The authorities of Vladikavkaz decided to recreate in 2014 on the Prospect Mira a monument to a soldier who "died for the glory of Russian weapons". The monument to Arkhip Osipov and the commander of the Mikhailovsky fortification headquarters captain Nikolai Liko was erected in Vladikavkaz in 1881 on the initiative of General Fyodor Heyden. However, after the revolution 1917, he was regarded as a monument to the autocracy and destroyed. The deputy head of the information department, Tamara Kaitukova, believes that the monuments reflect the history of the city, so the object should be restored.
However, not everyone adheres to this opinion. Doctor of Historical Sciences, Director of the Institute of History and Archeology of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, member of the Public Chamber of the Republic Ruslan Bzarov считаетthat the idea of establishing a monument to the Russian soldier Osipov is “unconditionally harmful and offensive.” In his opinion, this is a “monument of fratricidal war” and it will serve as a “rift” instead of the consolidation necessary for the Russian state. Such monuments "divide and oppose the peoples of Russia." In addition, the monument to Osipov can be regarded as “an encroachment on the national dignity of not only the Circassians,” but also of other peoples of the multinational Russian Federation. According to the Ossetian professor, one can equally appreciate the feat of the Russian soldier, loyal to the oath and defending the interests of the motherland who sent him, and the Circassians who heroically fought for the freedom of their homeland. In 1917, the Russian Empire fell, and "the peoples of Russia found a common homeland, no longer dividing them ... into sons and stepchildren."
The century “without all that symbolized the monument to Arkhip Osipov” (the historian apparently seems to have in mind the “damn colonial past” of Russia) led to the creation of national-state formations, the federal structure of Russia and the protection of national languages and cultures. Therefore, the republic "does not fit either imperial archaization or reproduction of chauvinistic cliches ..."
Bzarov is also supported by the dean of the Faculty of History of SOGU, a member of the Public Chamber of the Republic, Aslan Tsutsiev. He proposes to establish in the republic "a common monument to those killed in the Caucasian War," regardless of who they fought for. Such a monument will not cause offense neither Russians, nor Ossetians, nor Circassians.
Against the monument to Arhip Osipov in Vladikavkaz, the Doctor of Historical Sciences, the leading official of SOIGSI Islam-Bek Marzoyev also spoke. In his opinion, the Russian soldier Osipov is an “ambiguous personality,” therefore, a monument cannot be erected in Vladikavkaz. Merzoyev also proposes to erect a “monument of friendship and solidarity of the peoples of the Caucasus and Russia” in Vladikavkaz. Further, the Ossetian historian begins to speak frank nonsense that the Caucasus is "a complex geopolitical region, with centuries-old traditions of peaceful coexistence in a small territory of different ethnic groups", where "the peoples have learned to preserve and preserve good neighborly relations."
Marzoyev, obviously, “passed by” the history of the Caucasus, including its modern period. The entire history of this region is sheer wars, conflicts and slaughter on a religious, ethnic and economic basis. Far from the examples of “traditions of peaceful coexistence” and “good neighborly relations” there is no need to go. It is enough to pay attention to the almost weekly “battle reports” from the republics of the North Caucasus, the genocide of the Russian population in 1990-s in Chechnya and its absence in this republic, the “friendship of peoples” between Georgians, Ossetians and Abkhazians, Azerbaijanis and Armenians, etc. .
Only in the period of the establishment of Russian power during the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union did a relatively short (on a historical scale) period of peaceful prosperity of the Caucasus and the peoples inhabiting it come. Suffice it to note the rather rapid growth in the population of the Caucasus region in the Soviet period. So that it will be with the Caucasus, if Russia finally leaves there, it is also clear to all sane people. Today, Russia is holding back the already prepared war between Azerbaijan and Armenia, the resumption of Georgia’s pressure on Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and the more active penetration of Turkey and Iran into the region. The North Caucasus without Russian presence will return to the past. The Caucasus is still becoming archaic, but at a slower pace than it could have been, being completely freed from Russian influence and Russians.
The objections of Ossetian historians about the monument to the Russian soldier in Vladikavkaz are all products of complete tolerance (tolerance), liberalism and cosmopolitanism in the modern Russian Federation. This is just one of many examples. There is already a memorial to the Hungarian soldiers-occupiers in the Voronezh region, where the Hitlerites are given military honors when buried, monuments and memorials to Czechoslovak thugs and robbers are found throughout Transsib, a memorial complex dedicated to girls killed during the Caucasian War, which allegedly committed suicide and killed their escorts - Russian soldiers. In Tatarstan, local nationalists periodically raise the issue of erecting a monument to Batu, or the founder of the Kazan Khanate, Ulu Mohammed, who was noted for his predatory campaigns against the Russian principalities.
The history of Russia is clearly being rewritten in favor of small peoples who "suffered from Russian and Soviet colonialism" and "Russian great-power chauvinism." In this situation, the Russians only have to constantly repent for the “sins” of their ancestors, who dared to encroach on the freedom of small nations. Moreover, representatives of the local intelligentsia, which was fed by the Soviet Union, play an active role in this rewriting of history. Various Western and Eastern structures, which regularly hold various events along the lines of Finno-Ugric, Turkic, Caucasian and Islamic unity, are not asleep, where they constantly raise the problem of “Russian colonialism” and “oppression of small nations” that have suffered, and continue to suffer in Russian "prison of nations."
The thesis about the need to establish a common monument to all those who died in the Caucasian War, regardless of which side they fought and the equivalence of the feat of Russian soldiers and Circassians, is very dubious and dangerous. First, we are witnessing the introduction of Western values and tolerance. They say that there are no winners, no losers, no heroes, no robbers and slave traders, no wildness, no progress, no civilization that Russia carried to the Caucasus and Central Asia. They say there is a “tsarist regime” from which both Russians and mountaineers have suffered equally.
Secondly, it is impossible to assess in equal measure the feat of the Russian troops and the actions of the mountaineers during the Caucasian War. The mountaineers acted from archaic motives — robbery, the seizure and sale of people into slavery, narrow group, feudal and clan interests. They were also used for their own purposes by regional players (the Ottoman Empire, Persia) and the global player - the British. Russian bayonets brought peace and prosperity to the Caucasus. Engineers, teachers, doctors and educators followed the Russian soldiers. Caucasian ethnic groups have risen in their civilizational development. Many nations, especially Christian, were simply saved from total assimilation, religious oppression and genocide.
Moreover, Russia could use the Anglo-Saxon option of expansion. And in that case, there would simply be no talk of “Russian colonialism” now. Proud mountaineers would simply be “cleaned out”, and their remnants were driven into reservations. There would be no local intelligentsia (which the Russians purposefully created and supported). Unfortunately, they prefer not to recall this, starting a street-organ about “Russian great-power chauvinism”.
The feat of an ordinary 77 Infantry Tenginsky regiment of Arkhip Osipov 22 March 1840 year. Painting by A. A. Kozlov
“He died to the glory of Russian weapons in the Mikhailovsky fortification”
22 March 1840, Arkhip Osipovich Osipov (1802-1840), an ordinary Tenginsky regiment, accomplished a feat that forever entered the Russian military chronicle. Arkhip was a native of the serfs of the Kiev province, Lipovetsky district, the village of Kamenka. In December, 1820 was recruited into military service. He served in the Crimean Infantry Regiment, then in the Tenga Infantry Regiment. Noted in the Persian campaign 1826-1828, the Turkish campaign 1828-1829. He was an experienced soldier who participated in many cases, including the storming of Kars in 1828.
The Tengin regiment was part of the Caucasus Corps and carried cordon service. Taking into account the shortage of troops, the command tried with small detachments that stood in the fortifications to cover the most dangerous areas where they could expect an enemy offensive. The soldier Osipov repeatedly participated in clashes with the mountaineers. In the Tengin regiment, Arkhip entered the 1834 year, when they replenished the 1 and 2 battalions of the Crimean infantry regiment. Osipov was enrolled in the 9 th musketeer company.
7 (19) February 1840, a large force of mountaineers was able to take Lazarev fort by surprise on the Black Sea coastline. His garrison numbered only about 100 people (4-I Musketeer Company of the Tengin Infantry Regiment). The fortifications had not yet been completed and equipped with artillery. Therefore, the garrison could not provide long-term resistance and died a brave death, several people were captured. This quick success encouraged the highlanders.
It should be noted that the small garrisons of the Black Sea coastline at that time were in a very difficult situation. It must be remembered that the current splendor of the resort areas of the Black Sea coast was preceded by a long period of development of these wild territories. These were small fortifications surrounded by a moat and an embankment, behind which stood officers' houses, barracks and a church. They were defended by small formations - two, rarely three or four companies. Given the lack of people, the adverse local climate (diseases mowed people), they almost never were in full force. All communications went by sea, on small rowing vessels, overland communications were almost impossible due to the lack of roads and the danger of an attack by the highlanders. The life of the garrison was filled with dangers that exacerbated the feeling of isolation from the rest of Russia. People lived on a deserted seashore, where they could feel relatively safe only in a small patch of territory. In case of danger, there was no hope of an ambulance. Life flared up briefly only with the beginning of navigation, when the ships of the Black Sea arrived fleet. In winter, a sense of hopelessness in the wildest backwoods of the sea coast intensified. Often diseases raged. So, since the autumn of 1839, dysentery and fever have been rampant on the Black Sea line. They weakened the Russian garrisons, their combat effectiveness fell sharply. The mountains were even worse. For several years there was a crop failure and famine. This led the Circassian tribes to a large-scale revolt. The Council of Elders from Shapsugs, Ubykhs and Dzhigets decided to seize the food supplies of the Russian fortifications.
13 March they were able to seize the Veliyaminovskoe fortification at the mouth of the Tuapse. The garrison fort were able to take by surprise. The mountaineers, almost without resistance, were able to penetrate the fort, broke into the officers' wings and the barracks of the first company. Resisted killed, the rest of the half-awake soldiers tied. At this time, the second company was built and stood under the gun in anticipation of the company commander. Without a commander, the soldiers did not know what to decide. Finally, seeing that the situation was getting worse, the soldiers rushed to the counterattack. But the forces were unequal, most fell in hand-to-hand combat. A small group of 20 soldiers led by sergeant major retreated to the blockhouse and closed there. The mountaineers surrounded the fortifications and demanded their surrender. The soldiers refused to surrender. Then the Highlanders besieged the building with brushwood and set it on fire. Part of the soldiers died stoically. Others were not so brave and surrendered. Some mountaineers immediately hacked to death. Others were captured.
21 March Highlanders headed for the Mikhailovsky fortification on the Vulan River. It was located between the Novotroitsk and Tengin fortifications. However, this time their attack was not so successful. The Mikhailovsky Fortification garrison consisted of a company of the Black Sea Linear 5 Battalion under the command of Captain Nikolai Konstantinovich Liko, he was also the head of the fortification, the company of the Tenginsky regiment, and two companies of the Navaginsky regiment. In total in the garrison, along with the gunners, there were up to 500 people. However, for the decline of diseases and for other reasons, at that time there were fewer people under arms.
Learning about the fall of the Lazarev fortification, Liko ordered the construction of additional internal fortification, separated the part of the structure nearest to the sea with an inner parapet, there were located food stores and a powder magazine. In this part of the fortification, it was possible to fight back if the enemy occupied the rest of Mikhailovsky. In addition, the head of the Mikhailovsky fortification expressed in advance the readiness to blow up the powder magazine. Several volunteers were selected for this task, among them was Arkhip Osipov. At each evening dawn, one of the volunteers was called out of action and confirmed his willingness to accomplish this feat in the event of a critical situation. On the day of the highland attack, Arkhip Osipov was on duty.
Waiting for an enemy attack, the garrison was in constant readiness, and no one remained in the barracks at night. On the night of 21 on 22 March, 1840, the enemy appeared. Fortification surrounded a large detachment of the Highlanders (about 11 thousand soldiers). The soldiers were informed by dogs who were driven out of the fortifications at night. Officers and soldiers put on clean linen, ready for a decisive battle. All guns laid the canister. Early in the morning the enemy attacked all along the line. For a while the gunfire of guns and rifle volleys held back the highlanders. The second assault reflected bayonet counterattack. However, the forces were unequal, and approximately at 10 in the morning hours the Highlanders were able to break through the fortifications. A fierce hand-to-hand fight ensued. Liko was wounded in the head and leg, but continued to lead the battle.
The remnants of the garrison held in the inner fortification. The mountaineers rushed to the powder cellar, because they needed ammunition. Arhip shouting: “It's time, brothers! Who will live - remember my business! ”Blew up the cellar. This battle killed up to 3 thousand Circassians. Several surviving soldiers were captured. They later talked about the feat of Arkhip Osipov. Captain Liko was also captured, but he died from gangrene of the foot.
To perpetuate the memory of the valiant feat of Arkhip Osipov, the sovereign Nicholas I gave the order to permanently include him in the lists of the 1 of the Tenginsk regiment. With all the rolls, the first private answered: "He died to the glory of Russian weapons in the fortification of Mikhailovsky."
The plan to strengthen Mikhailovsky and the location of troops in it on the eve of the 22 battle in March 1840.
Application. Song of the Tenginsky 77 Infantry Regiment
As the Circassians went to us
Years will be about fifty.
One, two! They decided between themselves
Cut our wives guys.
And in Mikhailovsky at the seaside
In the fortification sit
One, two! Everything, the Tengians, the mountain people,
They have been standing there for a long time.
Circassians approached menacingly,
Thousands, it seems, with heels,
One, two! With noise, with a boom jump menacingly,
Rush from the mountains like an evil stream.
And the Tengians are great!
Apart from the enemies here,
One, two! And with grapeshot and bayonets
They were laid in a ditch.
But the help came to the enemies
They began to press again.
One, two! Helping us was help
So that we do not pass the fortress.
“Harder, brothers, do not give up!
Here we put the belly!
One, two! Equal we now fight -
Russian many glorious mouth.
Let the enemies know
What a Russian land!
One, two! The enemy will not surrender us,
Bind all here for the king! "
So on duty for the saint
Arkhip Osipov said.
One, two! To the powder cellar
With the wick at the entrance stood.
All the enemies suddenly turned pale -
He was terrible with a wick!
One, two! Together with the cellar soared
And all were killed by fire.
In roll call
One, two! Answer that for Faith,
For the Fatherland died!