Military Review

Light armor set foot

29
Light armor set foot

In the middle of August 1941, a young man appeared in the door of the office of the chief designer of the Gorky Automobile Plant, Andrei Lipgart, without a report. He was wearing an oiled tank overalls and had a ribbed cloth headset knocked to the back of his head. They were familiar for a long time and therefore were delighted to meet.


“Well, I’m assigned to you,” after a strong handshake, the visitor pulled an envelope from behind his shirt. The owner of the cabinet opened the letter. With every line he read, he became more and more excited.

It was an order signed on the eve of the People's Commissar of Medium Engineering, in which the Gorky residents were ordered to immediately begin the development of light production tanks, and the first cars were supposed to get off the assembly line no later than October 15. Deputy tank production to Lipgart appointed Nikolai Astrov.

- Kolya, you understand that this is impossible. Two months! And the drawings? And the prototypes? And running tests? - the main designer of the auto giant scattered with sensible questions.

The guest rose from the chair.

- Tank in the yard of the plant, I drove it under its own power from the capital. The march will count in state tests of the undercarriage. Drawings and all technical documentation in the car. So we will work. - And, with a wide smile, he extended his hand to Andrei Alexandrovich.

28 September 1941, the first eight new light tanks T-60 designed by Nikolai Astrov were baptized near Moscow ...

“Go on, Comrade Astrov”

His fate was predetermined from birth: the boy, born in April 1906, in the family of a hereditary engineer and professor at the Moscow Imperial Technical School (now - N. Bauman Moscow State Technical University) simply could not become a designer. Even the revolution, the Civil War and the terrible tragedy that fell on the family - in 1919, Nicholas's father and elder brother were shot on false charges of participating in a counter-revolutionary conspiracy - could not prevent it.

Having graduated with honors in 1924, one of the metropolitan schools, the young man entered the Moscow Electric Engineering Institute and at the same time began to work as a draftsman in the Scientific Automotive Institute. Here, the talent of a young man was appreciated and began to be attracted to some design developments. Already a sophomore student Nikolai Astrov participated in the design of the rear axle of the first serial Soviet passenger car NAMI-1. It was then, by the way, that they met Andrei Lipgart, who was in charge of the design of the car body.


Having defended a diploma at 1928, a twenty-two-year-old engineer was assigned to the design bureau of the Moscow Electrozavod. And the following year, he was ... arrested as the son of an enemy of the people and a participant in an anti-Soviet conspiracy — the first wave of the "fight against sabotage."

Nikolai Alexandrovich was lucky: he was not in a cell, not in a camp, but was placed in a special technical bureau - a “sharashka” at the Butyrka prison, which was under the jurisdiction of the economic department of the OGPU and was engaged in developments in the field of military equipment. Or rather, in tank building, following the example of the rest of the world, it was also gaining strength in the young Soviet country.

Here Astrov spent almost two years. And again, with his achievements, “capable of bringing great benefits in the defense equipment of the Red Army,” he drew the attention of the powerful: Nikolay Alexandrovich was the leading engineer from December 1931, and six months later, the head of the OGPU Autotrack KB. During the trials of one of his "tractors" he met Stalin. And this meeting had a great influence on the future fate of the young engineer. Here's how the designer himself later recalled this.

“Moscow, autumn 1932 th. Very cold, with sleet, frost and thaws. Our tank from the factory "Red Proletarian", where it was made, moved under its own power on Khamovnichesky parade ground. Hearing a crash, passers-by stopped and goggled. The times were naive: an experienced combat vehicle walked through the city in the middle of the day, no additional security, except for two policemen.

The width of the parade is 60-70 meters, and the length is 250. In the summer of dust there was such that the soldiers who were trained there, sometimes barely saw each other. In spring and autumn, the soil cover turned into almost impassable dirt. It was here at the end of October that the first Soviet amphibious tank PT-1, developed in a special design bureau, should have been shown to Stalin.

It is necessary to clarify what kind of tank it was and how it attracted the attention of the leader. He had three types of propellers - tracked, wheel and propeller. With a combat mass in 14 tons, the armament, armor protection, dynamics on any type of movement PT-1 markedly exceeded the western small tanks and at that time had no analogues abroad. Although the tank was still incomplete, with the improvement it could become a useful fighting vehicle for our army ...


The mud was, one might say, full-fledged - just for testing the tank. All sorts of bosses fell into a tight group next to a large puddle, apparently hoping that Stalin's car would stop in front of her. However, the chief's car braked directly at the demonstration site. Stalin came out ... In a hoarse voice, he quietly asked who the speaker was. The authorities were afraid that Stalin would ask questions that no high-ranking military officer would be able to answer, and someone from the group shouted loudly: “Astrov here, quickly!” My soul reached almost heels, but still I sent my master to a cheerful trot country.

Despite the dirt, Joseph Vissarionovich slowly walked around the tank. Following in the half-step behind, I, if possible, clearly and, most importantly, loudly (we were all warned that he had a bad ear) began to report, or rather, just talked about the features of PT-1. Stalin listened carefully. Then he asked a few questions that showed that he knew tanks well.

Inspection took seven to eight minutes. Slightly nodding either to the guard, relentlessly accompanying him, or to me, Stalin quietly, as if to himself, said: "Go on, Comrade Astrov." And without saying a word to the military, he left. Taking into account the experience of previous shows, the authorities, who had sighed with relief, did not dare to approach the tank ten steps closer during the inspection, congratulated me on the success ...

Seen in a strange way imprinted in the brain of Stalin, and it was more than a great visual memory. That short meeting on the parade ground was enough for him to always recognize me and even call me by my last name. This was particularly striking at the second meeting, which was about three years from the display of the PT-1 tank. When Stalin called me, I was so taken aback that I did not immediately understand who was calling me. But this is another история».

Chief Designer

The word "continue", abandoned by Stalin on Khamovnichesky Parade, translated Astrov into the category of untouchables, and gave the designer himself a green street for creativity. And he continued to create.

In 1933, Nikolai Alexandrovich created the medium multi-turreted tank T-29, which embodied several revolutionary design solutions for the time. It was one of the first combat vehicles in the world, moving both on tracks and on wheels, that is, when launched into the series in the middle of 1930-ies, it was able to solve the problem of the operational mobility of Soviet armored forces without using rail transport or trailers.

The T-29 tank was a 30-ton car protected by 30-mm armor. The chassis consisted of four pairs of large-diameter road wheels, of which three pairs were leading on wheels. His weapons were impressive: 76-mm cannon, two 12,7-mm DK machine guns, five DT-7,62-mm machine guns located in three conical towers. The crew consisted of a 6 man. The project was generally approved by the state commission and recommended for mass production. However, the tank did not go into the series: the design team engaged in fine-tuning the machine was almost fully arrested in the 1934 year ...

Nikolai Alexandrovich Astrov and this time this bitter cup passed: a few months earlier he was released from the sharashka and appointed chief designer at twenty-eight years! - Moscow plant number 37, where he was redirected to the creation of light tanks. It was here that the floating tanks T-38 and T-40, as well as the tracked artillery tractor T-20 Komsomolets were born.


T-38 was adopted by the Red Army in February 1936, and it was in production until 1939. In total, 1382 vehicles of various modifications were produced, which were received to equip tank and reconnaissance battalions of rifle divisions, reconnaissance companies of individual tank brigades.

As part of the rifle and cavalry units, he participated in the “liberation campaign” in Western Ukraine and Belarus in September 1939. Amphibious tanks showed themselves well during the “winter war” with Finland, where they were used as mobile firing points on the flanks and between the combat formations of the attacking infantry units. In addition, the T-38 tanks were assigned to guard command posts, remove the wounded from the battlefield and deliver ammunition to the front line.

The appearance of the artillery tractor T-20 was due to the rapid development of artillery. A special position in the Red Army of the early 1930-s began to occupy the emerging anti-tank and battalion artillery as a special kind of troops. She needed a particularly high maneuverability when changing firing positions, not inferior to the mobility of the opposing tanks, the rapid withdrawal of guns to the front for direct fire at the 500 – 1000 distance in intense enemy rifle and machine-gun fire. And here the horses, with all the reverent attitude towards them in the Red Army, were no longer suitable. A light, mobile and compact tracked front-end tractor was required, the mass production of which for the rapid saturation of anti-tank battalions and artillery regiments would be under the power of industry.

Such a machine and created Astrov. His Komsomol member carried 10-mm armor, protecting the driver and gunner-commander from bullets and small fragments, was armed with a DT-7,62-mm machine gun, which allowed the crew to conduct active hostilities in the forward edge zone, where artillerymen were likely to have direct contact with adversary. Behind the cabin was the engine compartment, closed on top of an armored hood with hinged lids. Above it, behind the armored partition, there was a cargo compartment with two longitudinal three-seater seats for artillery crews. Being turned outward, they formed with their backs the sides of the loading platform for the transport of ammunition. In inclement weather, a closed tent with windows could be installed above the seats.

The average speed of the “Komsomoltsa” with a tool on the highway reached 20 km / h, along the country road it developed to 11 km / h. The car overcame a ditch with a depth of 1,4 m, a ford with a depth of 0,6 m, a half-meter wall and easily cut down trees up to 20 thickness, see.


T-20 fighters participated in battles with the Japanese at Lake Hassan and the Khalkhin Gol River, in the Soviet-Finnish and World War II. In the summer of 1941, when conducting defensive battles and delivering counterattacks, these tractors were often used as machine gun tankettes for infantry fire support. He fought "Komsomolets" and in partisan detachments, where he enjoyed the special love of popular avengers.

The release of this tractor was stopped in July 1941-th because of the need to switch the factory capacity to the production of light tanks. In total, 7780 machines left the assembly line.

There is another interesting fact in the biography of Komsomolets. In July, the 1941-mm anti-tank guns were mounted on a hundred of such tractors at the Gorky Artillery Plant No. 92, and the first Soviet self-propelled artillery mounts were created in this way. Quickly passed the factory tests, open SAU, received the designation ZIS-57, took part in the battle for Moscow.

The last prewar masterpiece of Astrov was a light amphibious tank T-40, designed to perform the tasks of reconnaissance and combat escort. The original, unparalleled machine weighed in tons of 5,5, was equipped with a six-cylinder, engine-powered 85 l. with., armed with 12,7-mm heavy machine gun DShK and paired with him 7,62-mm machine gun DT.

But the very first weeks of the Great Patriotic War showed that tanks with anti-bullet armor were not suitable for it ...

Born in two weeks

In May, the 1941 of Moscow plant No. 37 was given the task to master the production of the X-NUMX-tonne T-14,5 tank — an excellent machine that surpasses all previous Soviet light tanks in terms of combat performance. It was planned that it will become the most widespread and that it will be able to produce in factories that are not able to produce T-50.

The outbreak of war broke plans. T-50 remained a great idea - because of the complexity of the production of a new machine is not much less than thirty-four, instead of many thousands of them were made all 75 pieces. And at the plant they feverishly increased the output of what they could and could do, trying to somehow make up for the catastrophic loss of armored vehicles in the army rolling back to the east.


Asterov these days worked intensively on the new model. And in just two weeks, he developed a new tank of direct infantry support. The car turned out much better than the T-40 and, most importantly, in contrast to the T-50, the plant was able to.

Nikolai Aleksandrovich and the military representative Lieutenant Colonel Okunev composed a letter addressed to Stalin and in the evening dropped it in a special box at the Nikolsky Gate of the Kremlin. The very next morning, Vyacheslav Malyshev, people's commissar of the tank industry, arrived at the plant. After reading the new development, he was satisfied, but suggested replacing the main weapon cars - DShK machine gun - more powerful aviation ShVAK cannon, for which he immediately connected Astrov with the corresponding design bureau.

A week later, a new light tank, designated T-60, was tested in the Moscow region in the presence of Stalin and other members of the GKO. The car showed itself perfectly, and immediately after the tests, right on the test site, a decree of the State Defense Committee was signed (all its members were here) to take the tank into service with the Red Army, and enterprises were identified that should urgently master its mass production. The head was selected Gorky Automobile Plant. In order not to waste time on running trials, Astrov drove the car to Gorky a day later ...

By the end of 1941, the army received 1400 light tanks T-60, and all of them were made 5920 pieces. At the end of 1941 - the beginning of 1942, the volume of production of medium and heavy tanks did not cover even the minimum needs of the army. I had to fight that is. Therefore, the role of the “little ones” in the defense of Moscow is difficult to overestimate. And the breakthrough of the blockade of Leningrad at the beginning of 1943 was generally the high point of T-60: only they, small and brisk, were able to cross the Neva on January, on the move, across the Neva on ice, without preparing ferries.

On the same day a unique battle took place, inscribed in gold letters in the history of the Great Patriotic War. After forcing the Neva, the commander of a tank company of the 549 tank battalion of the 61 tank brigade, Lieutenant Dmitry Osatyuk, was reconnoitering: in the morning the offensive was to resume. But suddenly the Germans launched a counterattack. The T-60, a lonely, rolling far in advance, rushed up to the battalion of Hitler’s infantry, and three “Tigers” were cut off from the 502-th battalion of heavy tanks. Attempting to rush to their open field led to inevitable death: the close gap of 88-mm projectile 56-ton monsters easily turned the 6-ton kid to the side, and a direct hit turned into a shapeless pile of melted scrap metal.


Osatyuk ordered the foreman Ivan Makarenkov, a driver-mechanic, to “dance” to the forest, on the edge of which a battery of anti-tank guns was disguised. When the Germans once again turned with a screech and went after the elusive "Sixtieth", having risen to the positions of the gunners, gun shots rang out.

Blowing a 76-mm blank from one hundred meters into the side of a tank slowly creeping across a snow field is a task for freshmen cadets. Less than five minutes later, as the two "Tigers" were already burning, and the third, putting an impenetrable forehead to the fire, slowly retreated to dusk.

Meanwhile, tanks from the company of Senior Lieutenant Osatyuk drove the German infantry, left without armor, into a large pit, but could not completely destroy the Nazis - they every time tried to throw grenades close to the edge of the T-60 pit. Having clarified the situation, the company company decided on a bold act: its tank accelerated and jumped off the cliff directly onto the heads of the enemies. Not dropping speed, Makarenkov drove the car in circles through the pit, not choosing the path. Osatyuk snatched the support check of the machine gun trigger, after which the DT began to fire independently, while the officer shot the moving enemies from the cannon. When the tank stopped firing and stopped, in front of him, with their hands raised, 27 froze to death by frightened Germans - all that remained of the battalion.

10 February 1943 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, senior lieutenant Dmitry Osatyuk and foreman Ivan Makarenkov were awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union. This was the only case in the history of the war, when the crew of the tank in full received Gold Stars.

"Inexhaustible Locust"

From mid-October, Astrov, 1941, fulfilling the military’s wish to strengthen the T-60 armor and weapons, began work on its modernization.

The new machine received an 45-mm gun with ammunition in 90 shots, a more powerful engine consisting of two GAZ-202 engines paired on one shaft. The thickness of the frontal armor was increased to 30 – 45 mm, the turret - to 35 mm. The mass of the tank at the same time increased to 9,2 tons.

The tests began in January 1942-th and were held in extreme conditions - with frosts down to —35 ° C and a meter-long snow cover. But the car showed itself well done and 6 March under the designation T-70 was adopted.

In total, 1942 / 1943 issued 8226 of various modifications of this tank, which allowed him to become the third largest in the Red Army. The Germans also called this machine "indestructible locust", marveling not at the survivability, but at the number of Soviet light tanks, simultaneously appearing on the battlefield.

T-70 were in service with tank brigades and regiments of the so-called mixed organization. The state brigade had 32 tank T-34 and 21 tank T-70, in the tank regiment X-TUMX and T-23 were armed with 70. Mixed tank brigades could be part of tank and mechanized corps or be separate, the regiments were part of the mechanized brigades.


Baptism T-70 received in June-July 1942 year on the South-Western Front. Alas, the first battles have already shown that their armament does not allow them to fight with German medium tanks, and armor protection is insufficient when using them as tanks for direct support of infantry.

At the same time, the troops also noted the positive advantages of the "seventy." According to many tank commanders, T-70 was the best suited for the pursuit of the retreating enemy, which became relevant in the 1943 year. The reliability of its power plant and chassis were higher than that of the T-34, which made it possible to make long marches. In addition, the "seventies" was low-noise, which again differed favorably from the roaring engine and Thirty-Four thundering the caterpillars, which at night, for example, could be heard for 1,5 km.

The final point in the combat career of light tanks was set by the Kursk Battle, during which it became clear that the opportunity to survive, not to mention becoming the winner, in open battle with new German heavy tanks in T-70 is close to zero. Although in the hands of skilled tankers and this "kid" became a formidable weapon. So, 6 July 1943, in battles for the village of Pokrovka, the crew of Lieutenant Boris Pavlovich from the 49 Guards Tank Brigade managed from their T-70 to destroy three medium German tanks T-IV and one Panther!

By the spring of 1944, the T-70 was expelled from the states of the Red Army tank units. Nevertheless, they continued to be exploited for quite a long time and took part in hostilities until the end of World War II. In addition, these tanks were used in the self-propelled artillery divisions, regiments and SU-76 brigades as command vehicles.

By the way, the light self-propelled gun itself is also the brainchild of Nikolai Alexandrovich Astrov, he also created on the basis of the T-70. After the cessation of production of light tanks, it was produced at GAZ, Kirov Plant No. 38 and Plant No. 40 in Mytishchi. A total of 13932 self-propelled artillery mounts, the Su-76, were released, which allowed it to become the second most popular (after the legendary thirty-four) armored fighting vehicle in the Red Army.

Armor for landing

In the 1943 year, Astrov returned to Moscow, where he became the chief designer of the defense plant No. 40 (from the 1948 of the year, Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant). It was here that he created the ASU-57 - the first Soviet self-propelled gun, designed specifically for the airborne troops.

The crew of the SAU consisted of three people: the driver and loader, placed one behind the other on the right side of the gun, and the commander, who was located on the left side of the crew compartment and also served as a gunner and radio operator. The machine carried a bulletproof defense, was armed with a 57-mm semi-automatic rifled gun, the ammunition load of which consisted of 30 shells, and the practical rate of fire was 10 shots per minute. The sight allowed firing armor-piercing shells at a distance of up to 2000, and fragmentation shells up to 3400 meters.

ASU-57 was serially produced from 1950 to 1962 a year, it entered service for divisions and regiments of the airborne troops until it was replaced by a more powerful and sophisticated ASU-85, created on the basis of the PT-76 floating tank. It is worthwhile to mention that at least 400 Astrovsky self-propelled guns were transferred to the airborne units of the armies of the Warsaw Pact countries.

At Mytishchi machine-building plant, Nikolai Alexandrovich continued to work until the 1985 year, until at the age of 79 years he went on a well-deserved rest. By this time, under his direct leadership, the ZSU-23 – 4 self-propelled unit of the Shilka anti-aircraft artillery complex was created, the undercarriage for the Kub, Buk, Tor and Tungusk anti-aircraft missiles was developed and designed.


Hero of Socialist Labor, holder of three orders of Lenin, orders of the Patriotic War of I and II degree, Red Star and two orders of Red Banner of Labor, winner of three Stalinist and one State Prize, Honored Worker of Science and Technology of the RSFSR, Doctor of Technical Sciences Nikolai Astrov died out 4 April 1992 of the year.
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29 comments
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  1. Kars
    Kars 8 February 2014 08: 45
    +6
    I wonder why the photo of the air defense system?
  2. ICT
    ICT 8 February 2014 08: 51
    +11
    Quote: Kars
    I wonder why the photo of the air defense system?

    I understand
    At Mytishchi machine-building plant, Nikolai Alexandrovich continued to work until the 1985 year, until at the age of 79 years he went on a well-deserved rest. By this time, under his direct leadership, the ZSU-23 – 4 self-propelled unit of the Shilka anti-aircraft artillery complex was created, the undercarriage for the Kub, Buk, Tor and Tungusk anti-aircraft missiles was developed and designed.

  3. Tankist_1980
    Tankist_1980 8 February 2014 10: 16
    +1
    Off-topic photo ...
    1. Ulairy
      Ulairy 9 February 2014 21: 46
      0
      Hmm, yes, I agree. And on the armor of "Komsomolets" - a Swedish 25-mm anti-aircraft gun.
      1. Somad
        Somad 10 February 2014 01: 02
        +1
        ... Actually, this is the ZIS-30 self-propelled gun - the 57-mm ZIS-2 anti-tank gun mounted on the Komsomolets ...
  4. kirpich
    kirpich 8 February 2014 10: 50
    0
    And what kind of tank is such a T-29? T-28 I know, it’s just a three-tower.
    1. Bosk
      Bosk 8 February 2014 11: 16
      +2
      T-29 is the same T-28 only in the wheeled-tracked version, such as our first BT.
      1. svp67
        svp67 8 February 2014 12: 34
        +1
        Quote: Bosk
        like our first BT.
        Or maybe the latter?
        1. Bosk
          Bosk 8 February 2014 13: 01
          0
          But isn't the BT-7 a purely caterpillar?
        2. Bosk
          Bosk 8 February 2014 13: 07
          +5
          I apologize, too, is a caterpillar wheel.
    2. Stas57
      Stas57 8 February 2014 11: 26
      +3
      On google shabbat?
      Or in the HERE did not bring a ruler? H
      ttp: //pro-tank.ru/bronetehnika-sssr/srednie-tanki/108-t-29
      1. Argon
        Argon 9 February 2014 02: 40
        +3
        A number of BT-7Ms (with V-2s) of the last pre-war issues were made purely goose-line. In old photos, these machines are identified by tracks of an unusual shape (somewhat reminiscent of those from the T-26) and the hub of the first roller. Almost all BTs, after repairs, became only goose bumps. The released "mass supply" was often used for shielding.
        1. Ulairy
          Ulairy 9 February 2014 21: 51
          +2
          hi Totally agree
  5. parus2nik
    parus2nik 8 February 2014 12: 14
    0
    Respect to the author for the article ...
  6. svp67
    svp67 8 February 2014 12: 34
    +4
    Thanks to Astrov that at a difficult moment, when we simply did not have enough tanks and PERSONALLY Stalin distributed them individually ... he was able to give the front tens or hundreds of combat units. His T60 is the hero of the Moscow battle, it was he, thanks to his performance characteristics, who interacted well with the cavalry, and it was not his fault that it turned out that he actually deprived us of heavy trucks of his own production ... And it’s a pity that there was no production capacity ” anti-aircraft "T80 ...
    1. Andrey77
      Andrey77 9 February 2014 20: 50
      -3
      His T60 is the hero of the Moscow battle, it was he who, thanks to his TTX, interacted perfectly with the cavalry

      Have you not drunk? And how exactly did he interact with the cavalry? svp, did not expect ...
      1. svp67
        svp67 9 February 2014 21: 23
        +2
        Quote: Andrey77
        And how exactly did he interact with the cavalry?


        In the second half of December, the conditions for the use of tanks changed. After the loss of large strongholds of Zavidovo, Klin, Solnechnogorsk, Istra and others (on the right wing of the front) and the intermediate line of defense along the Don and Shat rivers (on the left wing), the enemy began to hastily withdraw his fairly battered strike groups to the west. His departure was covered by strong rearguards, richly equipped with artillery and automatic weapons. They saddled road junctions in large settlements, turned by the enemy into resistance nodes. The approaches to the settlements were mined. The settlements themselves adapted to a long defense. Under such conditions, the armored forces were used mainly as part of the army mobile groups, which had the task of prosecuting the Nazis bypassing their strongholds.
        The nature of the actions of mobile groups was distinguished by a variety of tactical forms. For example, during the pursuit in the Volokolamsk direction, reconnaissance, forward detachments, and traffic and security detachments were sent from groups. The pursuit was conducted along two routes in a two-echelon formation of troops. In the first echelon were two tank brigades, in the second - rifle brigades and reinforcements. A reserve of groups was not allocated. The capture of settlements was carried out by advanced detachments on the move. With strong resistance from the advance detachment, an assault group was created, while the main forces of the mobile group continued to pursue the enemy bypassing this point. The eye forces of the group reached an important natural frontier on a wide front with the release of special support units on the flanks.
        Large populated areas were most often captured by mobile groups on the move, using a maneuver to surround with a deep coverage of one or two flanks. So the cities of Solnechnogorsk, Volokolamsk, Likhvin, Przemysl, Plavsk, and Ruza were liberated. If the attack failed on the move, the group set about preparing to storm the city. Together with the mobile group, combined-arms formations took part in street battles. So, the mobile groups of V.S. Popova and P.A. Belova, in collaboration with units of the 50th and 10th armies, liberated Kaluga and Kozelsk.
        In general, the creation of such groups for organizing the pursuit was the right decision in using the front armored forces. The fulfillment of the tasks assigned to them could only be ensured if the directions of their actions were precisely determined. Frontal pursuit was combined with a deep penetration into the "location of the enemy on parallel escape routes" (actions of the groups of L.M. Dovator, V.S. Popov and P.A. Belov).

        Generals Dovator and Belov - commanders of cavalry corps ...
        General Popov served as a commander in cavalry units for a long time, was appointed deputy commander of the 50 army to the post of commander of a mobile detachment ...
      2. Ulairy
        Ulairy 9 February 2014 21: 56
        -1
        But I had to interact ... Or to remind the well-known Budennova: "The horse will still show his own ..."
  7. vezunchik
    vezunchik 8 February 2014 18: 39
    +3
    whatever you say, the main factor is the human factor. No matter how great the technique is, in the hands of cowards it loses its advantage!
  8. Duke
    Duke 8 February 2014 19: 01
    +3
    Light tank T-60
    Combat weight, tons 5,8-6,4
    Crew, pers. Xnumx
    History
    The number of issued, pcs. Xnumx
    dimensions
    Body length, mm 4100
    Case width mm 2392
    Height, mm 1750
    Clearance, mm 300
    Reservation
    Type of armor homogeneous rolled high hardness
    Forehead of the body (top), mm / city. 15/70 ° [1] and 35/16 °
    Forehead of the body (middle), mm / city. 35 / −28 °
    The forehead of the body (bottom), mm / city. 30 / −76 °
    Board of the case, mm / city. 15/0 °
    Housing feed (top), mm / city. 10/76 °
    Housing feed (bottom), mm / city. 25 / −14 °
    Bottom, mm 10
    Roof, mm 13
    The mask of the gun, mm / city. Xnumx
    Board towers, mm / city. 25–35 / 25 °
    The roof of the tower, mm 10
    weaponry
    Caliber and brand of gun 20 mm TNSh
    Barrel length, calibers 82,4
    750 gun ammunition
    Angles VN, deg. −7 ... + 25 °
    Corners GN, hail. 360 °
    Sights TMFP-1, mechanical
    Machine guns 1 × 7,62 mm DT
    Mobility
    engine's type
    [show] GAZ-202
    Engine power, l with. Xnumx
    Highway speed, km / h 42
    Cross country speed, km / h 20 — 25
    Cruising on the highway, km 410-450
    Specific Power, l s / t 10,7-12,0
    Suspension type torsion individual
    Ground pressure, kg / cm² 0,53-0,63
    Gradeability, hail. 34 °
    The overcome wall, m 0,6
    The overcome ditch, m 1,7
    Overcoming ford, m 0,9
  9. Leshka
    Leshka 8 February 2014 19: 17
    +2
    light tanks helped us all the same
    1. Firstvanguard
      Firstvanguard 9 February 2014 15: 09
      +4
      Light tanks did a lot, and not just helped. Just in the heat of the battles of the world of tanks, comparing the frontal armor and the caliber of guns, it is difficult and once to take an interest in history, memoirs, etc. And there are a lot of discoveries, for some it will be a revelation that a decent number of tank crews, having fought pretty well in tank duels, did not participate ...
      But they destroyed a huge amount of infantry, guns and vehicles. It’s also difficult for some to understand that a light tank bursting out of the line of defense perfectly wraps ordinary soldiers on the tracks and shoots light equipment, as it is very mobile and quick-fire.
      When the tank ceased fire and stopped, 27 frightened Germans died in front of it with their hands up, all that was left of the battalion.

      If such "specialists" were in the place of these "gans", their opinion about light tanks would have changed dramatically. wassat
  10. Bongo
    Bongo 9 February 2014 01: 41
    0
    The article is not bad, but the photos are out of order, and some are generally "out of topic".
  11. DS22
    DS22 9 February 2014 04: 59
    +5
    An article about a worthy, outstanding person, and the fact that the photo is not quite in place is a trifle that you should not pay attention to! We must remember such people and take an example from them. Thanks to the author for the article!
  12. Zomanus
    Zomanus 9 February 2014 05: 11
    -3
    Yes, an interesting article. The greatest damage was caused to us by the repressions and purges of the pre-war years. And then I had to get out with what I have. And yes, the main force in people. With the current generation, Hitler would have quietly reached Vladivostok ...
    1. Nikoha.2010
      Nikoha.2010 9 February 2014 08: 35
      +8
      Quote: Zomanus
      With the current generation, Hitler would have quietly reached Vladivostok ...

      Yes, fuck two! Do not confuse, at least I will answer for my son! How they raised me, I have great-great-grandfather, great-grandfather, grandfather fought, my father served and I continued the dynasty ... The young generation brought up by us will never let you down! hi (I translate your minus 0) Against the background of all shit, there is a young generation that will defend their homeland, the main thing is how you educate this generation. When I received the lieutenant, the father said, son, I am proud of you, for me THIS is the most important thing and I will educate my children according to these unwritten laws! I have the honor!
      1. Vladimir73
        Vladimir73 13 February 2014 01: 07
        0
        Only in those days, the state brought up people, and not just the family. And now it seems that you are raising a child in spite of what is taught from TV screens at school ...
    2. Bosk
      Bosk 9 February 2014 10: 43
      +1
      The conflicts of recent years have shown that in our time our guys can give a foe to "suck" ... though, provided that our fucking politicians do not intervene, which, unfortunately, they like to do ...
  13. Nikoha.2010
    Nikoha.2010 9 February 2014 08: 24
    +3
    I wish you all good health! I was interested in the article with the first photograph of the SU-76, and the question arose? What does the SU-76 have to do with it, but it’s so simpler:
    In 1941-1943, in the position of deputy chief designer of the Gorky Automobile Plant for Special Production, N. Astrov led the creation of light tanks T-30, T-60 (1941), T-70 (1942), T-80 (1943), self-propelled guns SU-76M (based on the T-70 tank) and a number of other prototypes of tanks and self-propelled guns. From 1943 he worked at the Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant (until 1948 - Plant No. 40). An important technical achievement at that time was the widespread use of automotive units, as well as the use of twin-mounted serial engines to increase the power of the power plant of tanks and self-propelled guns.
    And in addition, so that there are no questions, read on in more detail:
    In 1985, as the chief designer of the MMZ, he led the development of ASU-57 and ASU-85 airborne self-propelled guns, ZSU-23-4 self-propelled guns of the Shilka anti-aircraft artillery system, ATP artillery tractor, and a chassis for Cube anti-aircraft missile systems, Buk ”,“ Thor ”and“ Tunguska ”. In total, he created twenty-six types of combat vehicles of five families.
    Link: ru.wikipedia.org ›Astrov, Nikolai Alexandrovich
    Thanks for the article +! soldier
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  15. Ajsberg
    Ajsberg 9 February 2014 12: 47
    0
    Pretty detailed article, thanks)
  16. svp67
    svp67 9 February 2014 13: 40
    +3
    The Germans also appreciated Astrovsky products ...


    Trophy Soviet light tank T-70 with the tower removed, used by German troops as a tractor for the captured 76,2 mm ZiS-3 divisional gun.
  17. svp67
    svp67 9 February 2014 21: 30
    0
    And it’s worth regretting that this modification of the T60 did not receive development
    A prototype anti-aircraft tank T-60 (3), armed with coaxial 12,7 mm DShK machine guns before testing. T-60 (Z) - the project of the anti-aircraft tank KB plant number 37 under the leadership of N. A. Popov.
    From the serial T-60, this machine was equipped with a converted tower, where two large-caliber 12,7-mm DShK machine guns with 30-round magazine power supply and an elevation angle of up to + 85 ° were installed. The tests began on December 5, 1942, however, the T-60 (3) anti-aircraft tank was immediately removed from the tests due to a failed ZiS-16 engine; there was no new engine for replacement. In addition, the tightness in the tower did not allow firing on ground targets.
    Only one copy was made.
  18. Ulairy
    Ulairy 9 February 2014 22: 03
    +1
    The article is short to the point of brevity. There is much more to tell about Astrov and his "wedges", because the first so-called. light tanks in 1931 were Chateau-Renault tanks with French engines. And not only because “Stalin looked and ... remained silent,” he continued the design work. But it's good that the history of such people is remembered, this is important!
    (and the pictures are really off topic, gee)
  19. egsp
    egsp 9 February 2014 22: 06
    +2
    people had a goal in life, they knew what they wanted, conscience was present. therefore, in 2 weeks we created a tank. For site visitors who were not at least pioneers, I explain: loot, a car and an iPhone are NOT THE PURPOSE of Life, you were recoded in the 90s by the Americans with the help of drunkard Yeltsin (deliberately with a small letter) and his team ("family").
  20. pensioner
    pensioner 10 February 2014 20: 49
    0
    Su - 76 - one of the most successful models of 2MV armored vehicles. And this is not my opinion (amateur - fool , Unfortunately...). M. Svirin, my friend, the designer of armored vehicles ... And most importantly, L. Gorlitsky. He appreciated the Su - 76 very highly and spoke very respectfully of its designers ...