Thanks to the state-of-the-art arms to 2020 program of unprecedented scale for the third year in a row, the Russian military industrial complex ranks first in the world in terms of industry growth rates and second in terms of exports of weapons and military equipment. Recently published ranking of the largest manufacturers weapons The Stockholm Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) includes six domestic companies, five of which (except for KLA) have significantly improved their performance compared with the previous study. The first place in terms of export earnings was taken by the Almaz-Antey Air Defense Concern (5,51 billion dollars), it rose in the SIPRI ranking by eight lines, 14 -th place. But the “advanced” helicopter holding on the list turned out to be the most “advanced” on the list, which went up ten positions at once. In 2012, he sold military equipment to 3,52 billion dollars, rising from 35 to 25. The Ka-52 “Alligator” attack helicopters have become the most sought-after product of the company, the annual “order” for which exceeds 0,9 billion dollars. This is an absolute record in modern stories. Let's see what is the secret of the success of the new Russian rotary-winged machine.
The Ka-52 "Alligator" (according to NATO's classification Hokum B) is a further development of the famous Ka-50 "Black Shark" helicopter. The main difference between the Ka-52 and the Ka-50 is the presence of a second place for the weapon operator, which extends the functionality of the Ka-52 from a pure attack helicopter to a reconnaissance and command vehicle capable of performing reconnaissance, target designation and coordination of the actions of a group of helicopters. However, if we compare its tactical and technical characteristics with world counterparts in the armament of other countries, then the conclusion is clear that Russian development is objectively the best attack helicopter in the world. This device has a long list of unsurpassed qualities that are inaccessible even for the promising devices currently being tested for the US Army. A comparative analysis of the performance of the Ka-52 with other newest helicopters of the world gives an unequivocal answer about its superiority in the main positions, including in comparison with the best American all-weather combat helicopter AH-64D "Apache".
First of all, this is a unique maneuverability - it can even fly forward with a speed of 130 km / h, sideways - 100 km / h, perform such aerobatic maneuvers with huge overloads that NATO and US pilots did not dream of. The maximum speed of the Ka-52 - 370 km / h is also the highest rate on the planet. If you talk about all the technical advantages of our device, you will have to write a book. Perhaps, among the main “best” characteristics, it is worth noting its amazing all-weather ability - it can even fly in a hurricane with wind speeds up to 140 km / h and at the same time clearly maintain its position in the air according to the coordinates of the radar and satellite data.
In the “ball” behind the glazing of the cabin there is the optics of the Samshit survey and search system, a daytime tele system for normal and low illumination, a thermal imager, a laser range finder target designator combined with a laser spot finder for automatic tracking of the target and highlighting it when the helicopter is moving, and goals In the afternoon, in good weather, the “Box” allows you to detect and recognize a tank from distances to 15 km (the American Apach of the latest generation only on 12 km). The nose fairing was occupied by a large radar antenna "Crossbow-52", which detects a tank from a distance of 20 km, gives a map of the area and warns of obstacles. Above the hub of the screw installed a small antenna of the same station to detect air targets and other objects - it even detects enemy shells and attacking missiles.
The take-off power of the forced TVZ-117BMA F is 2500 hp, and in emergency mode if one of the two engines fails, the other produces up to 2800 hp. The new electro-hydraulic regulation system improves acceleration, stability and reliability during transient conditions and during missile launches. Implemented output from the surge and "rotating stall" of the compressor, as well as the automatic recovery mode at deafening.
Ka-52 is equipped with a new flight-aiming and navigation system "Argument-2000". It consisted of the observation and piloting system, the search and sighting system GOES-451. They can work around the clock and in the fog along with the “Crossbow-52” locator, which is part of this complex, the main antenna of which is installed in the nose section. All equipment, including the airborne defense complex, as well as three radio stations, a secret system and data transmission equipment, the BCS-50 communication complex, are integrated into a single whole with the on-board BCGM-53 on-board network with an open architecture that allows you to change the composition of combat systems, installing a new "software."
The main weapon of a combat helicopter is the anti-tank missile system - the Vortex ATGM. His 9А4172 rocket with automated laser guidance destroys a tank with armor equivalent to a 900-mm homogeneous steel plate from a distance of up to 3 km. Moreover, dynamic protection is not an obstacle for its tandem cumulative fragmentation high-explosive warhead. The Whirlwind surpasses even the similar American AGM-114A ATGM, of which the States are so proud, but the Tula gunsmiths have already created an upgraded Whirl-M attack weaponry complex with the 9X4172 family of missiles. The complex destroys a tank with 1000-mm armor for dynamic protection from a range of 400 m to 10 km with a probability of 80% with one rocket. The American DARPA similar characteristics are still laid only on paper as a promising task. Provided round-the-clock defeat not only armored vehicles, but also defensive structures of a full-time warhead or new ones - fragmentation and thermobaric. The Ka-52 helicopter can cover four targets in a series of Whirlwind missiles in 30 seconds. KUV "Vikhr-M" can fire outside the range of self-propelled missile systems "Roland", Stinger, Mistral and the Gepard artillery systems currently in service with the NATO countries.
In the arsenal of the Ka-52 introduced and guided missiles X-25ML with a heavy warhead, designed for attack aircraft. A classic of its weapons remain unguided rockets - Ka-52 has four blocks B-8V20 twenty 80-mm shells, 8, which are delivered in 15 versions with warhead cumulative-fragmentation, volume-detonation or high-explosive penetrating, and against infantry - with arrow-shaped striking elements, etc. The American AH-64 also carries four NAR units, but 19-charging units, and the missiles in them are weaker - the caliber 68 mm. In addition to light C-8 projectiles, our Ka-52 can take 10 heavy NAR C-13 caliber mm 422 or four C-24 (mm 240). The traditional weapons of Russian helicopter gunships are free-fall bombs, which is not provided for the AN-64.
The advantage of the Ka-52 Alligator armament over similar NATO helicopters is also the 2A42 gun. The American M-230 fires at a range of up to 1500 m, and the range of our gun’s battle is 4000 m, and the damaging effect of Russian shells is higher than the American M789 and M799 - at a distance of 1500 m they pierce 15 mm steel armor at an angle of 60 degrees - an unattainable indicator in the world. American gun uses special aviation shells, and the reserve types are ammunition for airguns - the English ADEN or the French DEFA, but their ballistic data is even lower.
Placing the cannon near the center of mass on the Ka-52 increases the maneuverability and speed of the machine, and the accuracy of shooting is four times higher than that of the AN-64. In addition to the 2А42, the Ka-52 can take two CPN 23-250 UPK containers with GSH-23L cannons, which are effective against lightly armored targets and anti-aircraft installations at short distances. In the Ka-52 cockpit an indicator is installed against the background of the windshield IPS-28К. With it, you can shoot not only ground, but also on maneuvering air targets. The Kamov helicopter also has air-to-air guided missiles. He carries four XLUMXM9 Igla-V missiles. This modification of a portable anti-aircraft complex with a passive homing head, tested in combat, reliably identifies the true target at the rate of traps shooting one 39 seconds per second with their radiation power exceeding the emission of the target itself.
Now the main thing is maneuverability. A normal helicopter spends on compensating the reactive moment of the supporting rotor with a steering screw up to 10-20% of engine power, and when the operating mode of the power plant changes, the pilot must adjust the thrust. The coaxial scheme does not allow such losses, and due to the higher efficiency, its energy characteristics are higher by 6-10%. This is especially important when overclocking from a hover mode, for example, when attacking from an ambush. Its aerodynamic symmetry improves stability and controllability, and the lack of aerodynamic cross-links between the longitudinal and lateral movement and the independence of the control channels simplifies piloting and makes it safer. The pilot AN-64 or Mi-28, when changing the flight mode, must parry the rebalancing of the machine with roll and glide, while the Ka-52 pilot does not distract and does not expend the thrust of the power plant. The negative impact of air flow has been reduced. A coaxial helicopter has fewer moments of inertia and more control moments, which makes it possible to perform more vigorous maneuvers using normal overload. Due to the increased power of the longitudinal control Ka-52 "freezes" at the end of the maneuver. All this allows him to do incredible “pas” in the air - something that pilots of other helicopters only dream about. Only Ka-52 can perform a specific combat maneuver - a flat turn, vigorous course change without using normal overload. The Ka-52 flies with a slide that is unacceptable in the RV scheme, and attacks a regular helicopter, simply turning its nose at it and not changing its course. It can fly steadily forward at speeds up to 130 km / h, and at speeds 230 km / h, the slip angles reach ± 90 degrees. The enemy, in order to take a position for an attack, needs to be deployed “in an airplane” way, spending more time. A flat turn "nose against the wind" allows you to safely sit at low translational speeds when the aerodynamic velocity measuring devices do not work.
The energy and independence of the control channels enable the Ka-52 to continuously fire a circuit, constantly moving around it using the funnel maneuver. He can attack suddenly, energetically bypassing the hills horizontally (“slalom” maneuver) or by bending around them vertically with the “dolphin” maneuver, which allows destroying high-speed anti-aircraft guns while in the zone of their fire. The special mode of the radar "Crossbow-52" allows you to use these techniques even at night. Less severe restrictions on angular motions allow the Ka-52 to perform vertical “oblique loop”, “somersaults”, “ascending barrel” maneuvers with heels up to 140 degrees and pitch angles 90 degrees.
The reservation protects the crew from fire 12,7-mm machine guns and high-energy fragments of shells and rockets. The fuel system is protected from fire and explosion of fuel, as well as from the emergence of hydraulic shock in the tanks during an emergency landing. The flight experiment showed that the Ka-52 is able to continue flying with complete destruction of the tail, while the AN-64 and other modern helicopters do not retain controllability when the tail rotor fails. Screen-exhaust devices that reduce, scatter and distort the thermal trace of engines help prevent the hitting of missiles with thermal homing. Means of warning about the attack by missiles, helicopter exposure by enemy radars and laser targeting systems and jamming equipment are combined into a computer-controlled on-board defense complex.
If both engines fail, autorotation remains. The aircraft in such a situation is planning a helicopter using rotor self-rotation. Aerodynamic symmetry and the absence of cross-connections in control make landing during autorotation safer in comparison with a regular helicopter. In addition, the Ka-52 crew is protected from impact. If there is time to release the chassis, then the main part of the load will be absorbed by its shock absorbers, and then the pillars, breaking, will protect the fuselage and the cockpit from heavy damage. The armored nose resists deformation, and under the seats there are special crushed blocks that quench the energy of the fall. There are also ejection seats K-37-800М. They are designed specifically for helicopters, taking into account the specifics of their application, and are fully tested in a flying laboratory. When ejecting a special device "breaks" the glazing of the cabin, and the blades of the fires are fired.
On-board systems and weapons of the Ka-52 allow you to find and hit carefully disguised, “quiet” non-radiating objects, and this is extremely important during the period when the stealth technology is actively deployed on navy and in the ground forces. The ability to act against land, sea and air targets makes the Ka-52 indispensable in the offensive, and in defense, and in peacekeeping operations, and in the fight against gangs of militants.
The order for Ka-52 helicopters for the Ministry of Defense of Russia is 240 units. In 2012, the 21 helicopter was manufactured, in the 2013, the RF Ministry of Defense received another 24, in the 2014, according to the plan, it will be 28. About a hundred cars are going to adopt the Navy for fire support of amphibious assault forces, escorting deck transport helicopters, destruction of small and medium displacement ships.