Read the article carefully: it clearly says the fuck all of the above you will no longer need !!!
      The project for the moronization and reduction of humanity is entering its final stage, when almost all of the "gods" will be made by machines, and most of the slaves must be reduced so that they do not breed and interfere.
    4. i.xxx-1971
      i.xxx-1971 10 February 2014 23: 14
      0
      These are not our brains, which, however, have never been ours. No need to return anything. Russia has never been weak with brains. It is necessary to help and stimulate (this is to GDP).
      1. And Us Rat
        And Us Rat 11 February 2014 04: 42
        0
        Quote: i.xxx-1971
        ... It is necessary to help and stimulate (this is to GDP).

    5. i.xxx-1971
      i.xxx-1971 10 February 2014 23: 14
      0
      These are not our brains, which, however, have never been ours. No need to return anything. Russia has never been weak with brains. It is necessary to help and stimulate (this is to GDP).
  3. ziqzaq
    ziqzaq 10 February 2014 15: 23
    +10
    A necessary and sufficient condition for the "Russian miracle" is the removal of liberals from power, only after this will development begin ...
  4. SRC P-15
    SRC P-15 10 February 2014 15: 29
    +5
    As long as Chubais is with us, "they won't catch up with us, they won't catch up with us!" wassat
    1. And Us Rat
      And Us Rat 11 February 2014 04: 50
      0
      Quote: SRC P-15
      As long as Chubais is with us, "they won't catch up with us, they won't catch up with us!" wassat

  5. calocha
    calocha 10 February 2014 15: 31
    +1
    We need to stop the destruction going in all directions !!! Urgently need to stop the experiments on Education! Return the old system! Start building factories !!! Revive vocational schools! Pay special attention to agricultural policy! Ban GMOs! Introduce censorship in the media in that including on the Internet! Prohibit abortion !! Conspiracy !! For the theft of state property in especially large, in addition to confiscation, to introduce - an exceptional measure-execution! I agree, tough. But these are the times!
  6. konvalval
    konvalval 10 February 2014 15: 58
    +1
    After the collapse of the Union, two more miracles happened: a portfolio showed a rusty bit and an iPhone showed our iPhone. Only these miracles no one else saw. Well, then they are miracles.
  7. parus2nik
    parus2nik 10 February 2014 16: 06
    +2
    In the USSR, perestroika happened at that time .. they happened ..
  8. JonnyT
    JonnyT 10 February 2014 16: 07
    +2
    Leave this text to the main optimizer Dimon, he will make the promised breakthrough on Twitter! wassat

    Everyone needs to work for a technological breakthrough, do not take bribes, and in the near future this will definitely not happen
  9. vladsolo56
    vladsolo56 10 February 2014 16: 09
    +12
    Another tale, there is only one way to implement a technological breakthrough, it is state-owned enterprises. Where does the money come from? nothing to do with the budget. All you need is the Central Bank of Russia to provide loans for new enterprises. But not so much as they are singling out now, according to capitalist, but according to socialist. What is it like? in the USSR, loans were not issued to anyone. Opened only a credit line. A project was created, passed the examination, paid by bank transfer (transfer). Further, the construction organization purchased construction materials and equipment strictly according to the project, strictly according to bank transfer, mostly by letters of credit. Who knows will understand. This system did not allow spending money on materials, equipment not included in the project. After the construction of the first stage (there could be many stages) or each of the following, the bank, according to the submitted and verified acts of the work performed, transferred money to construction organizations. And so on until the completion of construction. Any costs in excess of estimates could be made only by decision of a special commission, with the obligatory introduction of changes to the project. By the way, loan repayment began only after the enterprise reached its design capacity. Nothing complicated and do not see any problems.
  10. kind
    kind 10 February 2014 16: 13
    +2
    Is this an ad for 3D printers or something? No.
    1. Slavapom
      Slavapom 10 February 2014 17: 02
      +3
      Apparently she is the most. In general, in my opinion, with the collapse of the USSR, scientific and technological progress (STP) ceased, in the 23 of the year not a single really BREAKTHROUGH technology appeared in the world, it all comes down to the expansion (improvement) of consumption technologies (3 TVs, refrigerators with Internet access, and other nonsense).
      1. ale-x
        ale-x 11 February 2014 09: 24
        0
        Apparently this is a consequence of the fact that science works for the consumer. Money is our FSE.
  11. tank64rus
    tank64rus 10 February 2014 16: 15
    +4
    So far, the graduates of the Gaidar HSE will not break through our education and science. Not their goals, but vice versa.
  12. Alexey M
    Alexey M 10 February 2014 16: 27
    +1
    To some extent, the author of the rights BUT only to some extent. The future is not for the Internet and similar technologies and this is just everything for the convenience of the user. But the new materials are a topic. And the topic is almost endless and we have not completely lagged behind in it. Yet the energy industry is well here, we are not in competition. .
    PS A 3D printer is certainly good, but you also need to be able to work with a file.
  13. igorra
    igorra 10 February 2014 16: 32
    +3
    "There is no reason to believe that the regulatory authorities of the United States, Western Europe, Japan will treat Russian buyers worse than Chinese. To think otherwise would be just another propaganda trick and unsubstantiated judgment." Where do the authors live ?, Sberbank was going to buy an "Opel", then tell a fairy tale about a white bull?
    1. Dilshat
      Dilshat 10 February 2014 22: 28
      +1
      It says that a girl should marry a military man when he leaves the school as a junior lieutenant. And when he is a general, it is too late and he does not want to.
      Snotty kiss on time.
  14. Gorinich
    Gorinich 10 February 2014 16: 45
    +1
    A good article, you can disagree with some postulates, but the outline of directions and problems is disclosed. If it were not for the chronic lack of money, then the 3D printer would have persuaded a long time ago to buy its own bosses. This is a mini workshop near at hand for the production of spare parts.
    1. Andrey57
      Andrey57 10 February 2014 18: 15
      +1
      a country with a completely destroyed economy and infrastructure, deprived of any technology and organizational culture, completely illiterate


      The article immediately begins with unscrupulous lies! In 1893, more than 85% of the population of the Russian Empire were literate!
      And the main motive of the article is that there is no need to revise anything (the results of privatization), let's forget everything about how the country was plundered, let's better unite to accomplish the Third Technological Revolution under the "wise" leadership of thieves who stole all the country's wealth in private pockets by a bunch of villains - Chubais and Co. ...
      1. vladsolo56
        vladsolo56 11 February 2014 07: 11
        0
        Quote: Andrey57
        The article immediately begins with unscrupulous lies! In 1893, more than 85% of the population of the Russian Empire were literate!

        This is a lie. but you can
        1. Setrac
          Setrac 11 February 2014 11: 29
          0
          Quote: vladsolo56
          This is a lie. but you can

          Of course, there was no XNUMX% literacy, but the percentage of literate people was higher than in many "developed" countries. THERE was not XNUMX% literacy ANYWHERE, in the same USA NOW the percentage of literate people is far from XNUMX, according to this parameter the USA is inferior to Russia in OUR TIME.
      2. alicante11
        alicante11 11 February 2014 07: 49
        0
        Excuse me, but on the basis of what data did you write this?
        1. Setrac
          Setrac 11 February 2014 11: 32
          0
          Quote: alicante11
          Excuse me, but on the basis of what data did you write this?

          This issue has already been discussed, including at the Military Review.
          1. alicante11
            alicante11 12 February 2014 03: 52
            0
            Well, it’s strange, I’ve been at VO for several years now, but I don’t remember something, at least once in the discussion of the literacy of the population of the Republic of Ingushetia, there should be 85%. Maybe make a reference to the discussion? And then you can agree so that the peasant workers under tsarism sat in coffee houses, drank tea and coffee with bagels from samovars, and in the evenings, after an 8-hour working day, in the churchyard after a moleben about the health of the Emperor they discussed news of big politics and applied philosophy.
  15. Burmistr
    Burmistr 10 February 2014 16: 49
    +2
    Quote: JonnyT
    Everyone needs to work for a technological breakthrough, do not take bribes, and in the near future this will definitely not happen


    In addition, you still need to work only for the country.
  16. Burmistr
    Burmistr 10 February 2014 16: 52
    +1
    Self-adjusting and self-learning programs, self-expanding fully automated production ... I've already seen this somewhere, maybe in the movie "The Terminator" or "Screamers". Where all this will lead is the question. I suspect that very soon humanity will lose control of the situation. You can read it between the lines.
  17. Igor39
    Igor39 10 February 2014 16: 57
    +1
    For such a breakthrough, we need an increase in the population to 200 million.
  18. Astartes
    Astartes 10 February 2014 17: 02
    +4
    As long as the physicist receives less managers, there will be no technological revolution ... alas
  19. polkovnik manuch
    polkovnik manuch 10 February 2014 17: 10
    +1
    I read it with difficulty, did not understand half of it. With whom they are going to do it, but the entire elite lives in two houses, and the one that is dearer over the hill! Doesn't anyone at the top know this? In this revolution, the state should play the first violin! And for this it is not enough to plant a couple of oligarchs, to leave a couple of loyal ones from all of their number, to warn the rest either you and Russia, or you and your relatives "for treason and undermining the defense power of the state" ... We are lagging behind in new technologies very much , it is very difficult to catch up after "effective managers", it will be even more difficult than Stalin's industrialization!
  20. ikken
    ikken 10 February 2014 17: 14
    +3
    Good article. Very useful, I also wanted to look for materials on the topic in order to be more in the know.

    As I understood the result of the TTR: there is a machine at the frontier post, with a bunker of powdered metal, armamide and glass. If it is necessary to get a sniper rifle, the "warehouse manager" selects the desired model with the required specifications from the PV library, presses the "Start" button and - voila, - after 12 hours the fighter receives the right fresh rifle from the Tula Design Bureau, adapted to his (fighter's) physiological characteristics, with sight of the required multiplicity and functionality.
    Comparable to the Futurist shock of a gunsmith from the 17th century in a typical modern gun, yes.
    1. alicante11
      alicante11 11 February 2014 08: 00
      0
      I’m afraid that such a rifle will be gold compared to the one produced in Tula at the factory. Not to mention materials, which are much more expensive, no one has yet canceled the benefits of conveyor production. The maximum that this printer will fit on the border post is to print a spare part for a machine that rarely fails and which stock is not available.
      Also, if sclerosis does not fail, there are printers that print food products, say, "meat" soy-based products. However, I do not think that these technologies will be beneficial in mass production either. Most likely, they can be used in places where the supply of conventional products is difficult. For example, in space or on a nuclear submarine during combat duty.
      1. Setrac
        Setrac 11 February 2014 11: 35
        -1
        Quote: alicante11
        The maximum that at the border post

        Printers will have their own niche - the manufacture of complex parts that cannot be machined on machines. And so, purely in energy, because the material must be melted, the costs are not comparable.
        1. alicante11
          alicante11 12 February 2014 03: 54
          0
          Well, I’m talking about that, isolated details. True, I think that the cost of programs for their production will also be very sky-high.
  21. Neophyte
    Neophyte 10 February 2014 17: 29
    +2
    The article is amazing! While we are behind, time is short, serious
    changes at all levels of our country. It is surprising that Chubais continues to work in Rosnano, the country’s funds are being pumped out, and the result is zero! Next, a huge mass of migrant workers in Russia cools our
    production structures, we are constantly hammered that we cannot
    dispense with them. Of course, why buy a sophisticated excavator if
    1000 Gast with shovels, they will dig the same foundation pit. Notice that in the article, the idea is to minimize the assembly of factories with the presence of qualified personnel, and not a bunch of uneducated people of the Middle Ages, as if we were not backward ourselves.
    1. aviamed90
      aviamed90 10 February 2014 17: 42
      +2
      Neophyte

      In order to produce excavators (to replace "1000 ghasts with shovels") there is a simple way - you need to build a machine-building plant, and not shove 3D printers where you need to and do not need.

      You cannot dig a hole to replace a leaky pipe with a printer.
      1. old rocket man
        old rocket man 10 February 2014 19: 57
        +1
        Quote: aviamed90
        you need to build an engineering plant, and not shove where you need and do not need 3D printers.


        It may be so, but there will always be either a shortage or an overproduction of excavators. The author’s idea suggests a way to create flexible, reconfigurable industries. Today you ordered an excavator, and tomorrow a bulldozer or a jeep. A bit crude, but consistent with the main idea.
      2. suomi
        suomi 10 February 2014 20: 17
        -1
        Do you actually know what an 3d printer is? It is with this printer that you can build your excavator.
        1. alicante11
          alicante11 11 February 2014 08: 21
          +2
          It may be so, but at the same time there will always be either a shortage or an overproduction of excavators. The author’s idea suggests a way to create flexible, reconfigurable industries. You ordered an excavator today, and tomorrow a bulldozer or a jeep.


          Can you imagine the laboriousness of "printing" an excavator? If I remember correctly, it took several days to print a pistol on a 3-D printer. During this time, several hundred pistols can be assembled using the usual conveyor method.
          ZD printers can take a good niche in providing the population with consumer goods. For example, in order not to buy a knife, when it grinded off, filled in ceramic powder, started the program and the printer gave you a new knife. It took several nails - metal powder, the program - nails. The wife needed a new dress - you fill up the shredded material, the printer will "draw" the dress. And so with many things that are needed in the household. But for this, such a printer must cost at least 50 thousand and have an assortment of products from a button to a pan. I think that the appearance of such models is a distant future.

          Do you actually know what an 3d printer is? It is with this printer that you can build your excavator.


          Can you imagine the size of such a "printer"? And how long will it take to "seal" the excavator?
  22. terry
    terry 10 February 2014 17: 34
    +2
    I liked the approach and like the challenges for the country.

    Nobody in the world will wait when they put toilet bowls in all the houses in Russia, connect hot water or gas. Tears about Russia's poverty are meaningless.

    We need fantastic goals that become and will be a reality. Here's an article about it.

    Maybe it should be a little easier, since a lot of information overloads.

    But, this is the business of the authors, whom I thank
    1. aviamed90
      aviamed90 10 February 2014 18: 01
      0
      terry

      A very interesting approach: "the face is in flowers, but the butt is not washed".

      Indeed, why are there toilet bowls, hot water and gas in Russia?

      Or does a Russian person not need to wash?
      Or will "old veterans" arrange us in the courtyards, public baths and wood-fired stoves?
      1. old rocket man
        old rocket man 10 February 2014 20: 03
        +1
        Quote: aviamed90
        A very interesting approach: "the face is in flowers, but the butt is not washed".

        Indeed, why are there toilet bowls, hot water and gas in Russia?


        No need to juggleterrididn't say that.
        He wanted to say that there is no need to wait for everyone to have "toilets", and then only start a technical revolution.
        If Stalin waited with industrialization, we would not argue with you now, we would simply not be there. hi
        1. terry
          terry 11 February 2014 03: 10
          +1
          Old rocket player.

          All right.
          There is a challenge of time and there are priorities.
          There is never enough money for everything.
          At the same time, no one has canceled the task of providing the population with toilet bowls, hot water and gas.
    2. Slavapom
      Slavapom 10 February 2014 19: 27
      +2
      This is not a new challenge, this is a new round in the development of a consumer society, in which all people are fired, because the processes will be robotic, and all these robotic complexes will drive consumer goods, for fun in the womb.
      In my understanding, CHALLENGES for the COUNTRY and Humanity are a global access to SPACE, and not the current hanging in orbit.
      There is such a science fiction writer V. Denisov in one of his books, he very accurately remarked with the words of his hero that while there was a POWER in the person of the USSR, humanity had a chance to break out to the stars, create something really GREAT, the USA in this regard is like weights on their feet, and they themselves will not fly into space, and others will not be given.
      1. Igarr
        Igarr 11 February 2014 10: 39
        +3
        Hi, brothers.
        Igor, Vyacheslav ... I fully support.
        ..
        Article chic and shine. You can read ... these are some fablaby, cloud technology, Big Data, the rest are foreign words. Although all these concepts can be easily compared with Russian terms (even if of foreign origin).
        To understand the article, there is no need to have two higher ones or there, an unfinished church parish.
        It is clear right away - the spirit does not need extra people. These are those that can swing a sledgehammer. Go down into the face. For hours, screw-unscrew the drill rods in the cold and wind. Which in a storm on the deck, fish are washed into bunkers. and then del (network) is repaired.
        Looking for - highbrow "cucumbers" Which masterly knock on the keyboard. Like me, for example, at this moment. It's a pity only the forehead is narrow and the brows protrude, and the fingers are pressed with pliers.
        In order for all this machinery to start working, one must begin with something.
        Well, get energy. Well, to get raw materials for the conversion - ore there, gas, oil.
        We need to collect all this in some place adapted for the remodeling process - and not just get carried away with LOGISTICS.
        In short, while your 3D printer makes at least a screw, and even better - a washer - seven pots will come off.
        But besides ... I also want to eat.
        Who will procure food? 3D printer? Well then, the flag in your hands, eat pies made of expanded clay powder.
        ...
        Material wealth is created by those who can work with their hands.
        And articles like this one are written by those who work as hacks. But I want to eat.
        1. Setrac
          Setrac 11 February 2014 11: 39
          +1
          Quote: Igarr
          It is clear right away - the spirit does not need extra people.

          And those who should remain 15 million to service the mining industry.
  23. Yuri Sev Caucasus
    Yuri Sev Caucasus 10 February 2014 18: 43
    +1
    A tricky article, but I want to note the right one. Russia needs a breakthrough and it’s not so important how to make it !!! Using 3D printers or something else !!! What is the advantage of 3D printing in the same drilling and oil production? Yes, that you can keep such a workshop on hand! and do not wait for s / n from the mainland do not waste time on idle time! This is an example applicable everywhere! Construction, auto and aircraft manufacturing, etc.
  24. voliador
    voliador 10 February 2014 18: 55
    0
    As long as the situation in the country, as described by Karamzin ("stealing"), persists, any undertaking will stall. Briber or embezzler - on the birch! Then things will start.
  25. generalissimo
    generalissimo 10 February 2014 19: 36
    0
    This is scrupulously noted: there is a whole range of relevant training courses, practical platforms, methods of obtaining not so much knowledge as skills. Craftsmen we have at the moment even a dime a dozen! Why the hell do you need an engineer who has received a decent and basic and engineering education! Effective managers (damn well educated in the underground passages of the Moscow metro, diplomas for every taste and wallet) invented so many machine-gun courses (well, remember, after the revolution, there was a place that was necessary and justified at that time) right now on these courses, the so-called, RESPONSIBLE, for everything from at least gas or electrical facilities to admission to control a broom, if there is a piece of paper about the end of which within a week, a man who has absolutely no idea of ​​production can be appointed to an engineering position! And as soon as he buys the corresponding diploma, he will be included in the noble cohort of "EFFECTIVE MANAGERS!" What kind of industrial revolution can we talk about when, for example, in one of the technical divisions of Gazprom, mechanical engineers with Soviet education and with an experience of 30-40 years work as locksmiths of 3-4 categories, and then they got a job by great pull! And the director of the VETERINAR branch! His brother and deputy geography teacher at a rural school and all his relatives, from cattlemen to rural machine operators, are the largest specialists in the repair of industrial gas equipment! With the appropriate payment! By virtue of your "technical literacy" you can imagine the level of mechanization of labor organization and the quality of repairs! A crowbar, a sledgehammer, three locksmiths harnessed to a sleigh! Song and not production! And this is "Gazprom", what is being done at other less advanced enterprises, it’s terrible even to imagine!
    And the author writes: Already in the initial stages of the Third Industrial Revolution, several defining features can be distinguished:
    - first, the simultaneous widespread production use of various independent clusters of technologies. First of all, robotics, 3D printing, new materials with engineered properties, biotechnology, new information technologies and, of course, diversification of the energy potential of production and society;
    - secondly, the ever-increasing interaction between individual technological clusters, their peculiar “sticking together”, mutual commutative and resonant effects of each other on each other;
    - thirdly, the emergence at the borders of technological clusters of fundamentally new technologies that did not exist before and families of technologies in which clusters interact with each other. Where does he live? Jules Verne Russian! Come from the same litter with the nano-digital iPhone!
    1. old rocket man
      old rocket man 10 February 2014 20: 14
      -1
      Quote: generalissimo
      mechanical engineers with Soviet education and with experience of 30-40 years work as locksmiths 3-4


      I dare to assume that you are one of those "offended". A good mechanical engineer will not earn his living with a sledgehammer. It's all from laziness of mind and unwillingness to tear his ass away from his home.
      An experience of forty years involves retirement age, maybe this is the case?
      1. Armata
        Armata 10 February 2014 21: 09
        +3
        Quote: Old Rocketman
        A good mechanical engineer will not make a living with a sledgehammer.
        Well, apparently I'm a bad mechanical engineer. The sledgehammer has to be picked up periodically, dressed in overalls and climb into equipment. What do you think a candidate degree mechanic must be a felon?
        1. old rocket man
          old rocket man 10 February 2014 22: 56
          0
          Quote: Mechanic
          What do you think a candidate degree mechanic must be a felon?

          Not at all, I myself often got up the machine and workbench, but the main work of the engineer was not at the workbench, but with my head.
          It’s not necessary to grab only a part of the text, delve into the meaning. hi
      2. generalissimo
        generalissimo 10 February 2014 21: 51
        +4
        To some extent, you are right, the age of our group is really retirement, and despite the fact that not a simple experience has been worked out, but a northern one, it does not allow adequate rest from the labors of the righteous! As for the asses, you are also wrong, we work far from families in N. Urengoy. But in what you are really right, the offense takes place and mainly for the power! Change of generations should take place and we would be able to teach how to work, share everything that we know and can do! But how to teach people who do not have elementary knowledge, even in the volume of secondary school, and on their hands a bunch of papers of "admissions" on the completion of weekly courses, some even with the formation of the Moscow Underground Transitional University! And they are exchanged for us by order! And we, in order to maintain a more or less decent standard of living of families, do not disdain and wave a sledgehammer! It is a pity that there is a degradation of production, because now we are performing worse in all respects than it was in the late 70s and early 80s! I will not cry the same way about how the so-called "reforms" made us northerners beggars. When a respected old rocket scientist comes to replace you with a kind of "gentleman", you will try to get him to: how to calculate the complex volume, or what differential equation somewhere it will be drawn, something from heat engineering, or what you have there in the rocket business, what kind of oxidizer, and he to you: "Old! I 2 * 2 =? I only know on the calculator! You better go with a sledgehammer to straighten a racket, while I instruct here!" Then you will understand me. I would be very happy for you if your pension would be enough for your life and you would be guaranteed by this from meetings with such "gentlemen"
        1. old rocket man
          old rocket man 10 February 2014 23: 05
          +2
          Quote: generalissimo
          you would be guaranteed against meetings with such "gentlemen"


          I understand. Alas, I met such and not a few.
          He retired in the 90th year, went to the master plant, deputy production manager, chief dispatcher, production manager for the 22nd year plowed, as in the army, neither sick days, nor days off, went to bed at 67, bring up grandchildren (so as not to spoil the school ), total experience 52 calendar drinks hi
          1. generalissimo
            generalissimo 10 February 2014 23: 55
            +2
            So what am I talking about, because Stalin or, as the article calls it, the second production revolution began with what? With training, with educational programs, rabfak! The experience of engineers remaining in the USSR from tsarist Russia was appreciated, they studied and production was built on this basis. It is thanks to the competent approach of I.V. Stalin accepted the country in ruin with a plow, and surrendered the Great Industrial Power with an atomic bomb, and astronautics originated under Stalin! What is happening now with the training of personnel does not fit into any gate; out of hundreds of graduates, at best, a dozen are at least suitable for something, and what is especially remarkable, just those that are worthless are breaking through to the top. All this is very sad.
            1. old rocket man
              old rocket man 11 February 2014 00: 01
              0
              Quote: generalissimo
              What is happening now with the training of personnel does not fit into any gate; out of hundreds of graduates, at best, a dozen are at least suitable for something, and what is especially remarkable, just those that are worthless are breaking through to the top. All this is very sad.


              That's right, unfortunately. But there are very smart guys, and not so few.
  26. Victor 1980/XNUMX/XNUMX
    Victor 1980/XNUMX/XNUMX 10 February 2014 21: 42
    0
    http://втораяиндустриализация.рф
  27. Nayhas
    Nayhas 10 February 2014 21: 47
    0
    I somewhat disagree with the authors about the reasons for the transfer of production to China.
    According to experts, fundamentally many elements of automation and robotization could be introduced into industrial production as far back as 80-90. However, in those days it turned out to be economically more profitable to use, instead of robots, practically free labor of workers from China and other Asian countries.

    Oddly enough, the main obstacle to the automation and robotization of industry was the trade unions. The "robots" were declared the main enemies of the proletariat, they were cutting jobs. It turned out to be cheaper for company owners not to negotiate endlessly with union leaders, but to close the plant and move production to China. Thanks to this, the United States prepared itself for the third industrial revolution. Now, when China's resource in cheap labor is exhausted, production can be moved back, and without looking back at the trade unions, start up modern automated production. That is why only 500 thousand jobs were created, and not 6 million thanks to the automation of production.
    In this regard, the authors are right, Russia with its extinct proletariat is suitable for a "breakthrough", but ... In a state of thieves, there can be no breakthroughs, thieves are not able to create. Like any parasitic organism, it only sucks out juices, poisoning the body in return.
  28. grotto
    grotto 10 February 2014 21: 50
    0
    Interesting article. It is good that there is an understanding of the direction of movement in development. There is evidence (TV reports) that there are sprouts of movement in this direction. It is disturbing that, again, it is necessary to chase. Are we far behind?
  29. ia-ai00
    ia-ai00 10 February 2014 21: 58
    0
    ... some kind of "SHADOW on WEATHER", it's hard to digest right away!
  30. Amateur
    Amateur 10 February 2014 22: 22
    +1
    Interesting article. At least, more or less lucidly told about the essence, ways of implementation and prospects of the "third production revolution". I think that "advanced" minds in Russia are also doing this, because these tendencies, which take place in the civilized world, cannot be unnoticed and ignored by the intellectuals of our country. The task of the authorities is to create organizational, financial, material and other conditions for the realization of all this "fantasy". Otherwise, we will again be forever catching up or hopelessly lagging behind. And I agree with the authors of the article - now is the time.
  31. CHILD
    CHILD 10 February 2014 22: 41
    0
    some kind of ambiguous feeling after reading, everything seems to be right ... but there is no agreement)))) it seems to me that there is still not enough technology for a breakthrough, and it is unlikely that these technologies will be so technologically available for most .... and even we definitely won’t be given anything good)))) but the fact that production facilities need to be revived absolutely precisely, but I’m afraid that without political will there’s nothing to come of, how did everything mix up in modern society))))
  32. disa
    disa 10 February 2014 23: 01
    0
    They started in health, ended for the repose ... this is a strange "miracle in the feathers of the XXI century" - If you wish, you can and most importantly find in Russia a considerable number of quite legitimate principles and methods of financing that are strictly consistent with generally accepted world practice.
  33. Sergey S.
    Sergey S. 11 February 2014 00: 35
    0
    Quote: Vovka Levka

    In a country where the cost of mining is very, very small compared to sales, it is very difficult to make a technical revolution. As a rule, laziness wins.
    Why should the powers that be soar their brains if everything is so cool?
    The technical revolution cannot appear from scratch; prerequisites and conditions are needed. And the best condition is a vital necessity.


    This is certainly not about Russia.
  34. Sergey S.
    Sergey S. 11 February 2014 00: 39
    0
    Quote: AVV
    Before carrying out the third technological revolution, a revolution in the minds is necessary !!! And the return of our best brains from behind a hill !!! Restore education in accordance with education in the USSR !!! After all, space achievements, including Buran, nuclear industry, military industry, Biotechnology relied on knowledge of Russian science and education !!!

    Everything would be fine, but why return the runners for the bucks?
    To increase the cost of our development?
  35. Sergey S.
    Sergey S. 11 February 2014 00: 43
    -1
    Quote: suomi
    Do you actually know what an 3d printer is? It is with this printer that you can build your excavator.

    Amendment.
    On a 3D printer, you can make a large-scale copy of the excavator.
    But some details of this printer (a special machine, fabulously expensive), if mastered, will make the excavator suitable only for inclusion in the number of exhibits of the Faceted Chamber.
    1. alicante11
      alicante11 11 February 2014 08: 41
      0
      Well, that's not entirely true ... Shooting pistols are made. But what will be the size of the "printer" and what will be the cost of the software to "print" all the details inside ... I think that it is easier to build an assembly line production.
      1. Setrac
        Setrac 11 February 2014 11: 41
        0
        Quote: alicante11
        Well, that’s not quite so ... shooting guns do.

        This weapon is made on a 3D printer not entirely. Some details are made in the usual way, for example, the barrel, the shutter until you do 3D.
        1. alicante11
          alicante11 12 February 2014 03: 58
          0
          If I remember correctly, there was an article on VO about a pistol completely manufactured on an 3-D printer. Although, it is quite possible that they did it in parts.
  36. Sergey S.
    Sergey S. 11 February 2014 00: 49
    -1
    Quote: aviamed90

    In order to produce excavators (to replace "1000 ghasts with shovels") there is a simple way - you need to build a machine-building plant, and not shove 3D printers where you need to and do not need.

    I totally agree.
    From myself I will add:
    And do not replicate noodles ...

    And do not let off steam on a hoot ...
  37. scientist
    scientist 11 February 2014 01: 56
    0
    I wonder if the author of the article was ever told that "brevity is the sister of talent"?
    After all, everything is quite simple. There are factors hindering the development of innovative technologies, these are:
    - the most powerful political lobby interested in stimulating the development of energy and raw materials industries
    - separation of higher education and science in universities from the core industry, research institutes and design bureaus of enterprises
    - lack of economic interest in industry in financing research and technological re-equipment. Business leaders are forced to either survive or squeeze income.
    etc.
    And there is a state that is obliged at the legislative level to create conditions to neutralize negative factors and stimulate production managers. In this case, the word stimulus should be used in its original sense: Stimulus - from lat. stimulus, a sharp metal tip on a pole that drives a buffalo (a bull harnessed to a wagon).
  38. Umnichka
    Umnichka 11 February 2014 02: 09
    0
    Started for health - finished for peace. Singapore, Malaysia, financing the revolution from charity ... And other nonsense. People are not stupid, they hardly understand. Liberasti-provocateurs-destroyers ... Western inventory specialists will come and we will be happy ... Democracy aaaa ... Ugh ...
    1. Sergey Nemov
      Sergey Nemov 28 December 2020 19: 25
      +7
      Not just a democracy, but a bourgeois-oligarchic democracy
  39. Grif
    Grif 11 February 2014 04: 41
    +1
    I’ll put my fly in the ointment. The author confuses the scientific and technological revolution (NTR) and technological structure. There were two NTRs. The first is associated with the discovery of steam energy, the second with the invention of semiconductors. The third one still does not smell. What discovered something fundamentally new? Antigravity? Now, if, say, teleportation becomes available, yes, this is a revolution. All life will change. Transport will disappear, medicine will radically change. For example, cancer cells can be teleported from the body and in general any harmful substances every time you visit the teleport, people just stop getting sick. Lose the meaning of the border, customs, etc. Naturally, chaos will be first, then it will settle down. The USSR was the leader of the 4th technological order (powerful industry). 5th way, we safely profuka. The 6th is already brewing. About that and the article.
    1. Setrac
      Setrac 11 February 2014 11: 48
      0
      Quote: Grif
      The third one still does not smell.

      There were two agricultural revolutions, which were characterized by a tenfold increase in population. The first is the transition to cattle breeding, the second is the transition to plant cultivation. There were many such "revolutions".
  40. The comment was deleted.
  41. Sergey S.
    Sergey S. 11 February 2014 18: 56
    +1
    Quote: Setrac

    Printers will have their own niche - the manufacture of complex parts that cannot be machined on machines. And so, purely in energy, because the material must be melted, the costs are not comparable.

    What are called printers here are technological toys used in exceptional cases.
    There are some uses for them in science and some defense industries.
    As a rule, for parts of (very) small size.

    Savings - due to the fact that either exact dimensions are obtained, or in the case of special accuracy and special surface requirements - minimal allowances. so that a minimum of material is removed during processing.
    But the cost of the granular calibrated material itself is too high to make excavators out of it.
    The cost of this equipment and its productivity today are such that it seems that hundreds or thousands of thousands of printer hours will be required to produce an excavator with an engine.
    You will not wish the enemy such labor productivity.

    Those who enthusiastically write about the achievement of computer technology are poorly aware of real technologies that provide fantastic precision and metalworking performance.
    Plus, the most complex surfaces are not in shape (this is primitive), but in terms of saturation with carbon, alloying elements, nitrogen, heat treatment ... these printers are not able to do it.

    Waiting for cons from virtuals.
  42. Sergey Nemov
    Sergey Nemov 28 December 2020 19: 19
    +6
    Russian miracle of the XXI century

    Where? No miracle in sight however