Before the 8 of the GDR Ministry of State Security formed February 1950 (Ministerium für Staatssicherheit, unofficially abbreviated “Stasi”), rose to its feet and later grew into one of the most efficient intelligence services in the world, the burden of responsibility for public safety in East Germany lay on the USSR, and in particular on the command of the Western Group of Forces. The Cold War began, remember, in the 1946 year, but even before that it was not calm. If it was clear with armed speeches and direct provocations (to suppress quickly and harshly), then what to do with peaceful speeches?
Everyone has the right to express their opinions. But we live in a difficult world, when our aspirations can be shamelessly used by people who crave for power, able to manipulate others. So it happened, probably, from the time of the first states, 6 thousands of years ago.
In a public policy, a protest is not only a designation of its position, a demonstration of the flag, a means of elevating the spirit or distraction from other problems, but also a call for all sorts of like-minded people, a gathering point. And here it is very important not to miss the moment when the consolidating masses scorched by agitators and provocateurs approach the point of no return in their opposition to the opposite side.
The fact that the situation in East Germany was not like the worst of Ukraine 2013-2014, was shown by the events of 17 June 1953. It smelled like a big war. This is well described in Alexander Furs’s Orange Summer 1953 g. (Http://www.centrasia.ru/newsA.php?st=1184220300). I will give some excerpts.
By the summer of 1953, an explosive situation had developed in the GDR, the reason for this was economic problems and a split in the leadership of the ruling party, and the enemy was not asleep. By the time in FRG The largest propaganda centers, headquarters of intelligence services and subversive organizations are located. In addition to collecting information, they created underground armed groups to operate in the territory of the GDR. The immediate preparation for Day X began in the spring of 1953, immediately after the Bundestag ratified the agreement on the accession of Germany to NATO.
On the night of June 16-17, the RIAS radio station began transmitting calls for organizing a general strike in the GDR. The border guard of Germany was put on high alert. American tank units occupied the original areas in Bavaria along the border with the GDR. A large number of special services, including armed ones, were introduced into the GDR.
17 June 1953 in Berlin and other cities, many industrial enterprises have stopped working. Street demonstrations began. West German authorities provided transportation for the transfer of demonstrators. They entered the territory of East Berlin in columns to 500-600 people. They even used special American military sound equipment.
During the demonstrations, specially trained groups, which were promptly managed from West Berlin, were particularly active. Pogroms of party institutions were organized. The crowd dealt with some functionaries of the party and state apparatus, activists of the labor movement. During street riots, arson and looting took place, as well as attacks on police stations and prisons.
As a result, from 09 to 29 June, over 430 thousands of people went on strike in the GDR. Under the conditions of the then weakness of the Stasi and the positions of the SED in the country, the firm position of the Soviet Union, as well as quick and decisive actions of the command of the Soviet troops in Germany led by the Army Commander-in-Chief A.A., played a decisive role in the breakdown of the June putsch. Grechko.
The organizers of the June speech failed to achieve the main goal - STRIKE AND DEMONSTRATION DIDN'T TAKE PLACE IN REBELLION against the ruling regime. The bulk of the population distanced itself from political slogans, putting forward only economic demands (lower prices and working standards). During the riots, people were killed according to official 40 data (according to other 55 data). Killed 11 police and party activists of the GDR. 400 people were injured.
These figures can be considered minimal for unrest of this magnitude, already in Hungary in October-November 1956. the situation was different and the loss of only the Soviet army as a result of large-scale battles, according to official figures, made up 669 people killed, 51 missing. Here I would like to draw your attention to the following words of Alexander Furs: Did this famous German love of order — the ordnung — work, was the memory of defeat in the war too close, or were there other reasons that we have no idea about, but only the tension of SPRING began to subside.
CIA Director A. Dulles, Special Adviser to the US Secretary of State for West Berlin E. Lansing-Dulles, Chief of Staff of the US Army General Ridgway, Minister for Intra-German Issues J. Kaiser, Chairman of the CDU / CSU Faction in the Bundestag X. von Brentano and Chairman of the SDPG E. Ollenhauer prepared so much, and even purposely came together to lead the "workers" uprising, and then take the AROUND and drop tensions. They knew perfectly well that at that moment the GDR was the weakest link among the countries of "people's democracy." Subsequent events in Hungary 1956 showed that the memory of the defeat in the recent war is also not the reason, although of course the Hungarians are not Germans.
There were other reasons. I repeat. You see, it was not enough for the Soviet troops to cut off the border, it was not enough to set up roadblocks and tanks at city crossings, it was necessary to stop peaceful protests for a short time, in the conditions of the then weakness of the special services and the absence of such attributes of our modernity as water cannons and tears gas. It was necessary to be completely insane in order to fulfill the instruction of Lawrence Beria, to shoot unarmed people to kill. According to the memoirs of the High Commissioner Semenov, Beria’s order to shoot the twelve instigators was personally replaced by the order “to shoot over the heads of the demonstrators”. Our generals and officers of the skin felt that this could turn into a more recently fought country. Errors of economists and politicians had to clear up the Soviet soldiers, and they ... managed! It happened ordinary, as it was more than once in our storiesRussian miracle.
There were other reasons. Whose golden head, as always in such cases, an intuitive solution, we probably will never know. If he knew that he saved hundreds, if not thousands of lives. It at the same time turned out to be very simple and effective, like all brilliant. A bold order was given (a risk, but it worked against the Germans) - to unarmed Soviet soldiers to evenly disperse among the demonstrators and protesters of the Germans without the use of any kind of violence. As a result, the antagonism of the components instantly fragmented the crowds, deprived them of integrity, and as practice showed, made street demonstrations meaningless. This is a great example of the use of psychological weapons, since simple intimidation, like shooting over heads, did not solve the PROBLEM OF CONSOLIDATION of the opposing masses (just the opposite). It was the peaceful dissipation in the crowd of children bound by oath, many of whom fathers died in the recent war, killed the morale of the crowds completely, eliminating the recurrence of the repetition of such actions. This refreshed well the forgotten fear, did not allow it to distance itself. And provokers began dumbness and diarrhea.
From the side it looked even funny, albeit nervously. Let people speak different languages, when they are jiving at you, this is so clear. A soldier walks up to Frau: “Can't you hold a poster, honey?”
Or here burgher angry and dissatisfied, spits. And in response to him, Sergeant Berdyev: "Uh, peace action, wherever I want, I stand there."
Or a group of guys shouting slogans. Private soldiers Petrov and Sidorov approach them: “Let's scream together? Ivan, get out of here! Home, home! Ivan, go home! ”
But you really want to go home demobels, but here such porridge has brewed, and in fact they will scream.
- Listen Petrov, but why are we alone? Where are the Germans?
And the Germans had already gone.
Elements of this tactic were subsequently used by the KGB against dissidents' shares, when, according to intelligence data, a completely different mass action started in the appointed place for a quarter, half an hour before the start of the flash mob, such as the rally “For peace in the whole world!”, A meeting to award the best workers or pioneers .
So in the 1953 year, CIA director Alain Dulles “broke off”. And, probably, he considered himself to be a very cool specialist, in any case, Hollywood succeeded in lacquering his men.
Conclusions. Already, simply gathering the available facts of an intuitive resolution of crisis situations provides the most valuable material for analysis. The fact that this precious experience and knowledge is ignored, lost and forgotten, makes me indignant. I hope I managed (once again) to show how effective are the means of psychological influence.
Afterword to the chapter. Many thanks for the help in the preparation of this material Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Lisin. He served at that time in Germany. Besides the fact that he witnessed the use of tactics of dispersal by our servicemen, as he said, “they let the soldiers into the Germans”, he also became a member of the famous spy operation “Berlin Tunnel” in 1956. At the head of the material I put a photo with the scheme of this tunnel. I hope that he will tell this story. If anyone is interested, you can go to the page: http://www.proza.ru/avtor/kaztranscom.
The nature of informational stuffing
A very interesting topic to study is the mechanisms of information dissemination in human society. All these rag phones, rumors, gossip, and journalism are full of it.
There are a lot of examples, I don’t want to go into politics, it’s dirty and ungrateful. Prokhindey (Is it true that in the USA such names are sociologists?) We will not mention Joseph Overton, it’s better to consider something neutral. But at least a short joke. Taken from the resource http://anekdotov.net/.
After 38 years at a meeting of classmates, you can immediately see who studied how and who achieved what!
At Losers 2 things: flat and car.
At troechnika 3 things: apartment, car and cottage.
The 5 marksman has: glasses, debts, baldness, headache and a stainless steel gold medal!
A joke some strange, not funny, but the theme that sounds in it in everyday life is amazingly tenacious. It is possible, and not infrequently, to hear a reference to authoritative sources: “Why are there excellent students with their formalized consciousness?” Let's start the analysis.
1. A lie is a destructive weapon, it sooner or later betrays itself and the one who uses it. With the external strength of the wording informational stuffing with logic is not friendly. Just think about it, the number of troechnik in nature is much higher than the number of excellent students, they just take the mass, if we take and calculate the percentage of successful people who came from among excellent students and troechnik, for each group separately, then, unfortunately, it turns out that the formalization of consciousness here not at all. And if you count how much you have drunk in both groups for the specified time, then I am afraid that many questions will arise to the author of this speech. Another thing is that the life failure of a gold medalist is more noticeable to others, because no one pinned special hopes on the troechnik.
2. Then, naturally, the question arises: if irrationality is a working characteristic of an informational stuffing, one can say, a company stamp that is almost impossible to hide, then why does it live and roll over our heads?
Information stuffing is always focused either on the interests of a particular group, or is addressed to the most common fears and expectations of the maximum number of people. Emotions and feelings are the driving force behind the rumors and gossip from person to person, encoded in words. Here are the words of this "joke" you hear more hatred, in the word "bald head" or "gold medal from stainless steel"? Alas, informational stuffing primarily exploits elements of intraspecific human competition, when no one needs the real truth, “ITS TRUTH” is more convenient. Comfortable truth, starting with an attempt to justify their actions by an individual, can grow to the size of ideology. This is a flag, a call, a collection of allies, a gang, if you like (doesn’t it remind anything?), Sounding the ground.
Stuffing is a means of information warfare, when hostilities are conducted indirectly, through the feelings of other people who think the same way as the stuffing author.
Remedies against informational stuffing
It's simple. I will answer with a parable.
One day a man came to Socrates and said:
“Do you know what your friend says about you?”
Socrates answered him:
- before telling me this newsask her through three sieves. The first is a sieve of truth. Are you sure that what you tell me now is true?
- Well, I heard it from others.
“See, you're not sure.” Second sieve of benefit. Will this news be useful?
- Not at all.
- And finally, the third sieve is a sieve of good. This news will please me, will it be pleasant for me?
- I doubt it.
- You see, you want to tell me a news in which there is no truth and good, besides it is useless. Why her then talk?
Here are these three filters in which sequence you want and should be used. If people did not forget about the filter of good not only in relation to themselves, but also to others, honestly, the world would be better.
To be continued