Military Review

Yak-44E - aircraft radar watch and guidance

45
Yak-44E - deck aircraft radar patrol, guidance and control and electronic countermeasures. This machine was developed in the mid-1970s at the Design Bureau. Yakovleva. In different years, the creation of the aircraft was led by Yakovlev A.S., Levinsky A.A., Yakovlev S.A. and Dondukov A.N., and from January 1991 until the close of the project, the subject of the Yak-44 was led by V. Mitkin The prototype for the Yak-44 was the American E-2 Hokai. It was assumed that the aircraft will be based on the Ulyanovsk project 1143.7 nuclear carrier. In addition, the aircraft was supposed to go into service aviation border troops. Due to difficulties in the development of on-board equipment, the creation of the aircraft was delayed. A Yak-44 prototype was built, first shown to the public in 1992 at the Moscow air show.


The development of the Yak-44E aircraft radar aircraft is directly connected with the creation of aircraft carriers of the USSR, as well as with the ever-growing importance of information support for the actions of the naval aviation, especially at a great distance from the airfields.

As you know, in the formation of concepts for the creation and use of aircraft carriers in the USSR, and later in Russia, very controversial and inconsistent decisions were made that led to similar decisions during the development of technical policy and the development of aircraft for these vessels.

Indeed, the modern Russian aircraft carrier fleet consists of a single ship and two dozen Su-33 aircraft. However, even these forces that are part of the ship grouping are helpless if there is no timely information about the surface and air enemy, which is most effectively provided only by the ship’s aircraft of the radar watch and guidance operating as part of the aircraft carrier’s air group.

The problem of information support of ship groupings is solved by installing specials. radio complex on various platforms, which are considered airplanes, helicopters, balloons, convertible planes, airships, UAVs, as well as ships. Currently, the most efficient platforms are aircraft. The most successful project in this area is the aircraft RLDN Yak-44E, developed by the Design Bureau. Yakovlev. The creation of this aircraft was preceded by work on promising aircraft carriers.

In 1968, simultaneously with the development of the anti-submarine cruiser of the 1143 project in the Nevsky Design Bureau, research began on the appearance of an aircraft carrier with an ejection take-off aircraft (project 1160).

Initially, the multipurpose MiG-23А multi-purpose fighter aircraft with variable wing sweep, P-42 subsonic anti-submarine defense aircraft, Su-24K naval supersonic attack aircraft with variable wing sweep, as well as Ka-K-5 supersonic attack aircraft Ka-X-NNXXK, as well as deck helicopters Ka-X-NNXXK with variable wing sweep, as well as deck helicopters Ka-X-NNXXK with variable wing sweep, as well as deck helicopters Ka-X-NNXXK with variable wing sweep, as well as deck helicopters KA-252K, as well as Ka-KN-XNUMX supersonic attack aircraft with variable wing sweep, as well as deck-type Ka-K-59 helicopter.

But in 1972, in the advance design of the aircraft carrier they included several ship variants of the Su-27 front-line fighter. Now air group consisted of 12 Su-29K or Su-27K, 12 Su-28K, 4 scouts designators Su-28KRTS, 6 aircraft ASW P-42, 4 planes P-42 in the embodiment, radar surveillance and guidance and 8 helicopters anti-submarine defense Ka-252.

Yak-44E - aircraft radar watch and guidance


Subsonic anti-submarine defense aircraft P-42 was developed by OKB. Beriev according to the decision of the USSR Council of Ministers Commission on Military-Industrial Issues of 5 June 1971. P-42 in the general scheme was largely repeated by the US Navy S-3 "Viking" anti-submarine defense aircraft. The machine was carried out according to the high-wing scheme with a moderately swept wing, classic trapezoidal empennage with rudders and height, and two D-36 engines under the wing in the gondolas.

The take-off of the aircraft was to be carried out from the ship's catapult, and the design of the chassis and airframe were calculated for landing with braking by an air-arm finisher. The keel and the wing console P-42 to save space when stored in the hangar and on the deck of an aircraft carrier folded.

In addition to the main variant of anti-submarine defense, they planned to develop variants of the deck aircraft of the radar patrol, tanker, transport, search and rescue, etc. The development of the preliminary design of the P-42 was completed in the 1972 year. In 1976, flight tests of a prototype aircraft were to begin.

The first was the design of the anti-submarine defense aircraft P-42, and the development of the P-42 variant of the radar watch and guidance was postponed. But the fighters of the aircraft group of the 1160 project ship could not effectively provide the air defense of the naval unit, which was the main task of the aircraft carrier, since there was no shipborne radar patrol aircraft to control their combat operations.

In the spring of 1976, on the basis of the NPKB development work on aircraft carriers, the government adopted a resolution to develop in 1976-1977 and create by the 1985, two atomic aircraft carriers of the 1153 project. According to the concept, the court data did not differ from the 1160 project, but their air group was reduced from 60-70 aircraft to 50.

The construction of the 1153 heavy aircraft cruisers of the 1977 project in November was abandoned, and the construction of subsequent 1143 vessels, starting with the fifth, was decided to take into account not only the Ka-252 helicopters and the VTs of the Yak-141 type, but also the Su-25K and Su- 27K - aircraft ejection takeoff.

For the first time, the Yak-44 is mentioned in the terms of reference for the development of the heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser of the 11435 project from November 1980 of the year as a radar patrol aircraft, which is part of the aircraft carrier's wing. The 11435 project involved the creation of a ship with a displacement of 55 ths. Tons with an aircraft group of 46 aircraft (aircraft RLDN Yak-44E, MiG-29K, Su-27K, Yak-141 and Ka-27) helicopters. In the future, they refused to carry out this TTZ, after which the aircraft was created for the aircraft wing of the aircraft carrier of the 27 Ulyanovsk project. Option airfield-based planned to deliver to the air force.

In April, 1981 decided to upgrade the second heavy aircraft carrier under construction of the 11434 project in the direction of increasing the aircraft’s air group to 40 aircraft with the inclusion of MiG-29K and Su-27K fighters. In the forward part of the flight deck, the construction of a springboard was provided for the take-off of the fighters.


Photo on the memory after testing the operation of the layout of the Yak-44E on TAKR "Tbilisi" Ave. 11435, September 1990 (http://forums.airbase.ru)



The model of the Yak-44E on the flight deck of the TAKR "Tbilisi" Ave. 11435, September 1990 (http://forums.airbase.ru)



Full-size mock-up of DRLOIU Yak-44E aircraft (http://militaryphotos.net)


For information support of the aircraft carrier grouping ships and the management of combat operations of fighters, the radar patrol and guidance aircraft Yak-11434E were included in the aircraft group of the aircraft carrier of the 44 project. The development of the Yak-44E was given by the Yakovlev design bureau in 1979.

By November 1979, OKB im. Yakovleva prepared those. proposal for the design of an aircraft based on the deck of an aircraft carrier or land aerodromes. We considered two options for the radio complex - the Fakel (the radar was located inside the fuselage in the stern and fore) and the E-700 (the all-round antenna was located above the fuselage on the pylon). In March 1980, at a meeting with S. Gorshkov, Commander-in-Chief of the Naval fleet Of the Soviet Union, a decision was made to create an aircraft with the Fakel radio complex.

Due to significant problems with the creation of the Fakel radio-technical complex in March 1983, the development of the corresponding version of the aircraft design was stopped. In October 1984 of the year in connection with the failure of the fleet from the draft deck version of the An-71 long-range radar detection and control aircraft, work continued on the Yak-44E without lift engines, equipped with turboprop-fan engines and the A-700 radar antenna antenna over the fuselage on the pylon. In September, 1988, an advance design of the new version of the aircraft was prepared. In January, the 1989 of the year adopted a Council of Ministers Decree on the creation of a multi-purpose radar patrol aircraft Yak-44E with the radio complex E-700. In June, the 1989 of the year was started with detailed design. They made a full-size constructive-technological model and a model on the scale 1: 5 intended for radio engineering studies. To test the engine D-27 created the aircraft laboratory Yak-42LL. In TsAGI, in the period from 1988 to 1991, the year carried out research on the dynamics of the deck Yak-44RLD and safety during take-off with the use of a springboard.



The Air Force Flight Research Institute at the ground-based test complex in Saki (Crimea) successfully conducted a unique experiment in controlling the pre-landing maneuvering and landing of a group of planes consisting of two MiG-29 and one An-24 imitator Yak-44E. The aircraft made an approach at a given pace. The protection of the draft technical design and the layout of the Yak-44 took place in January of the 1990 year. In terms of its main characteristics, the aircraft significantly exceeded the latest versions of the Hokai E-2С, the only aircraft of this class with an ejection take-off in the world.

The construction of prototypes and further serial production were planned to be carried out at the Tashkent Aviation Plant. The construction of the first flight pattern was begun in the 1990 year. The cockpit and the middle part of the fuselage were manufactured at the pilot plant of the OKB Design Bureau. Yakovlev, manufacturing the antenna fairing was engaged in conjunction with the Ulyanovsk APO, the wing - in Ulan-Ude. 1990 was decided to work out the storage and transportation of the Yak-44E on aircraft carriers using a simplified weight and size model. The layout should have been built on the basis of 1990, protected in January, of a constructive-technological layout. In August, the 1990 of the year, the Design Bureau completed the revision of the layout. The model was disassembled and transported to Sevastopol, where it was again assembled aboard the heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser “Tbilisi”. Assessment of the characteristics of the Yak-44E on board the cruiser was carried out in a short time - during the first half of September 1990. In the course of these works, the possibilities of mooring and towing the aircraft in the hangar and on the flight deck, rolling onto the platform and climbing onto the deck, descending into the hangar, installing into a regular place, pairing the vehicle with technical support posts on the deck and in the hangar were checked. At the end of the work, the model of the aircraft was again moved to the Yakovlev Design Bureau in Moscow.

In the 1992 year, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the financing of work on the Yak-44E aircraft was stopped at the stage of building prototypes for testing. In anticipation of the MAKS-1995, the Yak-44E was supposed to be shown, but the Ministry of Defense banned the show.



The radar patrol aircraft Yak-44 is built according to the normal aerodynamic configuration. In the deck version, the aircraft had a folding radar antenna pylon and folding wings. Double tail. The fuselage has a semi-monococcal circular section. The fuselage is equipped with a working cabin for operators, a rest compartment designed for one person, an air-conditioned compartment with equipment, a canteen and a bathroom. Trapezoidal wing in the plan. Wing mechanization - along the entire trailing edge. Foldable wing console. To reduce the inductive impedance, end flaps were installed. Chassis tricycle, with a nose strut, retractable. The fuel is placed in the caisson tanks in the stabilizer and the root of the wing.

Initially, the Yak-44E was supposed to install a combined powerplant, which consisted of two cruise turboprop engines located under the wing and four turbojet lifting engines located in the fuselage. Lifting engines should be used only during takeoff and landing to reduce the speed of the Yak-44E from the deck of the aircraft carrier and the approach of the aircraft to land.

During the take-off of the Yak-44 with this powerplant from a springboard, the estimated takeoff length was about 150-200 meters, the estimated cruising speed - 450 km / h, the duration of patrolling - 5 hours. The RTC of the aircraft detected enemy planes at a distance from 150 to 200 km from the aircraft carrier and pointed fighters at them. The detection of surface targets was carried out at a distance of more than 300 km. The crew of the aircraft - three people.

However, the placement in the fuselage of the Yak-44E 4-x lifting engines and significant reserves of fuel made it difficult for the layout of the aircraft RTK systems.

In the final version (project 1984 of the year), the Yak-44E was equipped with two D-27 turboprop-fan engines developed by Zaporozhye Machine-Building Design Bureau Progress. According to its characteristics, the D-27 engine has no analogues in the global aircraft engine building industry. The use of these engines with a heightened load on the take-off mode, as well as taking into account the wing airflow, made it possible to provide a springboard Yak-44E springboard from aircraft carriers. Both of the key engine elements that determine the high technological level — the gearbox and the fan-driver — are Russian-made.

The choice of this engine for the Yak-44E aircraft was due to the fact that at high subsonic cruising speeds it has better efficiency, compared to modern turbojet dual-engine engines. In addition, in takeoff mode, the D-27 provides the best thrust-to-weight ratio and traction characteristics. The weight of the aircraft was sufficient for the take-off of the aircraft from the springboard of the heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser Admiral Kuznetsov and the increase of the lift force of the wing due to blowing its surface.

These qualities are also important because the Yak-44E was supposed to create a family of airfield and deck-based aircraft with various cruising speeds. In the whole range of these speeds, the D-27 has advantages over turbojet bypass and turboprop engines.

The take-off power of the D-27 engines was HP 13880. each (according to other data - on 14000 hp), and cruising - on 6750 hp each. The engine length was equal to 4198 millimeters. Weight without a ventilator - 1650 kg. The diameter of the fan driver was 4,5 m. The number of blades - 8 and 6. In the cruise mode, the specific fuel consumption per hour was 0.17 kg / hp, and in the cruise mode - from 0,13 to 0,143 kg / hp. at one o'clock.

The ground tests of the D-27 turboprop-fan engine were carried out in 1988, and in 1990, it underwent a series of studies. For this purpose, a flying IL-76LL laboratory was used at LII VVS. The D-27 engine is equipped with a two-stage compressor, a high-temperature combustion chamber (has a uniform temperature field at the turbine inlet), a three-shaft turbine (has an active control system for radial clearances), a single-stage compact differential gearbox with an integrated thrust meter, a two-row screw-driver CB-27, an electronic control system FADEC type. The reducer of the turbopropfan engine D-27 was developed by ZMKB Progress, the production was carried out by the Moscow machine-building production enterprise Salyut.

The screw fan is a high-loaded supersonic high-speed propeller with large-width saber blades. The main advantage of this propeller is high efficiency at high transonic flight speeds, which are comparable to efficiency. normal propeller at medium speeds. The screw fan CB-27 is designed and manufactured by SKBM (today OAO NPP Aerosila). CB-27 double-row, with the opposite direction of rotation of the blades, vane-reversible, coaxial, automatic, equipped with an electric anti-icing system of the fairing and blades. For the manufacture of blades used composite materials. The design of the mounting blades provides replacement blades during operation. The hydromechanical regulator together with the electronic regulator provided the pitch fan control, reorganization and maintenance of the rotation speed on the electronic channel. Accuracy was ± 0,5%. Maximum speed - 1200 revolutions per minute.

The tests of the D-27 with a power-driven fan, including for the Yak-44E, were carried out on an airplane - the Yak-42E-LL flying laboratory with one D-236 engine, which is a reduced dimensionality of the D-27 engine. 15 March 1991, the first flight of the flying laboratory.

The complex of the equipment of the Yak-44 radar patrol aircraft includes a set of information and information-control systems, digital computing means, indication and control systems connected by multiplex information exchange channels.

An E-700 radar station with a circular viewing radar provided for the detection of air targets at a distance of 150-200 km and surface targets - more than 300 km.

Flight-navigation complex provides continuous automatic determination of coordinates according to the information of inertial systems with correction according to the information of the radio-technical systems of satellite, long-range and short-range navigation. PNK provides the formation and display of information about the state of the aircraft systems and the parameters of the power plant.

The integrated control system provided automatic piloting in the vertical and horizontal planes along the programmed route, as well as automatic landing using signals from deck or ground radio engineering means of landing, stabilization of the set values ​​of height, speed, roll, course, pitch.

The meteo-navigation radar station provides an indication of information about meteorological formations, as well as issuing recommendations on the optimal route for their flight.

On-board automated monitoring system provides control of the technical condition and operability of systems and equipment during the flight, documenting the results of monitoring with further transmission of data via telemetry communication channels to the station of technical bases, monitoring operational limitations, predicting the technical condition, troubleshooting, taking into account the balance of equipment and systems .

Electro-remote control system is a complex analog-digital control system for aircraft and wing mechanization, providing flight at various aircraft alignments associated with various equipment and refueling options.

Modifications

Yak-44E - carrier-based long-range radar detection aircraft, built layout.

Yak-44PLO - anti-submarine aircraft. Avanproject aircraft, created no later than 1990 year. Technical design was not conducted. Assumed to create a ship and the base versions of the aircraft.

Yak-44E ground - a modification of the aircraft for early warning radar and control for airdrome-based. It was supposed to deliver to the Air Force of the USSR. The aircraft project was defended in the fall of 1991. The aircraft has a significantly increased patrol time, the tactical and technical characteristics of the radio-technical complex have been improved.

Yak-44 patrol / border - modification to control the border. The design of this aircraft in terms of the design bureau was scheduled to 1994 year.

Yak-44 transport.

Yak-44 rescue.

Flight performance (flight data calculated):
Length - 20,39 m.
Height - 5,7 m.
Wingspan - 25,70 m.
Swing with folded wing - 12,5 m.
Wing area - 88 m2.
The diameter of the fuselage - 2,7 m.
Radome radome diameter - 7,3 m.
Empty weight - 21200 kg.
Maximum take-off weight - 30400 kg.
Engine type - X-NUMX turbopropfan engines D-2
Power - 2x4700 hp
Screw diameter - 4,5 m.
Fuel stock - 10,5 t.
Maximum speed - 740 km / h.
Cruising speed - 700 km / h.
Ferry range -> 4000 km.
Patrol speed - 500-650 km / h.
Patrol height - 3-11 km.
Landing speed - 185 km / h.
Practical ceiling - 13 km.
Range range - km.
Azimuth Viewing Area - 360 deg.
The viewing area height - km.
Target detection range:
- aerial target with EPR 3 m² - 250 km;
- cruise missile AGM-84 - 165 km;
- cruise missile AGM-86 - 220 km.
The number of simultaneously accompanied targets - 150.
The height range for detecting airborne targets is 5-30000 m.
The speed range of the detected targets is 40-3500 km / h.
The number of simultaneously accompanied targets on the background of 1500 - 150.
Flight crew - 2 people.
Radio crew - 4 people.

Based on materials:
www.paralay.com
militaryrussia.ru
www.airwar.ru
alternathistory.org.ua
Author:
45 comments
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  1. SibRUS
    SibRUS 4 February 2014 07: 43
    +10
    Our aircraft carrier needs such a modern analogue.
    1. PSih2097
      PSih2097 4 February 2014 08: 31
      +1
      Quote: SibRUS
      Our aircraft carrier needs such a modern analogue.

      provided that there will be a catapult on AB, without it it simply will not fly up.
      1. little man
        little man 4 February 2014 10: 45
        +7
        In addition, on take-off mode, the D-27 provides better thrust-to-weight ratio and traction characteristics. The thrust-weight ratio was sufficient to take off the aircraft from the springboard of the heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser "Admiral Kuznetsov" and increase the lifting force of the wing due to blowing of its surface.

        Is that not true?
      2. samoletil18
        samoletil18 4 February 2014 19: 26
        +3
        Quote: PSih2097
        provided that there will be a catapult on AB, without it it simply will not take off
        It's a shame that the catapult was also developed, thanks to the labeled alcoholic. am
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Canep
      Canep 4 February 2014 11: 02
      +3
      Quote: SibRUS
      Our aircraft carrier needs such a modern analogue.

      While it is being developed and built, Kuzya will use up his resource. Development at the most "shock" modern pace will take no less than 15 years. T-50 began in 2002, serial production is scheduled for 2015, a total of 13 years. Until there is a program for the construction of aircraft carriers, it makes no sense to start work on a carrier-based AWACS aircraft.
      1. StolzSS
        StolzSS 5 February 2014 00: 20
        +4
        Right here you are wrong. Aircraft AWACS in such a dimension is more profitable than a healthy A-50
        So we need to make a DRLO aircraft suitable for an aircraft carrier, and only then, when the aircraft carrier will build, will both the refueling vehicle and anti-submarine do it .... But you need to start with the DRLO if the mind moves the matter .... hi
    4. Kuzkin Batyan
      Kuzkin Batyan 5 February 2014 06: 28
      +1
      It turns out that we figured out how to launch drone planes from an aircraft carrier without using a catapult. Meanwhile, Americans are still tormented with catapults. Instead of a drill, it was possible to make and launch a carrier on the same engines from an aircraft carrier.
    5. Civil
      Civil 5 February 2014 21: 29
      +1
      Alas, there is no such necessary aircraft
  2. tlauicol
    tlauicol 4 February 2014 08: 20
    +2
    plane that was not
  3. aleksandrs95
    aleksandrs95 4 February 2014 08: 26
    +2
    to make it easier, it is needed from composites and with the possibility of refueling the pest.
  4. user
    user 4 February 2014 09: 04
    +9
    In fact, without an aircraft of this class, the presence of AUG loses its purpose.
  5. ramsi
    ramsi 4 February 2014 09: 07
    +2
    and if phased arrays are placed in the body and wings, then maybe the "saucer" is no longer needed? .. And yet, the patrol speed is not too high?
  6. FunkschNNX
    FunkschNNX 4 February 2014 09: 14
    +1
    What kind of planes are they: the Su-29K fighter and the Su-28K attack aircraft ???
    1. Rebus
      Rebus 4 February 2014 15: 34
      +4
      These are unrealized projects ...
      Su-28K is a project of a deck-based two-seat attack aircraft for equipping aircraft carriers of project 1160. It was a modification of the Su-27K with a special weapons control system (SUV), which allowed the use of various air-ship, air-ground and air-class weapons “Radar.” Served as the basis for a number of modifications - reconnaissance target designator (Su-28KRC), RLDN aircraft and others.

      Su-29K is a project of a carrier-based interceptor fighter for equipping aircraft carriers of project 1160. It was a modification of the Su-27K with improved SUV, which allowed the use of long-range air-to-air missiles K-33.

      http://baryshnikovphotography.com/bertewor/Су-33
      1. FunkschNNX
        FunkschNNX 5 February 2014 10: 05
        0
        Well then projects.
    2. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 4 February 2014 20: 39
      +2
      Dear colleague Artyom, the names of the aircraft of the proposed projects for the Su-29K and Su-28K aircraft, in this case, were used in the 1972 advance project of the never-built aircraft carrier. Subsequently, the designation Su-29 was assigned to a sports and aerobatic aircraft (mass-produced), and the Su-28 to a two-seat training aircraft based on the Su-25 - http://www.airwar.ru/enc/other/su28.html (in the series did not go because of the collapse of the USSR).
      1. FunkschNNX
        FunkschNNX 5 February 2014 10: 02
        +1
        Thank. So I know about the flight Su-29, but I hear about the fighter for the first time. And I heard about the training Su-28, but this is a training one.
  7. Nayhas
    Nayhas 4 February 2014 09: 52
    0
    Yak-44 is a vivid example of what the OKB them. Yakovleva. After the war, not a single standing combat vehicle. For 15 years, nothing but the layout of Hokai ...
    In terms of its basic characteristics, the aircraft significantly exceeded the latest versions of the Hokai E-2C ship aircraft - the only aircraft of this class in the world with an ejection take-off.

    Yeah, for sure, especially in terms of mass ... In general, I want to tell the author what the hell to draw conclusions and comparisons between the existing machine and unrealized intentions?
    1. Sarmat1972
      Sarmat1972 4 February 2014 12: 52
      +9
      Did the KB them. After WWII, Yakovleva did not design and put into production a series of passenger airplanes, a series of sports and training airplanes .... now training YACs are coming for training ... I think in \ You are not quite right.
      1. Nayhas
        Nayhas 5 February 2014 10: 17
        0
        Quote: Sarmat1972
        Did the KB them. Yakovleva after the Second World War did not design and released a series of passenger aircraft, a series of sports and training aircraft ....

        I deliberately sharpened the "combat vehicle", what have passenger and sports aircraft to do with it?
    2. rubin6286
      rubin6286 5 February 2014 08: 13
      +5
      You do not understand anything about aviation, you are not a pilot, and you are writing a commentary after reading popular books. Initially, A.S. Yakovlev was engaged in the creation of light sports aerobatic vehicles, and in the pre-war and war period, single-seat fighters, light transport vehicles and promising models of aviation technology. In the post-war period, the Yakovlev Design Bureau created a successful model of the Yak-24 military helicopter, as well as a family of multipurpose combat aircraft based on the Yak-25 (Yak-27R, Yak-28). Exceptionally well balanced, easy to operate, these aircraft surpassed the MiG-19 and Su-7b aircraft in service at that time in speed and range. The Yak-28 in cruising mode went with V = 1530 km / h, and the MiG-19, considered supersonic, barely "crawled" at maximum to supersonic with V = 1450 km / h. Radar, coupled with a radar sight and air-to-air missiles also first appeared on the Yaks, and on MiGs and Su at that time there was only an optical sight, absolutely useless when firing missiles.
      The Yak-28B was the first supersonic tactical bomber carrying nuclear weapons not only in the USSR, but also in the world, and our IL-28 could only carry conventional aerial bombs. Yakovlev built a number of aircraft that facilitated the transition of pilots from piston bombers to jet aircraft - Yak-200, Yak-210. His Yak-50 (1952) was 250 kg lighter than the MiG-15bis, was easier to fly and had an air brake. He was not accepted into service. the Korean war was going on, where the MiG-15 was already fighting well, and the American Saber was also captured from which everything that could be “ripped off” and then used on the MiG-17, etc. Yak-38 - the first Soviet production aircraft VVP. and the Yak-141 is the first supersonic aircraft GDP. It is not the designer's fault that at that time other designers failed to create powerful and economical aircraft engines, solid and reliable aircraft-carrying ships, compact and reliable on-board electronics. Yakovlev's bureau works for the future, does what is ordered and does it well. We need passenger planes taking off and landing on unpaved strips - the Yak-40, Yak-42 have been made. Not a single Tu or Il fly from unpaved strips. We need an AWACS aircraft - the Yak-44 has been made, available to pilots even for pilots of average skill, which cannot be said about the An-24 and An-26, not to mention the Il-114.
      There were very successful TCBs Yak-30 and Yak-32, which did not go into the series for political reasons, which unfortunately happens.
      The new Yak-130 is the first and only aircraft in the world to simulate the conditions for piloting the MiG-29 and Su-27,30 aircraft, as well as fighters of NATO countries.
      1. Nayhas
        Nayhas 5 February 2014 11: 01
        0
        Quote: rubin6286
        You do not understand anything in aviation, not a pilot, and write a comment after reading popular books.

        Thanks for the criticism, but let's take a closer look. Please list the Yakovlev combat aircraft that have gone through the GSI and adopted for service?
        Yak-25 - 1949, the continuation of the German theme of the Me-262, apparently nothing original Yakovlev could come up with.
        Yak-27 - 1957, the improved Yak-25.
        Yak-28 - 1960, from the same series.
        By the way, about this plane: Fedosov, Evgeny Aleksandrovich Half a century in aviation: Notes of the academician
        Later, the Yak-28 was created, which already bombed at supersonic speeds. This aircraft was launched into a series at the Irkutsk plant without testing the bombing regime. Moreover, the Yak-28 began to be delivered to some countries of the Warsaw Pact: to Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland. And there, during the training bombing, the problem arose of getting the bomb not even at the target, but at least into the firing range.

        About the Yak-25/27/28 series, I have not met a single good review.
        Yak-36M / 38 - 1977, could take off and land vertically, could not do anything else.
        On this machine, and ends with Yakovlev Design Bureau. Numerous experimental vehicles that have remained unrealized (including the Yak-41 that failed in the tests) are wasted government funds, because the output was only zilch.
        Yak-130 is generally a separate issue worthy of trial by the prosecutor. Already two cars have crashed, despite the fact that this is a school desk and the aircraft must be super reliable ...
        1. vtur
          vtur 8 February 2014 11: 01
          0
          Both good posts from Nayhas and rubin6286 ...
          I'll put in my "5 kopecks".
          All this must be considered in the context of the prevailing political situation in the USSR and unhealthy competition between aircraft designers. After the war, Yakovlev fell into disgrace to Stalin (I think everyone knows why) and, in fact, it saved him in the eyes of the political leadership of the USSR after 1953. But all the niches in the aviation industry were already occupied. So grabbed A.S. for all that he could with all the ensuing results (the design bureau clearly lacked the experience that appears with a narrow specialization in a certain type of aircraft). As an engineer, familiar, for example, with the Yak-42, he could bring a lot of amateurish and promising, but not thought out to the end technical solutions for this long-suffering machine ...
          1. Kassandra
            Kassandra 20 March 2015 03: 39
            0
            better than 30 silver pieces
            The Yak-38 could do everything better than the modern Harrier in the version of the attack aircraft
            The Yak-36 could do much better than the Yak-38, but because of the two PMDs, it was less reliable, which the military did not work for.
            The Yak-41 did not fail in any tests and even flew to Fornborough, the F-35 copied from it - no.
  8. Alex
    Alex 4 February 2014 10: 06
    +6
    Quote: PSih2097
    provided that there will be a catapult on AB, without it it simply will not fly up.

    Read the article carefully. "The thrust-to-weight ratio was sufficient for the plane to take off from the springboard of the heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser Admiral Kuznetsov." The reason why work on this aircraft was stopped is understandable, but why they have not been continued now is not very clear.
    1. little man
      little man 4 February 2014 10: 48
      +1
      I fully support. I liked the article, but the reasons for not resuming the project, unfortunately, are not indicated.
    2. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 4 February 2014 10: 51
      +5
      Dear colleague Aleksey, when the task was given to design the Yak-44 aircraft, it was planned to build 4 aircraft carriers, 2 of them with nuclear power plants. There is currently no need for such an aircraft due to the lack of aircraft carriers.
      On Kuznetsov, if necessary, you can use the Ka-31, which last year arrived in the Northern Fleet.
      When the decision will be made on the construction of aircraft carriers, but then tasks will be issued for the design of the aircraft, based on the changes in the premises of these ships.
  9. abc_alex
    abc_alex 4 February 2014 11: 58
    +9
    Quote: Gamdlislyam
    Dear colleague Aleksey, when the task was given to design the Yak-44 aircraft, it was planned to build 4 aircraft carriers, 2 of them with nuclear power plants. There is currently no need for such an aircraft due to the lack of aircraft carriers.
    On Kuznetsov, if necessary, you can use the Ka-31, which last year arrived in the Northern Fleet.
    When the decision will be made on the construction of aircraft carriers, but then tasks will be issued for the design of the aircraft, based on the changes in the premises of these ships.



    Well, that's a very controversial statement. I would like to draw your attention to the fact that the aircraft was built not as a unique deck-based aircraft, but as a reconnaissance-observation aircraft with a shortened take-off in the interests of the Ministry of Defense. Total. And not just the Navy. He replaced the unsuccessful counterpart from Antonov in the Air Force, for example. A border modification and a modification for the ground forces were planned. So the lack of aircraft carriers is not the reason. This plane is still needed. We have PLO sitting on the "Ilah" of the Ochakov era ...


    The reason, I think, is the same - problems with production after the collapse of allied cooperation. For example engines. They are made by Ukraine, and there the Maidan Nezalezhnosti has been there for the last 10 years ... The D-27 engine has no domestic analogues yet, and it slows down not only the An-70, but this project also makes it impossible.
    1. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 4 February 2014 12: 34
      +1
      Quote: abc_alex
      This plane is still needed. We have PLO sitting on the "Ilah" of the Ochakov era ...

      Dear colleague Sergey, I agree with you that Ilya is old (therefore they are being modernized), but the cost of new aircraft (Yak-44) will be such (including due to small-scale production) that until there is a need for decked aircraft, no one will order it. It is many times cheaper to adapt any commercially available aircraft for the same border guards or Moscow Region, which is being done.
      1. coserg 2012
        coserg 2012 4 February 2014 13: 50
        +3
        For some reason, it seems to me that the need for a deck will appear soon. The layout in the foreground so simply would not stand.
  10. chunga-changa
    chunga-changa 4 February 2014 12: 49
    +1
    You can do without a catapult. Based on a seaplane. The seaplane is lowered by crane into the water, the field of which he calmly takes off. Boarding the same way. To those who find it unimaginably difficult and not practical, I report that this is how reconnaissance from ships without aircraft carriers was carried out until they came up with the use of helicopters and did nothing, they managed. The second simple option is starting boosters. They were also actively used until they made a catapult. The third option is to develop an engine specifically for a particular aircraft and make the aircraft as light as possible. Make the filling of the aircraft on a lightweight modern element base. Instead of a fungus with an antenna - AFAR canvases on the sides. The plane itself is made of polymer materials. They also need ten pieces maximum, anyway this is not a series, you can spend money and make an exclusive.
    1. StolzSS
      StolzSS 5 February 2014 00: 24
      +2
      Yes, no, just a series of 30-40 planes is needed for 10 years, then it is cost-effective ... although taking into account the size of the territory that the series should be controlled, more would be needed ...
      1. chunga-changa
        chunga-changa 7 February 2014 01: 39
        0
        30-40pcs. for 10 years is it to equip what? Land AWACS is already there, it makes no sense. A 30-40pcs. is it at least 10-15, but rather 15-20 aircraft carriers in 10 years?
    2. Kuzkin Batyan
      Kuzkin Batyan 5 February 2014 06: 34
      +2
      And this plane will fly only in good weather? At the first storm, while it is lowered or raised it will be killed on the deck.
      1. chunga-changa
        chunga-changa 7 February 2014 01: 37
        +1
        And from the deck in a storm, AWACS planes fly?
    3. Mista_dj
      Mista_dj April 22 2015 09: 30
      +2
      Amateur statement.
  11. Alex
    Alex 4 February 2014 12: 57
    +7
    Quote: abc_alex
    Well, this is a very controversial statement. I want to draw attention to the fact that the aircraft was not built as a unique deck, but as a reconnaissance-observation aircraft with a short take-off in the interests of the Moscow Region

    That's right. It should also be noted that the same E-2C Hokai is also used not only as a decked aircraft. Israelis used it especially effectively in the Middle East war of 1982. These planes were the main reason for the success of Israeli aviation. In general, the E-2C is one of the most efficient AWACS aircraft, second only to the much more complex and large-sized American E-3A and Russian A-50. We would definitely not be in such a plane.
  12. Roman 1977
    Roman 1977 4 February 2014 13: 29
    +8
    In addition to the Yak-44, there was another interesting project of the AWACS-An-71 aircraft.
    In 1982, the government of the USSR, on the proposal of the ministries of defense, aviation, radio and electronic industries, as well as the communications industry, decided to conduct research work on an operational-tactical AWACS aircraft. The head enterprise for the topic as a whole was the Kiev Mechanical Plant (KMZ - now the Antonov ASTC), and for the radio-electronic complex - the Moscow NPO Vega. The requirements for the aircraft were very high and the deadlines were tight. It was necessary to create a ground-based vehicle, not inferior to the E-2C. The use of this aircraft would significantly increase the combat effectiveness of Soviet fighter and assault aviation. During the development of the technical proposal, several RTK carriers were considered, including: An-32, An-12, An-72 and a specially created aircraft. The aerodynamic layout of the An-71 was chosen, based on the need to ensure the operation of the RTK antenna without shading zones by the aircraft structure. Two schemes of AO placement were worked out: on a special pylon and on the tip of the vertical tail (AO). A comprehensive analysis of the schemes showed the advantages of the latter, although this required a re-development of the tail section of the fuselage and empennage. A VO was designed, which had a reverse sweep, large chord and thickness. Compared to the original An-72, its shoulder has decreased by almost 4 m, which negatively affected the controllability of the vehicle. The horizontal tail (GO), transferred to the fuselage, falling into the zone of influence of jet jets from the engines, had to experience high vibration loads. To reduce this negative impact of the HE, a rather significant angle of the transverse "V" was given and the tail section of the fuselage bent upwards was designed, which made it possible to raise the HE by 500 mm. At the same time, the aircraft's momentary pitch characteristics were still noticeably different from the An-72. The aircraft used more powerful D-436K engines compared to the original ones. However, the provision of the specified VPH (takeoff with one failed engine) still required the addition of an "accelerator" - RD-36A. On February 19, 1986, the An-71 (╧ 03), which received the registration designation USSR-780361, was rolled out, and on February 28, it was lifted into the air by a crew consisting of: V.G. Lysenko (commander), A.V. Tkachenko (assistant commander ), Yu.A. Dmitriev (test flight engineer) and M.N. Berezyuka (experimental engineer) Test flights were carried out not only from Kiev airfields, but also in other regions, including Central Asia, the Caucasus, the Volga region and Crimea, over different underlying surfaces and in all seasons. The program of the 1st stage of the LCI was almost completely completed.
    According to the assessment of the institutes of Moscow Region and Moscow Aviation Institute, the use of An-71 can increase the combat effectiveness of fighter aircraft by 2,5-3 times. The aircraft may also have non-military uses: for relaying information about the air situation, air traffic control in undeveloped areas (it is not by chance that the air traffic control has been abbreviated with the EU fuselage), recognition of surface and air objects, search operations, etc. An-71, its systems and complexes do not require the use of special means of maintenance and allow for long-term (up to 30 days) operation of the machine in isolation from the main base.
    Due to the lack of funding, the work on its creation and development was frozen at the end of the 1990 year. Two prototypes of the aircraft are at the airport in Kiev.
    http://www.airwar.ru/enc/spy/an71.html

    1. lelikas
      lelikas 4 February 2014 13: 48
      +5
      Quote: Novel 1977
      In addition to the Yak-44, there was another interesting project of the AWACS-An-71 aircraft.

      The only drawback is that a separate aircraft carrier will be needed for it.
    2. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 4 February 2014 20: 55
      +2
      Quote: Novel 1977
      In addition to the Yak-44, there was another interesting project of the AWACS-An-71 aircraft.

      There was a good monograph about this aircraft and its problems in the journal "Aviation and Time"
  13. Rash
    Rash 4 February 2014 15: 39
    +1
    Quote: Canep
    Until there is a program for the construction of aircraft carriers, it makes no sense to begin work on a carrier-based aircraft AWACS.

    What is the use of the programs! There, the government has written how many of them! And who will carry out these same programs? There are no chief designers, no specialists, no skilled workers, and there are many more ...
    1. rubin6286
      rubin6286 5 February 2014 08: 24
      +1
      I agree with you. Now it’s not up to the aircraft carriers. They need coastal infrastructure (military bases on foreign territory). We have no such bases as permanent locations. The country seeks and gives an effective asymmetric response to all the machinations of potential aggressors. Putin, visiting a weapons factory in Tula, clearly said that priority was given to domestic technologies that have no analogues abroad and are considered breakthrough.
  14. Zomanus
    Zomanus 4 February 2014 16: 01
    +4
    Damn, you need, need, need. With our territories, we need as many peers as possible of all kinds. A-50 certainly hurt, but they are healthy. We need small airplanes, since the size of the equipment allows us to do this now. At least every fleet should have a pair of our Hokai. Even land-based. Our North is not completely covered, damn it. There generally four or five such boards are needed.
    1. rubin6286
      rubin6286 5 February 2014 08: 29
      0
      Now the country cannot afford "all sorts of different glances." Let there be at least one "peep" (A-50), but good and effective.
  15. Chicot 1
    Chicot 1 4 February 2014 16: 54
    +5
    I wrote about this earlier (and more recently), but still let me repeat myself ... Especially since it will be in the subject ...
    I think it will be quite appropriate to resume further development of the Yak-44 aircraft and create on its basis a family of machines for various purposes, both for deck and land based ...
    For the "deck" in at least three versions - AWACS and U (for which the Yak-44 was actually created), anti-submarine / patrol (I think that one should not spray forces and create a specialized vehicle for this from scratch), as well as transport / airborne transport (with the ability to quickly convert it into a tanker and back) ...
    For land based at least two options - patrol (for the same border troops) and transport / landing transport (here the possibility of converting it into a refueling station is not required) ...
    In addition, it is possible to create on the basis of the Yak-44 and search and rescue aircraft, if this becomes necessary ...
    A single fleet of aircraft will reduce the time for training / retraining of flight and engineering personnel, facilitate maintenance and equipment with spare parts ...
    Of course, all this is nothing more than good wishes, but as they say - dreaming is not harmful ...
    And many thanks to the author for the good stuff ...
    1. rubin6286
      rubin6286 5 February 2014 08: 35
      0
      One gets the impression that you are not watching TV channel 1 and the "Time" program. There is the State Defense Order, where everything is taken into account and distributed until 2020, what, how much and where will be done. Where to find factories for new types of aircraft, money, people? Where are the "decks" for these aircraft, why patrol territories from the air in the presence of the VKO radar and space reconnaissance.
      1. Chicot 1
        Chicot 1 5 February 2014 17: 05
        +1
        Quote: rubin6286
        One gets the impression that you are not watching TV channel 1 and the "Time" program

        One gets the impression that you read the comments very inattentively, dear Viktor Vilenovich ... And therefore I will quote one excerpt -
        Quote: Chicot 1
        Of course, all this is nothing more than good wishes, but as they say - dreaming is not harmful

        And to this I want to add what I hope, next time you will be more careful ...
  16. moremansf
    moremansf 4 February 2014 18: 13
    +3
    An interesting photo on the topic ... again, the Chinese theme !!!! Chinese YAK-44 ???
    1. Tot-enot
      Tot-enot 4 February 2014 23: 31
      +2
      This is not a photo, but the result of the work of Chinese Photoshop enthusiasts laughing
    2. Andriuha077
      Andriuha077 6 February 2014 12: 10
      +1
      That's right, this is the result of Chinese Wishlist, the type of Ukrainian Su-33.
  17. saag
    saag 4 February 2014 20: 06
    0
    And then, of course :-)
  18. Antibrim
    Antibrim 7 February 2014 18: 02
    0
    it’s a pity that they couldn’t let him into the series! good and necessary car!
  19. vtur
    vtur 8 February 2014 11: 17
    0
    But this is not photoshop at all - a Chinese AWAC based on the transport Shaanxi Y-8 or Y-9, which is made on the basis of the copied An-12.
    In this case, a photo from airliners.net and a plane painted by the Pakistani Air Force, to which the Chinese have been supplying copied aircraft for more than a decade ...
  20. Realist1989
    Realist1989 April 5 2014 02: 55
    0
    It’s too heavy, the empty weight is only two tons less than Hokai’s maximum take-off weight. Surely an easier plane was not found for these purposes, such as the MiG-110 for example ...