Military Review

The humble genius Dmitri Mendeleev


What famous Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev? Immediately I recall the periodic law discovered by him, which formed the basis of the periodic system of chemical elements. Still can come to mind his "Discourses on the combination of alcohol with water," which initiated the myth of the invention of the scientists of Russian vodka. However, this is only a small part of the creator’s genius heritage. It is difficult to even imagine all the scientific, philosophical and journalistic activities of this person. The famous Russian chemist Lev Chugayev wrote: “Mendeleev was an unsurpassed chemist, a first-class physicist, a fruitful researcher in the field of meteorology, hydrodynamics, geology, chemical technology departments, a profound expert in Russian industry, an original thinker in the national economy, the state mind that was not destined unfortunately, to become a state man, but who understood the tasks and saw the future of Russia is much better than the representatives of the official government. ” Along with Albert Einstein, many call Mendeleev the greatest scientist of all time. What, in fact, was Dmitry Ivanovich?
Everyone who knew the legendary chemist, noted his amazing, extraordinary appearance: “Long shoulder-length silver-fluffy hair, like a lion's mane, high forehead, big beard, - all together made Mendeleev’s head very expressive and beautiful. Concentrated eyebrows, a penetrating gaze of clear and clear blue eyes, a tall, broad-shouldered, slightly stooped figure gave the appearance of features of expressiveness and uniqueness comparable to the mythical heroes of the past years.

Dmitry Mendeleev 8 was born on February 1834 of the year in the ancient city of Tobolsk in the family of Ivan Pavlovich Mendeleev and Maria Dmitrievna Kornilyeva. He was the seventeenth, last child. The mother of the future scientist came from a family of notable merchants who founded the first Tobolsk printing house in 1789. His father graduated from the Petersburg Pedagogical Institute and worked as a director of a local classical gymnasium. In the year of Dmitry's birth, his father's vision deteriorated sharply, he had to leave the service, and all the worries fell on Maria Dmitrievna, who after moving the whole family to the village of Aremzyanskoe, assumed the role of managing the glass factory that produced the dishes for the pharmacists.

In 1841, Dmitry entered the gymnasium. Surprisingly, the future of the star studied quite badly. Of all the subjects he liked only physics and mathematics. Aversion to classical learning remained with Mendeleev for life. In 1847, Ivan Pavlovich died, and his mother and children moved to Moscow. Despite persistent attempts, the young Dmitri Ivanovich was not allowed to enter Moscow University. Graduates of the gymnasium, according to the rules of those years, were allowed to go to universities only in their own districts, and the Tobolsk gymnasium belonged to the Kazan district. Only after three years of trouble, Mendeleev managed to get into the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of the Main Pedagogical Institute in St. Petersburg.

The situation of this closed educational institution, due to the small number of students and the extremely caring attitude towards them, as well as their close relationship with professors, provided ample opportunities for the development of individual inclinations. Here the best scientific minds of that time, outstanding teachers who knew how to plant a deep interest in science into the souls of their students, taught. Mikhail Ostrogradsky taught mathematics to Mendeleev, Emily Lenz taught physics, Fedor Brandt taught zoology, and Alexander Voskresensky taught chemistry. Dmitry Ivanovich loved chemistry the most at the institute. It is also worth noting that after the first year of study, the future scientist showed health problems, in particular, he had regular blood on his throat. Doctors diagnosed the disease as an open form of tuberculosis and announced to the young man that his days were numbered. However, all this did not prevent Mendeleev from completing the Department of Natural Sciences with a gold medal in 1855.

After graduating from the institute, Dmitry Ivanovich went to places with a milder climate. For some time he worked in the Crimea, then in Odessa, and after defending his master’s thesis he returned to the Northern capital at St. Petersburg University. On the recommendation of the "grandfather of Russian chemistry" Alexander Resurrection Mendeleev in 1859, he went on a trip abroad. During her, he traveled to Italy and France. Having visited Germany, he decided to live in this country for a while. He chose the city of Heidelberg, where famous chemists worked, and at the same time there was a large Russian colony.

Dmitry Ivanovich’s short work at a new place showed that the famous Bunsen laboratory did not have the instruments he needed, the scales were “far too poor”, and “all the interests of scientists are, alas, most school.” Mendeleev, independently purchasing all the necessary equipment in Germany and France, organized his own home laboratory. In it, he investigated the capillarity, discovered the temperature of absolute boiling (critical temperature), proved that the vapor heated to absolute boiling temperature cannot be turned into a liquid by any increase in pressure. Also in Heidelberg, Dmitry Ivanovich had an affair with local actress Agnes Voigtman, as a result of which the German woman became pregnant. Subsequently, the scientist sent money to her born daughter until she grew up and married.

At 1861, Dmitry Ivanovich returned to his native Petersburg University, got a job at the Department of Organic Chemistry, and wrote the famous textbook book, Organic Chemistry. In 1862, Mendeleev marries Feozwe Nikitichna Leshcheva. It is known that for a long time his elder sister Olga bent on his marriage. At the same time, the second edition of "Organic Chemistry" was published, and its twenty-eight-year-old author received the "Demidov Prize" in 1000 rubles, for which he went on a honeymoon trip to Europe. In 1865, the scientist defended his doctoral dissertation on the topic of combining alcohol with water, setting out his own theory of solutions. His measurements formed the basis of alcoholmetry in Russia, Germany, Holland and Austria.
Soon after the birth of his son Vladimir (in the future graduate of the Marine Corps), Dmitry Ivanovich acquired a small estate, Boblovo, near Klin. His whole life, starting with 1866, was inextricably linked with this place. He and his family went there in early spring and returned to St. Petersburg only in late autumn. The scientist respected and loved physical labor, in Boblov Mendeleev had an exemplary cattle yard with breeding cattle, a stable, a dairy, a thresher, and an experimental field on which the scientist conducted experiments with various fertilizers.

After defending his doctoral thesis, Mendeleev headed the department of general chemistry at St. Petersburg University. He intensively conducted experiments, wrote the popular work "Fundamentals of Chemistry", spoke with absolutely amazing lectures that were always collected by full audiences. Dmitry Ivanovich's speech was not easy and smooth. He always started sluggishly, often hesitated, picking up the right words, made pauses. His thoughts overtook the pace of speech, which made it a bunch of phrases that were not always grammatically correct. Historian Vasily Cheshikhin recalled: "He said that a bear was walking through a bush." The scientist himself said: “They burst into my audience not for the sake of beautiful words, but for the sake of thoughts.” His words have always sounded passion, conviction, confidence, rigorous argumentation - with facts, logic, calculations, experiences, results of analytical work. According to the richness of the content, depth and pressure of thought, the ability to capture and captivate the audience (there was a saying that Mendeleev’s lectures even sweat the walls), according to the ability to inspire, convince listeners, turn them into like-minded people; that the brilliant scientist was a brilliant, albeit somewhat peculiar speaker. An impressive and energetic gesticulation, as well as the timbre of the voice - a sonorous, pleasant to the ear baritone attracted attention.

In the 1869 year, at the age of thirty-five, at the meeting of the recently formed Russian Chemical Society, Mendeleev introduced his chemical colleagues to his new article, The Experience of a System of Elements Based on Their Atomic Weight and Chemical Similarity. After its further development, the famous article “The law for chemical elements” appeared in 1871 - in it, Dmitry Ivanovich presented the periodic system, in fact, in its modern form. In addition, he predicted the discovery of new elements for which he left empty spaces in the table. Understanding the periodic dependence gave Mendeleev the opportunity to correct the atomic weights of the eleven elements. The scientist not only predicted the presence of a number of not yet open elements, but also presented a detailed description of the properties of three of them, which, in his opinion, will be discovered before the others. Mendeleev's article was translated into German, and its prints were sent to many famous European chemists. Alas, the Russian scientist, not only did not wait for them from a competent opinion, but even an elementary answer. None of them appreciated the importance of the perfect discovery. Attitudes toward the periodic law changed only in the 1875 year, when Lecoq de Buabodran discovered gallium, which by its properties was strikingly similar to one of the elements predicted by Mendeleev. And the Basics of Chemistry written by him (which included, among other things, the periodic law) turned out to be a monumental work, in which for the first time a vast amount of factual material accumulated in various branches of chemistry was presented in the form of a coherent scientific system.

Mendeleev was a staunch enemy of everything mystical and could not help but respond to his passion for spiritualism, which had mastered a part of Russian society in the seventies of the 19 century. Such foreign news as the call of spirits and the “table twirling” with the participation of various kinds of mediums were widely spread in Russia, and the opinion was that spiritualism was “the bridge between the knowledge of physical phenomena and the comprehension of the psychic”. At the suggestion of Dmitry Ivanovich, in 1875, the Russian Physical and Chemical Society organized a commission to study “mediumistic” phenomena. The most well-known foreign mediums (the Petty brothers, Mrs. Claire, and some others) were invited to visit Russia with the aim of holding their sessions in the presence of commission members, as well as supporters of the existence of the possibility of invoking spirits.

The most elementary precautions taken by members of the commission at seances dispelled the atmosphere of mystery, and the special manometric table designed by Mendeleev, defining pressure on him, led to the fact that the “spirits” flatly refused to communicate. The verdict of the commission at the end of the work said: “Spiritistic phenomena stem from conscious deception or unconscious movements, and the spiritualistic doctrine is a superstition ...”. Mendeleev himself wrote the following lines on this: “I decided to fight against spiritualism, after Butlerov and Wagner began to preach this superstition ... But professors should act against the authority of the professorship. The result was achieved: abandoned spiritualism. I do not regret that I was busy a lot. ”

After the publication of "Fundamentals" chemistry in the life of a great scientist fades into the background, and his interests are shifted to other areas. In those years, the only petroleum product valued was kerosene, used only for lighting. Mendeleev concentrates all his attention on oil. Back in 1863, Dmitry Ivanovich analyzed Baku oil and gave valuable advice on its processing and transportation. In his opinion, the reduction of transport costs could bring the transportation of kerosene and oil by water in bulk vessels and pumping them through pipelines. In 1876, a scientist crosses the Atlantic Ocean to familiarize himself with the organization of oil business in the state of Pennsylvania and attend an industrial exhibition in Philadelphia. Upon his return, he sadly wrote: "The sole purpose of the masses was to gain ... A new dawn on the other side of the ocean is not visible." Under the pressure of the Russian Technical Society, which supported all Mendeleev’s conclusions on the trip to America, the “buy-off” system of oil sites, which exists in Russia and led to barbaric use of fields without introducing technical innovations and installing expensive equipment, was canceled. And by the year 1891 was organized transportation of oil in accordance with the requirements of Dmitry Ivanovich. The cost of transport while dropped three times.

In 1877, after Dmitry Ivanovich returned from the United States, his sister Ekaterina Kapustina with her children and granddaughter moved to his university apartment. Through them, he met Anna Ivanovna Popova, a gifted Don Cossack student at a conservatory and school of drawing, the daughter of a retired Cossack colonel. It should be noted that his relationship with his wife by this time became extremely tense. Dmitry Ivanovich felt alienated and lonely in the family. It is not surprising that he fell in love with this charming and cheerful artist, who was twenty-six years younger than the scientist. After almost five years of dating, Mendeleev finally decided to make an offer to Anna Ivanovna.

In 1880, Anna Ivanovna went to Italy for an internship, and Theozva Nikitichna - the scientist's wife - agreed to divorce. Mendeleev and Popova decided that, while the matter of divorce was going to drag out, we didn’t show up together in Petersburg. Dmitry Ivanovich went to her in Italy, and then they visited Spain together, Cairo, some time lived on the Volga. All summer 1881 Feozva Nikitichna was with her daughter in Boblov, and then moved into a new St. Petersburg apartment, which Mendeleev rented for him and fully furnished. In addition, he gave the former wife a full university salary, and later he and her daughters built a dacha on the shore of the Gulf of Finland. The divorce case ended with the fact that Dmitriy Ivanovich was punished with church penance for a period of seven years, during which he was denied the right to marry. However, in January 1882 in Kronstadt, a priest of the Admiralty Church married Mendeleev with Anna Ivanovna, for which he was defrocked the next day. The new marriage was much happier. Soon they had a daughter, Lyuba, who became Blok’s wife in the future, two years later, his son Ivan, and in the 1886 year, twins Vasily and Maria.

The genius scientist loved his children deeply, sincerely and tenderly. He said: "I experienced a lot in life, but I don’t know anything better than children." An illustrative example - Dmitri Mendeleev became the first Russian chemist invited by the British Chemical Society to take part in the famous Faraday Readings. Dmitry Ivanovich was supposed to 23 May 1889 of the year to make a report in London on the topic “Periodic legitimacy of chemical elements”, however, having learned from a telegram that Vasily was ill, he immediately returned home.

N. A. Yaroshenko. DI Mendeleev. 1886. Butter

As one of the founders of the organization of the aeronautics department, Mendeleev helped A.F. Mozhaisky and K.E. Tsiolkovsky, with Makarov worked on the development of the first domestic icebreaker, was engaged in the creation of aircraft and submarine. Studies of the compressibility of gases allowed him to obtain the equation, now known as the "Mendeleev-Clapeyron," which formed the basis of modern gas dynamics. Dmitry Ivanovich paid great attention to the problems of research of the Arctic Ocean, the issues of improving navigation in the country's internal reservoirs. In 1878, Dmitry Ivanovich presented the work “On the Resistance of Liquids and Aeronautics”, in which he not only gave a systematic account of existing views on the resistance of the environment, but also gave his own original ideas in this direction. Nikolai Yegorovich Zhukovsky highly appreciated the book, calling it "the main guide for those involved in ballistics, aeronautics and shipbuilding." All income from the sale of the monograph Mendeleev donated to support the development of domestic research in aeronautics. In accordance with his ideas, the Sea Experimental Basin was built in Petersburg, in which new models of ships were tested. In this pool, Admiral S.O. Makarov together with the future academician A.N. Krylov studied the issues of flooding of ships.

Dmitry Ivanovich himself took part in the development of air spaces. There is a known case when a scientist consciously decided on a step associated with a high risk to life. In August, 1887 he climbed a balloon to a height of about three kilometers in order to observe a solar eclipse. The weather was non-flying, the scientist literally forced the pilot out of the basket, because the wet aircraft could not lift two. Mendeleev himself had no experience of piloting in a balloon. Saying goodbye to friends, he said with a smile: “I’m not afraid to fly, I’m afraid that during the descent the men will be taken for hell and beaten." Fortunately, the unit, having stayed in the air for about two hours, landed safely.

In 1883, Mendeleev's attention turned to the study of aqueous solutions. In his work, he used all the accumulated experience, the latest instruments, measurement methods and mathematical techniques. In addition, he designed the tower of an astronomical observatory and dealt with the problems of measuring the temperatures of the upper atmosphere. In 1890, Dmitry Ivanovich had a conflict with the Minister of Education. After working at St. Petersburg University for twenty-seven years, Mendeleev left him, but his scientific activity was far from over. Already after some time, he invented a smokeless, pyrocolloidal powder, superior to the French, pyroxylin.

From 1891, Dmitry Ivanovich as an editor of the chemical engineering department took an active part in the Brockhaus-Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, and he also authored many articles that adorn this publication. In order to determine the possibilities of increasing the industrial potential of Russia in 1899, Dmitry Ivanovich went to the Urals. There he collected data on reserves of local ores, examined metallurgical plants. On the results of the trip, Mendeleev wrote: “The belief in Russia that has always lived in me has increased and strengthened after a close acquaintance with the Urals.”

And in 1904, his “cherished thoughts” began to appear, concluding the scientist's testament to the offspring, judgments on various issues relating to the state, public, economic life of Russia. Many of the thoughts expressed by Mendeleev look absolutely modern. For example, about patriotism: “Some of the current extreme individualists are already trying to present patriotism or love for the fatherland in a thin form, declaring that it is time to replace it with an aggregate of love common to all of humanity.” Or about the defense of the country: “Russia waged many wars, but most of them were purely defensive in nature. I am confident that, in front of Russia, despite our peaceful efforts, there are still many defensive wars, if it is not fenced off by a strong army to such an extent that it would be scary to start a feud with her in the hope of grabbing a part of her territory. ” On economics: “... one combination of capitals and tramps cannot evoke or create in itself the national welfare."

In 1892, Dmitri Mendeleev headed the depot of exemplary measures and weights, which later became the Main Chamber of Weights and Measures. He laid the foundations of national scientific metrology - the direction of the extremely important in any scientific work, giving scientists confidence in the correctness of their results. He began this work with the creation of a national system of standards, the implementation of this project took Mendeleev seven years. Already in 1895, weighing accuracy in the Main Chamber reached a record high - thousandths of a milligram when weighing one kilogram. This meant that when weighing, for example, one million rubles (gold coins), the error would be one-tenth of a penny. In 1899, the son of Mendeleev died from his first marriage - Vladimir, married to Varvara Lemoh, the daughter of a famous artist. The death of his beloved son was a terrible blow for the scientist.

By the end of the nineteenth century, Mendeleev occupied in the Russian society a unique place as a universal expert who advised the government on a multitude of national economic and scientific problems. He was an expert in the field of aeronautics, smokeless powders, petroleum, higher education reform, customs tariff, setting up a metrological business in Russia. He was openly called a genius, but he didn’t like it very much, immediately became angry: “What kind of genius am I? He worked all his life, so he became so. ” The scientist did not like ceremonies, fame, awards and orders (of which he had a great multitude). He liked to talk with simple people, he said: "I love to listen to men clever speeches." When he was thanked, he could run away shouting: “Nonsense is all, stop ... Nonsense, nonsense!”. The appeal "Your Excellency" did not tolerate the spirit, warned visitors about this in advance, otherwise it could cut off a person in half a word. I asked myself to contact only by name and patronymic. Also, the chemist did not recognize any ranks and ranks, many were shocked, others were outraged. He bluntly stated: "I am not one of the present who gently creep." I couldn’t tolerate it when someone was being talked about badly with him or boasted of his “white bone”.

He dressed Mendeleev is also very simple and modest, he preferred a wide woolen jacket at home. He did not follow the fashion, relying on his tailor in everything. His moderation in food was noted. His friends believed that it was precisely because of his temperance in food and drink that he lived such a long life, despite the presence of hereditary tuberculosis. It is known that Dmitry Ivanovich loved tea, brewing it in his own way. With a cold, Mandeleev used the following method of self-treatment: he wore high fur boots, a dressing gown with fur, and drank several glasses of strong and sweet tea. After that, he went to bed, expelling the disease by the sudron. He loved the scientist to bathe in the bathhouse, but he rarely used the home bathroom. And after the bath, he drank tea again and said that he "feels like a birthday boy."

At home, the scientist had two favorite activities - making luggage and playing chess. Sticking luggage, boxes, cases for albums, travel boxes and various boxes relaxed him after hard work. In this field, he achieved excellence - glued clean, solid, neat. In old age, after the problems with vision began, he glued to the touch. By the way, some neighbors on the street knew Dmitry Ivanovich precisely as a suitcase master, and not a great chemist. He also played great chess, rarely lost, and could delay his partners until five in the morning. His constant rivals were: a close friend, the artist A.I. Kuindzhi, physical chemist V.A. Kistyakovsky and chemist, student Butlerov A.I. Humpback. Unfortunately, smoking was another passion of the scientist. He smoked cigarettes or heavy rolls all the time, even when he was taking notes. Having an extraordinary appearance, in thick puffs of tobacco smoke, he seemed to the staff "an alchemist and a magician who can turn copper into gold."

Throughout his life, Dmitri Mendeleev worked enthusiastically and passionately, not sparing himself. The work, he said, gave him "the fullness and joy of life." He concentrated all his knowledge and all his will on one thing and stubbornly walked towards his goal. The closest assistants of Dmitry Ivanovich testified that he often fell asleep at the table with a pen in his hand. According to legend, the system of chemical elements appeared to Mendeleev just in a dream, but it is known that when asked how he made the discovery, the scientist once grumbledly answered: “I may have been thinking about it for twenty years, but you think: I sat, sat and ... is ready. "

In general, Mendeleev surprisingly combined two beginnings - a cool temper and kindness. Everyone who knew the scientist recognized his difficult character, incredible flashes of arousal, short temper bordering on anger. However, Dmitri Ivanovich easily withdrew, he built his relations with employees, basing on their business skills, appreciating the industriousness and talents of people. And at the expense of swearing, Mendeleev had his own excuse: “Do you want to be healthy? Swear yourself right and left. He who does not know how to swear, keeps everything in himself, will soon die. ” In addition, he was always ready to help people, no matter how: financially, by petition or good advice. The initiative was often taken from him, Dmitry Ivanovich in the society was an influential person, and his requests, as a rule, were successful.

Mendeleev died of pneumonia 20 January 1907 year in St. Petersburg at the seventy-second year of life. The funeral of the scientist, arranged at the expense of the state, became a genuine national mourning. It is impossible to believe, but Dmitry Ivanovich was buried by almost the entire city, and the table was carried in front of many thousands of mourning columns.

After himself, Mendeleev left over 1500 works. “I myself am amazed,” said Dmitry Ivanovich, “which I just didn’t do in my academic life.” The merits of a great scientist received recognition from the entire world powers. Mendeleev was an honorary member of almost all existing at that time scientific communities. Special attention to his name enjoyed in the UK, where the chemist was awarded the medals of Faraday, Copileus and Devi. It is impossible to list all the students of Mendeleev, they worked in various fields in accordance with the widest scientific interests of Dmitry Ivanovich. His students can rightly be considered an outstanding physiologist Ivan Sechenov, the great shipbuilder Alexei Krylov, a chemist Dmitry Konovalov. The favorite student of Mendeleev was Professor Cheltsov, the head of the Marine Science and Technology Laboratory, to whom the French, without success, offered one million francs for the secret of smokeless powder.

Monument to Dmitry Mendeleev and his periodic table, located on the wall of the VNII Metrology Institute. Mendeleev in St. Petersburg

Mendeleev once said about himself: “I did not serve one iota either for my wealth, for my brute force, or for my capital. ... I tried only to give fruitful real business to my country, being confident that education, equipment, politics and even the defense of Russia are now unthinkable without the development of industry. " Mendeleev firmly believed in the future of Russia, constantly stated the need to develop its wealth. He put an enormous amount of effort into defending the priority of Russian science in the discovery of periodic law. And how did Dmitry Ivanovich survive and get upset when, at the beginning of 1904, a part of the Russian squadron was destroyed in the outbreak of the Russian-Japanese war. He did not think about his seventieth birthday, but about the fate of the Fatherland: "If the British come forward and come to Kronstadt, then I will definitely go to war." In his testament to children, he wrote: “By working, you can do everything for your loved ones and for yourself ... Acquire the main wealth - the ability to conquer yourself.”

According to the materials of the book V.I. Boyarintsev "The great Russian scientist Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev"
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  1. Enot-poloskun
    Enot-poloskun 8 February 2014 08: 30
    Dmitry Ivanovich is a great man!

    Table, oil refining, explosives, demographic issues in Russia, metrology and, of course, the most important question "about combining alcohol with water."

    It’s a pity, they didn’t give him a Nobel Prize.

    They gave it to some Arrhenius.
    1. Asgard
      Asgard 8 February 2014 10: 49
      The Nobel Prize is not given for works in the field of science and the world. And just the opposite ....
      Wait scholars hung the news about graphene, a discovery made with Scotch)))))
      They all predict that the next great discovery will be made in PAPERBOX))))))))))
      Well, about the peace prizes, I didn’t write only the lazy ones, the masses give them only to those who are actively destroying the world .... and deceiving (including in science))
      Wait a World of insignificance, All the main discoveries made in the days of Mendeleev and Stalin ......
      THE WORLD IS GOING ON ROLLED, FINE (including in electronics)) but did not come up with anything new ...
      Not only that, We can’t repeat what our ancestors did ....
      For example, casting of centimeter cast iron and the creation of sculptures from them, the Triumphal Arch was recently restored, the sculpture “Goddess of Victory” was damaged, well, the specialists were asked to cast the same one, they made a calculation - the weight of casting from cast iron would be 45 tons, the original weighs about 4 tons of metric weight ..... that is, the hollow and the walls are very thin, and even the manes of the horses are spelled out very accurately AND THIS IS FROM IRON)))))
      1. neri73-r
        neri73-r 9 February 2014 17: 12
        For example, Casting centimeter iron and creating sculptures from them

        Are you talking about Kasli casting? So if about him, then there the molding sand is over, and which remained does not fit!
        1. Andrey57
          Andrey57 10 February 2014 00: 50
          The problem is not the molding sand, but that no one needs it! If it were necessary, then on 1 / 8 parts of the globe sand would be found, but the fact that degradation is obvious is a fact! The oldest ship of the Navy is located on the Black Sea, made in the 1904 year, it seems, at the Putilov factory. So the thickness of the metal boards for more than a century has decreased from 16mm to 14-15mm now! Now they don’t know how to make such metal for shipbuilding! But they cannot - again, for the reason that no one needs to restore the technology, it is easier and more profitable to rivet ships with a limited service life, nothing personal, only business ...
    2. mirag2
      mirag2 8 February 2014 11: 21
      It’s very correct that they decided to make a film about him.
      And very much about the many people who served the Russian State faithfully, it is also necessary to make films both documentary and artistic.
      Tsiolkovsky, Sechenov, Yablochkov, Mechnikov, Miklouho-Maclay and many, many others.
      1. PValery53
        PValery53 9 February 2014 19: 21
        About the great patriots of Russia, commanders, valuable films are shot by Alexei Denisov - an indifferent, zealous popularizer of the history of Russia, still quite a young man.
    3. baltika-18
      baltika-18 8 February 2014 13: 32
      Quote: Enot-poloskun
      Dmitry Ivanovich is a great man!

      Quote: Enot-poloskun
      It’s a pity, they didn’t give him a Nobel Prize.

      He is a giant of thought. But he went against the generally accepted concept. He, like Tesla, considered the ether to be the fundamental principle. His work "An Attempt at a Chemical Understanding of the World Ether" (1905) says a lot. And the periodic table of elements during his lifetime looked different .He provided in it the elements, which he called "coronium" and "newtonium". Clickable.
    4. zennon
      zennon 9 February 2014 14: 49
      It’s a pity, they didn’t give him a Nobel Prize.
      They gave it to some Arrhenius.

      It could well have awarded the prize until his death - until 1907, there were as many as 6 years (!)
      In 1906, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences refused to make a decision by the Nobel Committee to award the prize to D. I. Mendeleev for the periodic table of elements, and the prize was awarded to F. Moissan for the discovery of fluorine. This decision was made under pressure from S. Arrhenius, who received the Nobel Prize in 1903 for the theory of electrolytic dissociation, of which D. I. Mendeleev was an ardent opponent. Dmitry Ivanovich died in 1907, never having received the Nobel Prize. I always said that the Nobel was imprisoned under the arrogant Saxons and Jews.
    5. Geisenberg
      Geisenberg 9 February 2014 22: 52
      Quote: Enot-poloskun
      It’s a pity, they didn’t give him a Nobel Prize.

      And they could not give. Nobel, who is Alfred, a contemporary of Mendeleev. Smokeless gunpowder was compiled by Mendeleev after researching the gunpowder that Nobel invented. By the way, the prize itself is idiotic. It was established by the person who invented dynamite, with the money received from the sale of dynamite. Everyone knows why dynamite was needed, well, not for mining ... so that it is generally and good that they did not.
  2. Igor39
    Igor39 8 February 2014 08: 38
    Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev - Russian genius!
  3. demotivator
    demotivator 8 February 2014 09: 01
    I didn’t serve one iota of either wealth or brute force or capital. ... he tried only to give a fruitful real cause to his country, being confident that the education, structure, politics and even defense of Russia are now unthinkable without the development of industry. ” Mendeleev sacredly believed in the future of Russia, constantly declared the need to develop its wealth.

    The article is an absolute plus.
    Mendeleev Dmitry Ivanovich everyone knows from the textbook of chemistry as the author of the "Periodic system of elements." But few people know Mendeleev - as the author of the fundamental study "Towards the knowledge of Russia", 1906. The essence of Mendeleev’s approach is that in his study he considered the “land” as a set of natural conditions. And on the basis of this, he sought to determine how it is desirable to arrange a government and economic management for the good and prosperity of Russia.
    It is Mendeleev who owns the most important thought for scientific and technological progress: "Science begins where measurement begins." The main idea of ​​Mendeleev in the demographic part “To the knowledge of Russia”: “the most important and humane goal of any“ policy ”is most clearly, simply and tangibly expressed in the development of conditions for the reproduction of people.” It is the study of "conditions for the reproduction of humans" that is of interest to present-day Russia and now, 100 years after the work of Mendeleev, at the beginning of the 1897st century the main interest. The study of Mendeleev is based on the XNUMX census and the data of the Central Statistical Committee of Russia on the number of births and deaths per year at the end of the XNUMXth and beginning of the XNUMXth centuries. It provides data for all provinces of Russia.
    Mendeleev’s forecast is based on the number of the Russian State for 1897 (128,2 million) and data from the Central Statistical Committee of Russia.
    The actual population growth in Russia at the end of the 50th century, estimated from 1,44 provinces of the European part of Russia, ranged from 1,8% to 1,5% per year. For his long-term forecast, Mendeleev adopted a cautious figure of XNUMX% per year.
    According to the results of his research on “human reproduction,” Mendeleev estimated that the size of the Russian State was to be expected:
    - by 1950 - 280 million;
    - by 2000 - 590 million
    In the twentieth century, Russia has undergone a lot - wars, social disasters, separation by borders.
    So there is no point in comparing these figures directly with the actual course of events.
    It is much more important to assess the convergence of the Mendeleev method in those large regions and peoples for which it can be correctly compared.
    1. Hitrovan07
      Hitrovan07 8 February 2014 14: 09
      It turns out a little off topic, but on the basis of the data you laid out, there is only one conclusion — Russia is being destroyed — for a long time and cruelly.
      1. demotivator
        demotivator 8 February 2014 18: 35
        It turns out a little off topic, but on the basis of the data you laid out, there is only one conclusion — Russia is being destroyed — for a long time and cruelly.

        Well, how is it out of topic? The topic is called "The Modest Genius of Dmitry Mendeleev." After all, he became famous not only as a chemist, but also as a sociologist. Only his sociological research and demographic studies are of no use to anyone today. And in vain, after all, he predicted a lot in terms of "human reproduction".
        To understand the accuracy of his forecasts in the field of demography, evaluate Mendeleev’s forecast for the United States.
        Mendeleev investigated the demography of the United States in detail. He analyzed the change in the US population every 10 years, from 1790 to 1900, the age structure of the population. Moreover, Mendeleev quite clearly divided the white and colored population of the United States. Assessing the natural reproduction of the US population and the expected increase in the twentieth century, Mendeleev concluded that the US population by the middle of the twentieth century was to be expected at 180 million people.
        In fact, the US has a population of 181 million. reached by 1960 Well, how do you like the result?
        And in the Caucasus. Mendeleev predicted the number of all peoples of the Caucasus in 2000 - about 26 million. Actually, the number of people of the Caucasus was about 30 million. That is, the number of people of the Caucasus was 15% MORE than it should have been according to Mendeleev. Also, consider hit the nail on the head.
        And the last thing I want to add is that these are not mine data, these are the data of "the modest genius of Dmitry Mendeleev."
        But as for the number of the Russian people, then, as I wrote above, according to Mendeleev, it should have been 1950 million by 280, and 2000 million by 590. But something did not work out, something prevented. What exactly - think for yourself.
  4. Boris55
    Boris55 8 February 2014 09: 49
    Interesting opinion. Starting from the 50 minute of the periodic table.

    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. siberalt
      siberalt 8 February 2014 21: 38
      A very interesting video. I would also tell where the Greek language came from. And the fact that not a word in Greek is a whole string of concepts translated into Russian, sometimes contradicting.
  5. predator.3
    predator.3 8 February 2014 11: 19
    He was an expert in the field of aeronautics, smokeless gunpowder, oil affairs, higher education reform, customs tariff, metrology in Russia.

    Once I read how the secret of smokeless powder was revealed,
    For the first time, smokeless gunpowder was invented in 1884 by the French engineer P. Viel, and while in France D. Mendeleev calculated how many cars and what raw materials were delivered to the plant, and thus calculated the percentage of smokeless gunpowder, maybe it's a bike, I don’t know.
    Here is what he wrote about it:

    “Black smoke was found by the Chinese and monks - almost by accident, gropingly, by mechanical mixing, in scientific darkness. Smokeless powder is open in the full light of modern chemical knowledge. It will constitute a new era of military affairs not because it does not give smoke, it’s covering eyes, but because it is predominantly because with less weight it makes it possible to inform bullets and any other shells of speeds of 600, 800 and even 1000 meters per second, and at the same time It represents all the makings of further improvement - with the help of a scientific study of invisible phenomena, when it is burning, those that occur. Smokeless gunpowder constitutes a new link between the power of countries and their scientific development. For this reason, being one of the warriors of Russian science, I, at the age of my strength and strength, did not dare to abandon the analysis of the tasks of smokeless gunpowder. "

    The gunpowder created by Mendeleev in 1893 successfully passed the test: he was shot from a 12-inch gun, and the naval artillery inspector, Admiral Makarov, congratulated the scientist on a brilliant victory. With smokeless powder, the firing range was significantly increased.
    1. erg
      erg 8 February 2014 12: 47
      This is a bike. Russia bought from the French the right to produce smokeless powder, naturally using French technology. But it was a very dangerous production. At a certain stage, drying of the components was required to remove moisture. The French produced this in special furnaces, which often led to explosions. Mendeleev investigated the problem and after many experiments he proposed his production technology, without drying in the ovens. It seems that the composition of the powder turned out to be somewhat different, more perfect. I don’t remember the details now. But this can be found in one of the old issues of the magazine Shotgun. What comes out in St. Petersburg. There is a whole series of articles about the Mosin rifle, cartridges for it, and, accordingly, about how in Russia, through the efforts of Mendeleev they began to produce smokeless powder. The author of the articles, if my memory serves me right, Khristich (it seems the designer of weapons). Sorry for the inaccuracy, but there is no way to see more.
      1. Aleksys2
        Aleksys2 8 February 2014 17: 11
        Quote: erg
        This is a bike. Russia bought from the French the right to produce smokeless powder, naturally using French technology.

        The first in the invention of smokeless pyroxylin powder belongs to the French engineer Viel. In 1885, after numerous experimental studies, he obtained and tested a pyroxylin lamellar powder, called gunpowder "B".
        In Russia, pyroxylin powder was independently obtained by G. G. Sukhachev in 1887.
        French pyroxylin gunpowder was strictly classified (the technology was published only in the 1930's).
        By the end of 1889, the Okhta plant developed a sample of rifle pyroxylin gunpowder in the form of plates, which, when fired from a Lebel gun, gave the required initial speed at an allowable pressure and a significantly lower charge weight compared to smoky gunpowder.
        At the end of 1890 in Russia, pyroxylin powder was prepared using an alcohol-ether solvent, and in 1891 a pilot batch of plate powder (weighing 20 t) was made for cartridges of a three-line Mosin rifle.
        In 1890, Mendeleev turned to the Minister of War of France, Sh. L. Freysine, for admission to the factories - two days later E. Sarro (director of the Central Powder Laboratory of France) received D. I. Mendeleev in his laboratory, showed a test of gunpowder; Arn and E. Sarro gave "for personal use" a sample (2 g), but its composition and properties showed unsuitability for large-caliber artillery.
        D.I. Mendeleev received 2 grams of pyroxylin powder in France from Arnou and E. Sarro in the Central Powder Laboratory, it was enough to establish its composition and properties: 1). a mixture of high and low nitro pyroxylin is used; 2). 1 g of the mixture emits about 200 cm³ nitric oxide; 3). for the purpose of gelatinization, a mixture of ether and alcohol 2: 1 is used. This gunpowder could not be used in large-caliber guns.
        From the 1890 workbooks of the year entitled “Gunpowder”, one can understand that the scientist sought to obtain a chemically uniform product, unlike foreign ones: French - a mixture of two nitrocellulose of different degrees of nitration, and English - a mixture of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin. In the first experiments, he found that under certain conditions it is possible to obtain a stable homogeneous product that is well soluble in a mixture of alcohol and ether.
        D.I.Mendeleev paid special attention to the composition of the nitrating mixture: a solution of sulfuric and nitric acid. He changed the composition and concentration of acids - the time and temperature of nitration, tested various materials (paper, cotton). By December of 1890, he received fully soluble nitrocellulose. 23 of January 1891 - the best end product - pyrocollodion.
        As is known, D.I.Mendeleev’s pyrocollodic gunpowder, despite some advantages compared to French-type pyroxylin gunpowder, was not accepted in Russia. It has only been produced in small quantities since 1892 in a marine powder factory. Partially pyrocollodic gunpowder, similar in composition to the gunpowder proposed by D. I. Mendeleev, was prepared at the Shlisselburg plant in the first years of the use of smokeless gunpowder. Pyrocollodion gunpowder by D. I. Mendeleev was adopted by the American Navy in 1897, and in the army in 1899. It was produced in huge quantities at US factories during the First World War and after it was replaced by flameless non-hygroscopic gunpowder.
        1. Aleksys2
          Aleksys2 8 February 2014 17: 13
          At the Okhta plant, the entire production of pyroxylin was at the mercy of the invited French engineer Messen, who did not even take into account the opinion of D.I.Mendeleev, who noticed the shortcomings of production, and conducted the case according to the instructions of the French government. Naturally, all gunpowder production at the Okhta plant was adjusted to the French style. Foreigners were so held in high esteem that they could appropriate Russian inventions with impunity. This is evidenced by the fact of taking a patent in 1895 for the "invention" of pyrocollodion gunpowder by the Americans Bernadou and Converse. Lieutenant Bernadou, while D.I.Mendeleev was working on pyrocollodious gunpowder, was in St. Petersburg as a naval attaché of the United States and, despite the measures taken then to maintain secrecy, he was able to obtain complete information about both the composition of the gunpowder and the method of its production, which confirmed by the materials of the Bernadou report, read by him in 1897 at the American Naval College. This fact of impudent misappropriation of D.I. In this regard, until now in the American literature, in particular in the book by Davis "The Chemistry of Powders and Explosives" edition of 1943, it is indicated that the inventors of pyrocollodious gunpowder are Navy Lieutenant Bernadou and Captain Converse.
          For the decade 1885 ... 1895 Four types of nitrocellulose powders were obtained — Viel's pyroxylin powder from mixed nitrocellulose, D. I. Mendeleev’s pyrocolloid powder, Nobel’s ballistic nitroglycerin powder, and Abel and Duart cordite nitroglycerin powder.
    2. Andrey57
      Andrey57 10 February 2014 01: 04
      Once I read how the secret of smokeless powder was revealed,
      For the first time, smokeless gunpowder was invented in 1884 by the French engineer P. Viel, and while in France D. Mendeleev calculated how many cars and what raw materials were delivered to the plant, and thus calculated the percentage of smokeless gunpowder, maybe it's a bike, I don’t know.

      This is the "noodle" of the French to belittle the achievement of Dmitry Ivanovich, he created his own smokeless gunpowder, not counting the cars, but using his periodic system - he made up the equation of the combustion reaction and recalculated the ratios of the components in accordance with the molecular weights, having achieved the maximum completeness of combustion of the mixture, which is why it did not smoke! In addition, Mendeleev's pyrocolloidal powder was very different from French pyroxylin powder both in composition and in production technology, which was much safer than the French one. And the frogs tried to reduce the great scientist to the level of an ordinary swindler and spy - a cheap trick, nothing more.
  6. srha
    srha 8 February 2014 11: 23
    Mendeleev is certainly brilliant. Only his life, scientific activity and death were much more tragic and interesting. It is a pity that the article does not say anything other than the well-known smoothed officialdom.
  7. tundra
    tundra 8 February 2014 13: 56
    The article was a pleasant discovery for me. Mendeleev was for me, a table on the wall. And here is such a HUMAN. ARTICLE PLUS.
  8. Olegmog
    Olegmog 8 February 2014 14: 19
    Mendeleev's genius planet earth! The article is interesting.
    I learned a lot. To my shame, except for school
    programs, no longer interested in him.
  9. Black
    Black 8 February 2014 15: 49
    You involuntarily catch yourself thinking .... About Lenin, who has devoted his whole life to the fight against Russia, we know everything, but about a person who has worked all his life for his glory, most knowledge comes down to 40 degrees, PSHE, and the equation of state.
    An interesting case is the "struggle" of "open" new elements nebulium and corona with the periodic system. They did not fit into the system !!!, in the periodic table of Mendeleev there was no more room for elements with the properties of nebulium and corona. After testing, it was found that nebulium is the usual terrestrial oxygen, and corium is highly ionized iron.
  10. Black
    Black 8 February 2014 17: 10
    We can recall the mutual rejection of Mendeleev and Tolstoy. The confrontation between the two GREATS was especially acute on the issue of war in general and war with Japan in particular. Despite Tolstoy, Mendeleev considered the lack of unity in humanity to be the main cause of competition and progress. Tolstoy denies the fatherland, denies war (even defensive !!!), and Mendeleev thinks that “love of the fatherland is one of the most sublime differences between a developed, hostel state of people and their primitive, semi-animal state ... The savagery of the doctrine of the dangers of patriotism is so obvious that you shouldn’t even mention him ”
  11. crasever
    crasever 8 February 2014 17: 33
    But in America, which was discovered, as is known by the Americans, the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements by D.I. Mendeleev is used with might and main, however, without mentioning the author - a table appeared as if by itself, or maybe it was always there, just while the Americans were not up to her !!!
  12. parus2nik
    parus2nik 8 February 2014 18: 17
    Gain the main wealth - the ability to defeat yourself-Golden words ..
  13. dropout
    dropout 8 February 2014 18: 36
    “If the English come out and come to Kronstadt, I’ll definitely go to war”

    A true patriot of the Fatherland.
  14. demotivator
    demotivator 8 February 2014 19: 19
    Quote: Enot-poloskun
    It’s a pity, they didn’t give him a Nobel Prize.

    The story with the Nobel Prize for Mendeleev is as follows. Mendeleev lived to see the time when Nobel Prizes began to be awarded. They began to be issued in 1901. Until 1904, Mendeleev could not be nominated for the Nobel Prize, because the first paragraph in the will of the Nobel said “For recent discoveries,” and the periodic law was opened in 1869, i.e. borrowed until this decision.
    In 1904, the Nobel Foundation made an addition - it was possible to hand over outstanding discoveries made even relatively long ago. But this is only since 1904. Mendeleev was nominated for the Nobel Prize in 1905, in 1906 and in 1907. In 1907, however, he died in the month of February according to a new style. But formally, he could be awarded it, because he was nominated during his lifetime. And the collection of recommendations for the award was completed before his death. But, his candidacy did not gain the necessary votes. If, say, his rivals - the Frenchman Moissan, the German Bayer - were nominated by 14–20 and some other people of foreign scientists, then 3-4 votes fought for Mendeleev. Why is there a Nobel !? Mendeleev was not even elected a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences! But at the same time he was an honorary member of many foreign academies.
  15. RoTTor
    RoTTor 8 February 2014 19: 57
    Grandfather Mendeleev - baptized Jew Mendel.
    In the Russian Empire, those who converted to Orthodoxy did not have any restrictions on the "fifth column". This was her strength.
    You can list many wonderful Russian generals, scholars, etc. from baptized Jews and cantonists.
    1. Navy7981
      Navy7981 9 February 2014 22: 35
      and here are 5 columns?
      I do not think that Mendeleev would support your thought. All who worked for the Russian Empire considered themselves primarily Russian!
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. RoTTor
        RoTTor 11 February 2014 19: 23
        Totally agree with you.
        Belonging to the people is in no way determined by blood.
        However, the abundance of minuses for stating the obvious facts and the analysis of the mood of many comments confirms that stupid chauvinism to the detriment of multinational Russia today prevails over patriotism and destroys Russia from inside more than all external enemies.

        Even Alexander the Third, whom it is impossible to suspect of cosmopolitanism, considered: purely Russian people survived ONLY in the RUSSIAN NORTH, where there had never been any raids and interventions. But the population of the Russian North was negligible. And even then, this was true until the 20th century.

        I remind the minuscule chauvinists of the quote from "Ordered to Survive" - ​​the sequel to "17 Moments of Spring." Gruppenführer Müller, reading the Soviet Encyclopedia about one of our luminaries, says: “I understood why the Soviets are invincible. Rate: the great Russian Soviet scientist .... was born in a Ukrainian town in a poor Jewish family. Who prevented the idiot Führer from announcing something like this about Einstein ... ”?
    2. Andrey57
      Andrey57 10 February 2014 01: 17
      Read the respected thoughts and statements of Dmitry Ivanovich about the Russians, and about their greatness as a nation, then enlightenment in the head may come!
      Regarding the origin:
      Sometimes Jewish authors enroll a great scientist in "our" because of the consonance of the surname with the name Mendel. This is not true: “All four sons of Pavel Maksimovich Sokolov, a priest of the village of Tikhomandritsa in the Vyshnevolotsk district, studied at the Tver Theological Seminary, but after graduation, only one of them, Timofey, retained his father's surname. According to the [seminary] customs of those years, the teachers came up with the surnames for the other three brothers. Vasily became Pokrovsky, Alexander became Tikhomandritsky, and Ivan became Mendeleev. "Mendeleev's surname was given to his father when he exchanged something, as the neighboring landowner Mendeleev changed horses, etc.", - Dmitry Ivanovich recalls.
      About patriotism:
      “Love for the Fatherland, or patriotism, as readers are probably not unaware of, some of the modern extreme individualists are already trying to present it in a bad form, saying that it is time to replace it with an aggregate of common love for all of humanity ... Such an obviously thoughtless teaching is attributed to patriotism many bad phenomena of the public ... For peoples like the Russian, formed and strengthened relatively recently and still busy with their organization, that is, still young, the savagery of the doctrine of the dangers of patriotism is so obvious that one should not even mention it, and if I do this, I mean only those compatriots who have not yet been translated, about whom it is written: "What the last book says, it will fall on top." "Love for the Fatherland is one of the most sublime differences between the developed, common state of people from their original, wild and semi-animal state."
      About the Russian people:
      “There is no doubt that the Russian people, taken as a whole, belongs to the most peaceful and is best likened by a fairy tale to a drowsy good fellow from such and such a village, who thinks most of all about his arable land, who knows how to endure“ suffering, ”but does not know how to force to do it for others'. “In what else, just not in self-adoration, one can reproach the Russian people who know how to get along even merge with all sorts of others. This greatly distinguishes us not only from the Chinese, whose merits should be given a lot, but also from the English, who are proud - not without correct reasons - of their primacy in all the progressive world meaning, not to mention the Jews, who consider themselves the only people of God and for this pride deprived of all the benefits of independent state success ”.
  16. RoTTor
    RoTTor 8 February 2014 20: 03
    In the specialized chemical school No. 45 of Kiev in 1966, students and teachers improved the periodic system of Mendeleev.
    The results were reported and approved by the All-Union Mendeleev Chemical Conference.
  17. The comment was deleted.
  18. chenia
    chenia 8 February 2014 20: 10
    Quote: demotivator
    By 1950, it was supposed to be 280 million for Mendeleev, and 2000 million for 590. But something did not work out, something prevented. What exactly - think for yourself.

    Yes GREAT MAN! But demography is not his business. I don’t know how in the Caucasus and the USA, but in the Russian Empire a mistake is significant.

    More than 430 million in 2000 could not be in principle.

    Well, the scientist did not take into account the urbanization and the transformation of the scapular, unwashed, illiterate Russia into a highly developed cosmic power.
  19. konvalval
    konvalval 8 February 2014 20: 14
    Many geniuses gave birth to the Russian land.
  20. shelva
    shelva 8 February 2014 20: 26
    Quote: crasever
    But in America, which was discovered, as is known by the Americans, the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements by D.I. Mendeleev is used with might and main, however, without mentioning the author - a table appeared as if by itself, or maybe it was always there, just while the Americans were not up to her !!!

    In the schools of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the same study the "table of chemical elements", which Allah revealed. I testify that I taught myself. And most importantly, they teach in all seriousness, humor is not appropriate there.
  21. holderrr
    holderrr 8 February 2014 21: 23
    And also D. Mendeleev was a Russian nationalist and was a member of the "Union of the Russian people named after Mikhail Archangel". He loved the Russian people. Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev -
    Nationalism in me is so natural that no internationalists can ever knock me out of it.
  22. Mike Wazowski
    Mike Wazowski 9 February 2014 04: 31
    He was the seventeenth, last child.
    Alas, the Russian scientist, not only did not wait for a competent opinion from them, but even an elementary answer. None of them appreciated the importance of a perfect discovery.
    "The sole purpose of the masses of profit was ... A new dawn is not visible on the other side of the ocean."
    "I have experienced a lot in my life, but I know nothing better than children."
    “The faith in the future of Russia that has always lived in me has grown and gained strength after a close acquaintance with the Urals.”
    “I didn’t serve one iota of either wealth or brute force or capital. ... he tried only to give a fruitful real cause to his country, being confident that the education, structure, politics and even defense of Russia are now unthinkable without the development of industry. ”

    A great man who lived a bright long life, filled with many events. We all need to be proud that we live in a country that such People built and made stronger here.
  23. andrey903
    andrey903 9 February 2014 13: 40
    It seemed Dmitry Medvedev