Military Review

In the sky - Chkalov. 110 Birth Anniversary

33
In the sky - Chkalov. 110 Birth Anniversary



"A real test pilot must fly freely on everything that can fly, and with some difficulty on the fact that he cannot fly."
Sergey Aleksandrovich Korzinschikov


The remarkable Soviet sculptor Isaac Mendelevich gave a very accurate description of Valery Chkalov: “... a well-knit, but at the same time flexible figure, decisive, but quiet movements, working hands — all testifies to the great willpower. The characteristic face, as if prepared for modeling, is sculptural in shape and volume .... Everything in it was expressive: a forehead, blond hair lying on it, brightly defined lips, a strong nose, a stubborn chin. It is necessary to say separately about the eyes - they seemed to see far, far away around them. These full of life, curious eyes with early wrinkles around intently study you. It seems that Chkalov wants to comprehend the essence of the interlocutor. "
Chkalov always managed to do something that was unattainable for others. Mikhail Chkalov, Valeria’s great-grandfather, was the strongest barge haulder on the Volga. Grandfather - Grigory Chkalov - the most powerful mover on the pier. Father - Pavel Chkalov - a first-class master boilermaker from Nizhny Novgorod who was the best at facing a turbine, making burners and riveting. Pavel Grigoryevich earned a lot of money, in the Vasilyovo settlement, where he was called to repair riverboats, he bought a house with a carved porch and a garden around it.

Valery (baptized by Valerian, and at home simply called Averyan) was born on February 2 of the year 1904. Valeria's mother, Arina Ivanovna, died in 1910. A year later, the boy went to study at the local primary school, which he graduated from in 1916 year. Valery wanted to follow in the footsteps of his father, was interested in the processing of metals and even was trained to work on a lathe. Seeing this, Pavel Grigorievich sent his son to the Cherepovets vocational technical school. However, the time was hectic, and in 1918, the recreation school was closed, and Valery, without finishing it, returned home. The fourteen-year-old, wide-shouldered, short boy was strong beyond his years, and his father gave him a laborer to his factory.

After working for six months as a hammer thief, the young Chkalov got a job as a stoker in the Volga Shipping Company. He first saw the plane in 1919 on the Volga. While admiring the aircraft circling in the sky, he had an irresistible desire to survive the sensations of flight, to feel in the sky. After that, Valery Chkalov seriously “fell ill” aviation.

Initially, his desire seemed unrealizable. Resigning from work, he went to Novgorod and joined the Red Army. After some time, he managed to get directions to the local aviation fleet for the position of an airplane fitter. Chkalov covered the fuselages and airplanes with varnish, made cables and watched experienced mechanics repairing the flight equipment. He liked the job, he managed to fulfill his tasks and help others, at the same time he studied technical documentation. For the curiosity and zeal of Valery fell in love with the mechanics and pilots. Sometimes they even took him flying. Having visited the sky, Chkalov clearly understood that he could not have another life.

And, finally, his dream came true - in 1921, he achieved direction to the Egoryev Aviation School. There began a difficult period, Valeria needed to study not only special subjects, but also general education, such as physics, mathematics, Russian language, political literacy. Chkalov studied hard and persistently, trying to keep up with his comrades. In the spring of 1923 the theoretical school of the Air Force was successfully completed by him, all graduates received the title of Kraskom (red commander) and were immediately sent to the Borisoglebsky military aviation school for practical training.

16 arrived in Borisoglebsk Chkalov on April 1923. Among the teachers and pilots-instructors of the school were many participants in the civil war. From them, the cadets learned a lot of interesting and instructive about the glorious deeds of the first red pilots who selflessly fought against the enemies on the Southern Front, near Tsaritsyn, in Kakhovka, in Turkestan and other places. Chkalov listened to stories of air battles with the White Guards and interventionists with great interest. Such conversations were of great importance, contributing to the formation of character, patriotic feelings and love for their homeland from the future aviator.



Chkalov gave all his free time to work. He participated in the restructuring of the cavalry arena, helped at the airport and in the hangar, worked in the workshop on the assembly of aircraft, worked in the library. In addition, the energetic and sociable Volzhanin managed to participate in amateur art activities and play football. The instructor of his group was Ochev Veniamin Alekseevich - a demanding and strict pilot. Pilot classes began with taxiing on a Moran-Parasol aircraft. The cadets learned to control the device during a run on the ground, imitated takeoff and landing. So that the planes could not take off, sheathing was removed from the planes. Chkalov coped with the exercise perfectly, having finished taxiing among the first in the group and received admission to independent flights. Further studies only confirmed his uncommon abilities, indomitable thirst to fly, assertiveness in achieving their goals. The first graduation of the pilots of the new aviation school took place on October 9 1923 of the year. The certificate of Valery is written: “Chkalov is an example of a careful and intelligent pilot ... He quickly understands, acts vigorously and decisively, knows how to disclose the causes of errors and successfully correct them. Feels good speed and the plane ... ".

In the autumn of 1923, the ten best pilots from the first graduation went to Moscow to a military aviation school. Instructor Alexander Ivanovich Zhukov taught Chkalov aerobatics to combat German “Fokkers” and English “Martinside”. Here the future aviator learned to command the group. In May, 1924 Chkalov successfully graduated from this educational institution, received a military pilot certificate and was immediately sent to Serpukhov to the highest flying school of shooting, bombing and air combat. He was in the squad of Mikhail Mikhailovich Gromov - an excellent teacher, a great pilot and just a sincere person. In his memoirs, former instructor MM. Gromov described Valery Pavlovich in this way: “At all stages of his studies, he was constantly the first. Chkalov did not know the hesitation: he said - he did it. He walked, as they say, through. At a decisive moment, he discarded everything that prevented him from achieving success ... Chkalov did not know how to be afraid. He carried out his boldest plans before the feeling of fear could arise. The speed of his actions was equal to the speed of considerations. ”

In November, 1924 Chkalov became a fighter pilot, said goodbye to Serpukhov and departed to the first Red Banner Fighter Squadron, created from the squadron of the famous pilot Nesterov. Valery was sent to the Moskvina link, having received for the first training flights a shabby French Newpore-24-bis. The orderly daily service soon began to oppress Chkalov. The young pilot was not able to limit himself to obeying the order - he caught inspiration in the air, he passionately needed creativity and self-manifestation. Despite the prohibitions that existed in those years, he began to work out aerobatics on his own, and also improve the methods of training personnel.

Within a week, twenty-year-old Chkalov for risky flights on the old “Newpore” was in the guardhouse — for the first, but not the last time. It should be noted that the squadron commander Ivan Panfilovich Antoshin, who later became the head of the Odessa aviation school, played a huge role in his fate. “Batya”, as his subordinates called him, despite the coherence by decrees and frameworks of charters, perfectly understood the originality of his young pilot and repeatedly yielded to his requests to try to perform this or that figure in the air. Ivan Panfilovich also thought about the safety of Chkalov, transferring him to the more modern and durable German fighter Fokker D-7.

During the flights, Valery Pavlovich always set, at first glance, impossible tasks, tried to squeeze everything possible out of himself and out of the car. And for this I had serious problems with the authorities. None of the sources indicated exactly how many times the brave pilot stayed in the guardhouse, how many received penalties and how many times he was suspended from flying. He served only ten days for flying upside down, another ten days for experimenting with dead loops. “I, Dad, was stupid. I argued that I would make fifty loops, and got into the taste and scrolled all two hundred, ”Valery later explained to the cometsian. For a span between two nearby trees growing sideways - five days, for the legendary span under the Trinity Bridge in Leningrad - fifteen days. When the squadron commander learned about this incident, he asked Chkalov: “Can you imagine what will happen if all our pilots try to do the same tomorrow?”. “They will beat, they will surely beat,” Valery Pavlovich replied, without raising his head. He never made excuses, his blunt frankness bribed many. And he was driven out of military aviation. As a pilot, Chkalov was not equal, if the majority needed at least 50 flight hours to master the figure, then Valery was five enough. At the aerodrome they said that if there was no news about Chkalov’s plane for several hours, it means that the pilot just ran out of gas. He himself said with a grin to himself that he was talking.

A few years will pass and Chkalov’s indomitable fantasy will push him to invent and hone completely new aerobatic figures. Like everything new, its elements will at first be perceived with hostility, and Chkalov will be branded a “violator”. Only then comes the understanding of what Valery Pavlovich has done in the field of aviation.

16 November 1925 military tribunal sentenced Chkalov to one year’s imprisonment. The reason was a serious disciplinary violation - a fight in a drunken state. Later the term of imprisonment for the pilot was reduced to six months. After returning to the unit, the pilot in 1926 took part in the redeployment of the entire first Red Banner Aviation Squadron to the military airfield of the city of Trotsk (now Gatchina). In the spring of 1927, after Chkalov attended courses to improve flight skills, the command offered him to show what he had learned. Valery Pavlovich decided to demonstrate all the figures, including those that only he could perform in the air. Such flights Gatchina airfield has not yet seen. When planning for landing, Chkalov performed a “slow-motion barrel” and, having successfully landed the plane, joyful jumped out of it. However, the happy state soon faded: the commander, thanking him for the equipment, made only the comments that had been made according to the instructions, but the brigade commander gave twenty days to the guardhouse and suspended them for the same days.

In 1927, Valery Chkalov married the Leningrad teacher of the Russian language and literature Olga Erazmovna Orekhova. They met in 1925 year, their affair lasted for two years, and when she graduated from college, Valery made her an offer. Chkalov was fabulously lucky with his wife - Olga Erazmovna always understood everything correctly. In the house the pilot was only on short visits; in the eleven years of their marriage, together they lived no more than six. Usually he did not inform her about his business trips and plans, he could leave or come at any moment. She did not ask too many questions, always waited for him and was proud of him. In January 1928, their son Igor was born. By this time, Valery Pavlovich had already been transferred to Bryansk, and from there he constantly wrote letters: “Lelik, did the sons grow up? .. How does he sit? .. Is he naughty or not? .. How did he grow up? .. Weight, what? .. You know how I want to know everything! You can't put your soul on paper, well, you understand it already. ”

8 November 1927 of the year Chkalov demonstrated the achievements of Soviet aviation in front of members of the government in Moscow. Among other things, he presented fifteen aerobatic maneuvers of his own invention, including flying up wheels and an ascending corkscrew. Baidukov described the performance in the sky this way: “Valery, diving from the height, flirted with the earth, almost catching it in double and quadruple flips through the wing, then, restoring height, screwed up, completing the ascents with beautiful immelmans or unexpected, unusual headfirst flights ... . By the purity and frisky gaiety of his flight was like flying swifts in the summer. ” On the same day, in the evening, Valery wrote home: “Lelik, just imagine, then, for what they send me to the guardhouse, they are marked with a money prize!”.

After a brilliant performance, Chkalov was put in command of a fighter link. However, in the new position he was still engaged in aerobatics, and one day it ended tragically — several planes of his flight were broken down during the flight flights. Fortunately, no one died, however, according to the laws of that time, Chkalov was arrested and brought before a military tribunal. On it, Valery remembered everything. And flying under the Trinity Bridge, and flying around St. Isaac's Cathedral, and "Gatchina freaks". Chkalov was accused of numerous violations of discipline and recklessness. According to the 30 verdict of October 1928, he was dismissed from the Red Army and sentenced to one year in prison.

He was placed in a solitary cell, located on the second floor of the Bryansk prison. The pilot was allowed to keep a pencil and paper in his cell, Chkalov wrote in an improvised diary: “Days are monotonous, the cell is small but warm. At night I can not sleep long. Do not give rest to the thought of his wife and son. How are they in Leningrad? ” There was absolutely nothing to do in prison; he re-read all the books in the local library, listened to the radio. “Tedious, oppressive, heavy longing. Slept in the afternoon. Woke up when they brought lunch. I lay, sat, walked, everything was already tired, ”it was also written in his diary.

However, the fame of the pilot was already too great in the country. Thanks to the petition of former commanders, as well as the intervention of a number of high-ranking persons, Chkalov’s punishment was replaced with a conditional sentence. In total, the pilot stayed in the Bryansk prison ... nineteen days. Although, when you read his notes, it seems that he has been there for at least a year. Valery Pavlovich generally had such a peculiarity - he was in a terrible hurry to live. He knew for sure that fate had measured quite a bit ...

Returning to his family in Leningrad, the unemployed Chkalov sat down for textbooks and books. Not hoping to return to the army, he decided to go to college. However, longing for the airfield, the cockpit and the blue sky did not give him rest. Valery gladly accepted the offer to work as an instructor pilot at the local branch of Osoaviahima. He flew on a pleasure plane, rolled tourists and passengers, and taught the boys flight skills. And again, thanks to the intervention of his former commanders, a decision was made to return the most skilled aviator to fighter aircraft as a test pilot of the Air Force Scientific Research Institute. The Leningrad period of his life was over, Chkalov was enrolled in the staff of the institute on November 11, 1930.

Valery Pavlovich had to re-learn how to fly at the scientific research institute. At the institute, flying machines of various designs and types were tested. At this place, he worked for two years, having mastered the technique of piloting about thirty different types of aircraft and made more than eight hundred test flights. In particular, he owns the honor of checking the unique "air shelf" VS Vakhmistrov - a bomber carrying two fighters on the wings. In 1932, the Air Force Research Institute was relocated from the Khodynsky field to an airfield in the Shchelkovo area. The translation took place in a solemn atmosphere, becoming the first air parade in the country. Over forty aircraft in a column of three in a row flew over Red Square. At their head was a bomber "TB-3", managed by the crew of Chkalov.


Stalin, Voroshilov, Kaganovich, Chkalov and Belyakov. Meeting after the flight to the Far East. Shchelkovo airfield, 10 August 1936


And in 1933, Valery Pavlovich was transferred to work at the Moscow Aviation Plant. Menzhinsky. Working as a full-time factory test pilot, Chkalov tested new types of aircraft. The work was interesting, thanks to Valery Pavlovich, who always worked in extreme conditions, the hidden capabilities of the aircraft were discovered. He took part in the tests of the best fighters of the thirties: I-15 and I-16, circled the fighters tanks “VIT-1” and “VIT-2”, heavy bombers “TB-1” and “TB-3”, as well as a huge number of other experimental vehicles of the Polikarpov design bureau. At the same time, Chkalov continued to demonstrate aerobatics every year during the October and May holidays. On May 5, 1935, pilot Valery Chkalov and aircraft designer Nikolai Polikarpov were awarded the Order of Lenin for creating the best-in-class fighters.



At the end of 1935, one of Chkalov’s closest friends, test pilot Georgy Baidukov, offered him help in organizing a flight from the Soviet Union to the United States over the North Pole, as well as to lead the crew of the aircraft. Valery Pavlovich had even dreamed about long-distance flights before, but for the first time a concrete proposal was made, even the plane was called ANT-25, by the designer Tupolev, who the aviator knew as his five fingers. Early next year, Chkalov, Belyakov and Baidukov appealed to the government to carry out this flight, but Stalin, fearing a repetition of the unsuccessful attempt of Sigismund Levanevsky, indicated a different route at the same distance: Moscow - Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The flight began on 20 July 1936 and lasted 56 hours. The landing place was the sand spit on the island Udd. The crew fulfilled the planned program with excess, because, having reached Kamchatka, the pilots, due to bad weather, turned towards the mainland, landing a few hours later not far from Nikolaevsk-on-Amur. The plane Chkalov planted where it was almost impossible to land it - around deep ravines filled with water, large pebbles, boulders. The total length of the route was 9370 kilometers, and the crew members were awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union. Upon arrival, Chkalov was awarded the second Order of Lenin. The Gold Star Medal, which was introduced after his death, was given to the children of the celebrated pilot in the 2004 year. The importance of this flight is indicated by the fact that Stalin personally came to the Moscow airfield to meet the returning heroes.

After this flight, Chkalov asked the leadership to allow him to go to war in Spain. The pilot was impatient to test his skills under combat conditions, he dreamed of trying to grapple with the fascist ME-16 on the AND-109 repeatedly tested by him. However, he was not allowed to. But, Chkalov would not be Chkalov, had he not been able to “press” the project on the flight to the USA via the North Pole — at the end of spring 1937 permission was finally obtained. The plane with the crew of the navigator Belyakov and the pilots Chkalov and Baidukov took off on the tested ANT-25 into the air early in the morning of June 18, and the flight was completed in the evening on June 13, the aircraft Valery Pavlovich landed safely at the military airfield of Vancouver, breaking the fixed distance for X. hours and 20 minutes. Flight speed according to the logbook averaged 63 kilometers per hour. The pole itself Chkalov overslept - he was not on duty. Friends did not wake the pilot, for which he later scolded them for a long time. The conditions of this flight were much more complicated than the previous time - the plane constantly hit the cyclone, there was no visibility, there were problems with frosting, there was not enough oxygen, and the mask in turn passed from one crew member to another. However, both the people and the aircraft passed the test with honor; all participants were awarded orders of the Red Banner for this feat.


Non-stop flights of the Arctic to 1937 by the crews of Chkalov and Gromov (“Atlas of the Red Army Commander”, 1938)


The appearance of a Soviet aircraft in the United States shocked the whole world, while no state had such aircraft. Moreover, a cursory inspection of the aircraft showed that Chkalov could easily get to Los Angeles after spending a few more hours in the sky. After landing, the pilots made a small trip to the cities of America, and on June 27 they were received by President Roosevelt in the White House. He shook Valery Pavlovich’s hand for a long time and even rose from his chair with the help of assistants in order to greet the heroes while standing. After some time, another domestic aircraft under the command of Gromov flew across the North Pole. And the next same route took Sigismund Levanevsky, a participant in the operation to rescue the Chelyuskinites. Over the Arctic Ocean, his plane was gone, so far nothing is known about the fate of the crew.


Baidukov, Chkalov, plenipotentiary of the USSR Troyanovsky and Belyakov after receiving a visit from US President Roosevelt in the White House. 28 June 1937


After returning to the USSR, Valery Pavlovich continued his work at the plant. He became a popular favorite, a favorite of Stalin himself. According to the memoirs of contemporaries, Joseph Vissrionovich truly loved the “hero-pilot”. After their acquaintance, the “leader” singled out a car with a driver for him, and then presented him with a private plane Po-2. Chkalov kept him in one of the hangars of the Khimki aircraft factory, rolling his son and friends on weekends. Also, Stalin demanded that Valery Pavlovich be present at all state events. Slowly but surely, the pilot turned into a political figure. Chkalov’s popularity in the country was enormous when in December 1937 of the year he was nominated as a deputy of the Supreme Soviet from the Gorky constituency, more than two and a half million voters voted for him unanimously. For outstanding service in February 1938, he was awarded the title of kombrig. However, it can be said with certainty that in the circle of the Stalinist “aristocracy” the direct and defiantly sharp Valery Chkalov always looked like a black sheep. In 1938, after the session of the Supreme Council, Joseph Vissarionovich invited the pilot to come over. During the conversation, Stalin said bluntly that he wanted to remove Comrade Yezhov from office and entrust him with the honorary position of Commissar of Internal Affairs. But Valery Pavlovich refused. He had completely different plans for the future, he dreamed of bringing to the mind new fighters, which were estimated to be superior to the best examples of German technology, as well as finishing the round-the-world project being developed with the faithful Belyakov and Baydukov.

By the beginning of the 1938, the Soviet fighter "I-16" no longer met the requirements of time. Polikarp Design Bureau began to prepare a replacement for it - the newest fighter "I-180", equipped with a powerful motor S.К. Tumanovsky. I wanted to hand over a super modern aircraft as soon as possible, preferably to Stalin’s birthday (that is, to 21 December), so all the work went in a terrible hurry. Polikarpov, a protestor, was suspended from work on preparing the aircraft for departure. December 1 Valery Chkalov urgently called out of vacation for a series of tests "I-180". December 2 on the assembled aircraft were found as many 200 defects. 7 of December “I-180” was delivered to the airfield, and 10 of Chkalov's numbers was steering the aircraft, the engine was often “deaf”, and when re-steering 12 in December, the gas control system broke down.



The first flight of the fighter "I-180" took place 15 December 1938 of the year. Valery Pavlovich had to conduct only the very first test, after which the aircraft would pass into the hands of another pilot. According to the memoirs, the air temperature on this day was about minus 24 ° C. Polikarpov dissuaded Chkalov from flying, but the pilot did not agree. He safely rose into the air and, according to the flight task, made a circle over the Central airfield at an altitude of about 600 meters, and then, leaving the borders of the Khodynka field, went to the second, with a long distance, and at an altitude of one and a half thousand meters. When there was about 500 meters left until the landing strip, the fighter's engine died out. Chkalov tried to reach the airfield, but at the very last moment, he obviously realized that the plane would not fly over the residential barracks in which people could be. "And-180" lay in the left turn, dodged buildings and crashed into a high-voltage pole. The collision was so strong that the pilot was thrown out with the steering wheel from the cockpit. Without regaining consciousness, Valery Chkalov died from his injuries in the Botkin hospital. He was just 34 of the year.

A special commission investigating the circumstances of the death of the pilot found more than forty unresolved defects in the fighter’s systems. The aircraft was allowed to be tested in a completely unsatisfactory condition: the carburetor, propeller, engine — all the most important components could not withstand the load in the air; in addition, there was no controlled cooling system in the aircraft. In the case of Chkalov, over sixty people were arrested. On the question of who was to blame, they officially named the names of the plant's director Usachev, the chief designer Polikarpov and his deputy, a talented engineer Tomashevich. Unfortunately, after this career of the “king of fighters” Polikarpov began to decline sharply - no one, except for Valery Chkalov, could learn so well his car to fly.


Place of the fall of the aircraft Chkalov on Khodynka field in Moscow


“A little in aviation is not considered” - Chkalov liked to talk and was convinced that saving his own life is the last thing that needs to be thought of in an extreme situation. His image, life, fearlessness, daring will and loyalty to the Motherland served and will serve as an inspiring example for every Russian pilot. During the Great Patriotic War, the pilots took his photograph with them. Chkalov was an outstanding aviator, and he never put himself above the others. In the United States, talking to correspondents, he mentioned that the co-pilot Baidukov was a higher-class pilot, that he was able to steer the aircraft in the clouds "blindly." Not everyone is capable of such recognition. Valery Pavlovich had a huge number of friends. He was loved and respected for his character, for his directness, for his responsiveness and for his desire to help his comrades when the need arose. Chkalov adored the feast and the guests. When he lived at home, he could have a company of up to a hundred people. And he managed to feed and drink everyone, and with the best products. Kozlovsky and Sholokhov, Moskvin and Tolstoy, Kachalov and Prishvin came to Chkalov. The pilot joked a lot, liked to sing Burlatz songs with friends. Being away from home, he often wrote letters to his wife, a lot of letters. They wanted to have six children, but only three came out. The first daughter was born in May 1935, she was named Valeria in honor of her father. The second girl was born in the summer of 1939, six months after Chkalov’s death. In honor of her mother, she was named Olga. Son Igor gave forty years of his life to military aviation.

Based on articles from www.biography-peoples.ru and www.vokrugsveta.ru
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33 comments
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  1. svp67
    svp67 2 February 2014 06: 58
    +11
    It is a pity that he left early ... A man from a legendary time, who himself became a LEGEND.
  2. Same lech
    Same lech 2 February 2014 07: 39
    +13
    Yes, flying in a single-engine plane through the NORTH POLE and now a very serious test is the heroic man CHKALOV.
  3. svp67
    svp67 2 February 2014 08: 19
    +5
    Not life but SONG
  4. Name
    Name 2 February 2014 08: 21
    +8
    Great pilot Chkalov, not to name otherwise! soldier
  5. ArhipenkoAndrey
    ArhipenkoAndrey 2 February 2014 08: 44
    +11
    The great man of his country, it’s a pity the youth has different heroes, and now they don’t understand those flights, but it’s a pity.
  6. Stinger
    Stinger 2 February 2014 09: 42
    +10
    The great epoch gave birth to great people, not raincoats, asking how much they can surrender to the enemy Leningrad.
  7. Duke
    Duke 2 February 2014 09: 59
    +8
    Glory to the Great People
  8. kaktus
    kaktus 2 February 2014 10: 19
    +8
    Quote: Stinger
    The great era gave birth to great people,


    an orphan, from the "hinterland", achieved everything himself. hi And now only "sons", sons-in-law "and other evil spirits
  9. invisibility
    invisibility 2 February 2014 10: 25
    +1
    Reading books about great people, he himself wanted to become a pilot! Not fused ...
    By the way:
    During the conversation, Stalin bluntly said that he wanted to remove Comrade Yezhov from his post and entrust him with the honorary position of the People's Commissar of Internal Affairs. But Valery Pavlovich refused.
    The fastest duck. The first time I heard this with a sequel: for this refusal, Stalin was offended and ordered to adjust the catastrophe.
    1. 11111mail.ru
      11111mail.ru 2 February 2014 20: 09
      +5
      Quote: invisible
      for this refusal, Stalin was offended and ordered to adjust the catastrophe.

      A regularly repeated version in the "democratic" media.
  10. parus2nik
    parus2nik 2 February 2014 10: 37
    +2
    Man!
    Now buy a pilot’s diploma and kill people ...
  11. konvalval
    konvalval 2 February 2014 10: 39
    +2
    The pride of our Aviation.
  12. RoTTor
    RoTTor 2 February 2014 10: 42
    +4
    article - a compilation of known facts and Gorbachev's delirium that they wanted to make him the successor of N. Yezhov, delirium about the circumstances of his death.
    I had a chance to communicate with those who knew him well. As a person, everyone has a great opinion about Chkalov.
    The flight of Chkalov’s crew to the USA DOES NOT FULFILL THE MAIN TARGET TASK _ TO BEAT THE WORLD FLIGHT RANGE. This was done with a huge reserve by the crew of the GREAT pilot Mikhail Gromov.
    Chkalov's happiness was that he caught the eye and liked Stalin and Ordzhonikidkha. Therefore, he was treated kindly beyond measure during his lifetime and was "appointed" the best Soviet pilot after his death. It seems like Mayakovsky was appointed the main poet, and Gorky - the main writer of the USSR
    People associated with aviation know many names of the great Soviet test pilots, trying to convince amateurs is pointless.
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 2 February 2014 11: 45
      +2
      Quote: RoTTor
      The flight of Chkalov’s crew to the USA DOES NOT FULFILL THE MAIN TARGET TASK _ TO BEAT THE WORLD FLIGHT RANGE.

      And in my childhood I thought that Vancouver was in the USA, because I read about Chkalov's flight to the USA. And I still didn't know that the plane was called "Stalin's Route", but on all frames and drawings this inscription on ANT-25 was painted over ...
      1. invisibility
        invisibility 2 February 2014 14: 07
        -1
        Vancouver, Wash. USA. There is even a street, in my name is named after Chkalov.
        1. Alex 241
          Alex 241 2 February 2014 17: 27
          +2
          In 1975, the American Chkalovsky Committee, created a year earlier, erected a monument at the landing site. In addition to the monument, there is Chkalov Street in Vancouver
          1. Alex 241
            Alex 241 2 February 2014 17: 40
            +1
            Moscow, metro station "Chkalovskaya"
            .
            1. svp67
              svp67 2 February 2014 21: 51
              +1
              Good evening. Has Alex ever been to this station with his own eyes? Photos convey only a slightly general view and not a drop of "atmosphere" ... Its creators are very, very talented people.
              1. Alex 241
                Alex 241 2 February 2014 21: 58
                +1
                Hi Seryozha, yes, of course, somehow I’ll be able to take photos of myself alive.
                1. svp67
                  svp67 2 February 2014 22: 49
                  +1
                  Quote: Alex 241
                  Hi Seryozha
                  Salute. It was rather uncomfortable here for several days, in places it was -40, so now -20 is almost perceived as HEAT fellow . But it’s better to come when it’s really warm ...
                  1. Alex 241
                    Alex 241 2 February 2014 22: 50
                    +1
                    Quote: svp67
                    Salute. It was rather uncomfortable here for several days, in places it was -40, so now -20

                    This I remember in the Siberian Military District, after Epiphany frosts, at -20, a swinging jacket, heat! good
        2. Nayhas
          Nayhas 2 February 2014 19: 38
          +1
          Quote: invisible
          Vancouver, WA

          ooooooo ... and another discovery ...
      2. Alex 241
        Alex 241 2 February 2014 19: 39
        +1
        Quote: Nayhas
        "Stalin's route", but on all the frames and drawings this inscription on ANT-25 was painted over ...
    2. invisibility
      invisibility 2 February 2014 12: 07
      +1
      Quote: RoTTor
      Chkalov's happiness was that he caught the eye and liked Stalin and Ordzhonikidkha. Therefore, he was treated kindly beyond measure during his lifetime and was "appointed" the best Soviet pilot after his death. It seems like Mayakovsky was appointed the main poet, and Gorky - the main writer of the USSR

      Do not go too far! You yourself just wrote about nonsense ...
      Chkalov was really a talented pilot. No one, no one appointed! The names of the pilots knew the whole union! And Joseph Vissarionovich, he really loved aviation!
    3. siberalt
      siberalt 3 February 2014 01: 21
      +1
      What happiness is it to "catch" Stalin's eyes? The first flight to America without a transfer was already a feat akin to Gagarin's. The latter was also met by Khrushchev himself. So what?
    4. The comment was deleted.
  13. valokordin
    valokordin 2 February 2014 10: 59
    +3
    In Borisoglebsk, where he was born and lived, the memory of Valery Pavlovich is sacred. What school was there, but how much it underwent. It was closed twice, property was stolen, even portraits of 2 heroes of the Soviet Union of Borisoglebsk graduates were spoiled. Now there is an air center, but it would be better to have a full school. First he put Khrushchev to ruin, then .... What we have is not stored. Eternal glory and memory of the greatest pilot.
  14. supertiger21
    supertiger21 2 February 2014 11: 26
    +1
    Yes, there were pilots at that time. Now we would have "our own Chkalovs" for the Su-35.
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 2 February 2014 11: 45
      +1
      Quote: supertiger21
      Yes, there were pilots at that time. Now we would have "our own Chkalovs" for the Su-35.

      What Bogdan does not suit you?
      1. RoTTor
        RoTTor 2 February 2014 23: 05
        +1
        Better than Gromov, Kokkinaki, Yumashev, Baidukov, Gallay, etc. - courageous, technically literate and not reckless, but all counting on engineering, because they flew and lived for a very long time.
      2. RoTTor
        RoTTor 2 February 2014 23: 05
        -1
        Better than Gromov, Kokkinaki, Yumashev, Baidukov, Gallay, etc. - courageous, technically literate and not reckless, but all counting on engineering, because they flew and lived for a very long time.
  15. Altona
    Altona 2 February 2014 11: 37
    +5
    Valery Palych is Gagarin of the 30s ... The analogy may not be entirely accurate ... A charismatic man ...
    1. svp67
      svp67 2 February 2014 22: 38
      +1
      Quote: Altona
      Valery Palych is Gagarin of the 30s ... The analogy may not be entirely accurate ... A charismatic man ...

      Quote: RoTTor
      Chkalov's happiness was that he caught the eye and liked Stalin and Ordzhonikidkha. Therefore, he was treated kindly beyond measure during his lifetime and was "appointed" the best Soviet pilot after his death. It seems like Mayakovsky was appointed the main poet, and Gorky - the main writer of the USSR

      There were many pilots in the USSR under No. 1 at that moment, these were all the first GSS and many others, but Valery Pavlovich stood out among them for his "truly Russian soul", he was a very multifaceted and not ordinary person, by the way I remember reading the recollection of one from our test pilots, and so he remembered that Valery Pavlovich received, after a transarctic flight, an American passenger car as a gift, and so he put in it everyone who came across him on the way and gave a lift from the airfield to the military town when he returned home late after the flights ...
      1. Alex 241
        Alex 241 2 February 2014 22: 42
        +1
        It was "Packard" Seryozha. Memorial Museum of V.P. Chkalov, hangar (Chkalovsk, Nizhny Novgorod region)
        The hangar also contains a Packard car, a gift from the Soviet Government for the flight.
    2. RoTTor
      RoTTor 3 February 2014 00: 49
      0
      And Gagarin was not stronger and not better prepared than the others from the first five squad. He was appointed the main character - Khrushchev and Korolev: profile, first name, personal sympathy.
      Like Chkalov, he was named "the best pilot in Soviet aviation."
      It is natural that the fate is similar: there is a great similarity in their plane crashes - both have ceased to be "flown".
      REAL space and after-flight merits of a number of our cosmonauts - Titov, Nikolaev, Popovich. Shatalov, Beregovoy impress much more. But EVERYONE knows (if at all else they know) only Gagarin appointed by the astronaut -1.
      So with Valery Chkalov
  16. Gomunkul
    Gomunkul 2 February 2014 13: 53
    +4
    Monument to V.P. Chkalov installed in Nizhny Novgorod.
    History
    Monument to V.P. Chkalov (Nizhny Novgorod) Bronze figure of Valery Pavlovich Chkalov, another landmark of Nizhny Novgorod, one of its original symbols, with its own little secret - the so-called "secret third step". The monument to the pilot was erected in one of the most beautiful places in Nizhny Novgorod, on the high bank of the Volga, a favorite place for townspeople and guests of the city - near the St. George Tower of the Kremlin, on Minin and Pozharsky squares. From the observation deck of the monument, beautiful views of the Volga and the Trans-Volga meadows open. Valery Chkalov's friend, sculptor Isaak Mendelevich, wanted to erect a monument to Maxim Gorky on this place. But after the tragic death of Chkalov in 1940, a monument to Valery Pavlovich himself was erected on this place. The sculptor Mendelevich, architects Viktor Andreev and Ivan Taranov worked on the creation of the monument. Chkalov stands on the Slope, on the high bank of the Volga and, as it were, puts on a glove. Bronze statue of V.P. Chkalova was cast at the Monumentskulptura plant in Leningrad. Monument to V.P. Chkalov (Nizhny Novgorod) A cylindrical pedestal was installed on three high granite steps. On the polished surface of the cylinder, the contour of the geographical map of the Northern Hemisphere was drawn with the tracks of two historical flights of the ANT-25 crew under the command of Chkalov. (Moscow - Udd Island and Moscow - North Pole - Vancouver). Moscow as the starting point of flights was marked with a red ruby ​​star. The flight path is marked with a dotted line of nickel-plated plates. At the bottom of the pedestal the inscription is made in overlaid bronze letters: “1904 –1938. Stalin's falcon. To the great pilot of our time Valery Chkalov ”. After the exposure of the personality cult of Stalin, the words "Stalin's falcon" were removed from this text. The opening of the monument took place on December 15, 1940. The sculptor Mendelevich was awarded the Stalin Prize for the monument to Chkalov in 1942.
  17. askold
    askold 2 February 2014 13: 58
    +6
    It’s a good article about a great man, first of all, a first-class pilot. Why didn’t the series so inferior be shot about Chkalov-pilot but about Chkalov-drunk? Is it easier to make films like that, or is it easier for us now, then to understand it?
    PSA, on the eve of the Olympics, we could make a good feature film about Nikolai Panin-Kolomenkin as our first Olympic champion in 1908. There was also a human being, and what an amazing fate and a long, eventful life. You read about a person and you don’t notice, and you already have a jaw It’s dropped and I’m ashamed that you didn’t know this. Even the first line of the biography is worth a lot, the native of Khrenovoye village ... Uh, oh.
  18. Gomunkul
    Gomunkul 2 February 2014 13: 58
    +5
    Chkalov staircase. Nizhny Novgorod.
    History
    For the first time, the idea of ​​building a staircase occurred to Alexander Shulpin, deputy chairman of the city executive committee, back in 1939.

    The idea of ​​the staircase was amazingly spectacular: the city center connected to the river, and the difference in the levels of rise was almost three times higher than at the famous Potemkin stairs in Odessa.

    The war prevented this plan from coming true. But Shulpin did not forget that idea, and on one of his business trips to Moscow in 1943 he brought for approval the project of Leningrad architects Yakovlev, Rudnev and Mints - a ladder along the Volga slope. It is not known which ways, but Shulpin succeeded in practically impossible - to obtain consent for the allocation of money for construction, and in the same 1943, a staircase was laid in honor of the victory in the Battle of Stalingrad.
  19. badger1974
    badger1974 2 February 2014 16: 37
    -1
    So that’s what prompted Chkalov to fly the i-180, especially since before that the m-88 worked badly in the region, (the m-88 on other planes then took several pilots' lives, and given that the m-88 never became a motor-motors in the future), did Chkalov know about this? -Of course he knew, did the daredevil Chkalov let him down? or he himself was looking for death, I don’t see another explanation
  20. waisson
    waisson 2 February 2014 16: 53
    0
    Yes, there were people in our time,
    Not that the present tribe:
    Bogatyri - not you!
    They got a bad share:
    soldier soldier soldier
  21. Siberia 9444
    Siberia 9444 2 February 2014 17: 22
    +3
    Quote: supertiger21
    Yes, there were pilots at that time. Now we would have "our own Chkalovs" for the Su-35.

    Maybe not the topic, but for fighter aircraft, and in particular, Su 35, we need ALEXANDER IVANOVICH POKRYSHKIN!
    "Altitude, speed, maneuver, fire." soldier
  22. ia-ai00
    ia-ai00 2 February 2014 19: 58
    +3
    ArhipenkoAndrey RU
    The great man of his country, it’s a pity the youth has different heroes, and now they don’t understand those flights, but it’s a pity.

    If the government continues to turn a blind eye to anti-popular, mediocre and immoral programs on TV, and the same publications in the press, while the "heroes" of our time will be "stars" of show business, with their scandals, perversions, stupidity, and ruthless militants and vile, then a dozen years will pass, and most school graduates will not be able to say who VALERY CHKALOV is, what he is remarkable for and how he became famous.
  23. shelva
    shelva 2 February 2014 20: 38
    0
    I am proud that I am Russian - Chkalov was Russian.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. RoTTor
      RoTTor 2 February 2014 20: 43
      +1
      If there is nothing more, they are proud of their nationality.
      Chkalov, like all our best pilots, was and felt like a SOVIET PILOT, STALIN FALCON.
      And his record ANT-25 aircraft designed by the remarkable SOVIET aircraft designer, Ukrainian Pavel Stepanovich Sukhoi was called "STALINSKY ROUTE". Thank God they have saved it, it is in the Chkalov Museum.
  24. Gamdlislyam
    Gamdlislyam 3 February 2014 10: 15
    0
    Quote: RoTTor
    Ukrainian Pavel Stepanovich Sukhoi

    You, dear colleague of RoTTor, were slightly mistaken. Pavel Osipovich Dry purebred Belarusian, was born on July 22, 1895 in the village of Glubokoe of the Disnensky district of the Vilna province (now the city of Glubokoe, Vitebsk region, Belarus) in the family of a teacher of a public school. He graduated from the Gomel gymnasium (now BelGUT).
    After graduating from MVTU (1925), he worked at the A.N. Tupolev Design Bureau (AGOS), which was then part of the TsAGI structure, and at plant No. 156 (design engineer, team leader, deputy chief designer). During this period, Sukhim P.O., under the general leadership of Tupolev, created the I-4, I-14 fighters, the record aircraft ANT-25 (combat version of DB-1) and ANT-37bis "Rodina" (combat version of DB-2) .
  25. rubin6286
    rubin6286 3 February 2014 11: 38
    0
    REAL space and after-flight merits of a number of our cosmonauts - Titov, Nikolaev, Popovich. Shatalov, Beregovoy impress much more.

    Please tell us about the after-flight merits of the distinguished people you named.
  26. datur
    datur 4 February 2014 12: 09
    0
    here ,, the bully ,, was !!!!!!! drinks good repeat laughing