Military Review

Power systems of domestic light machine guns: problems and prospects

Our author tried to solve an incredibly difficult task in the weapons business - to create a food system with increased capacity for light machine guns, / while maintaining the weight of rifle systems within reasonable limits.

Is it possible to grasp the immensity

To automatic firearms armsincluding small ones, different people make different demands: the designers defend their point of view, the generals - their own, the military officials - theirs, the production workers - theirs, and experts from the closed Central Research Institute, the Research Institute and the OKB often “bend” such that hard to imagine. Moreover, now the Ministry of Internal Affairs also has its own views on the “gun case”. Finally, the gorey-infantryman, who is carrying all this “iron” on himself, dismantling - collecting “on his knee” (in mud, without tools and instructions), and also firing, handing his life to the “soulless gland” - thinks about it . However, his opinions, as a rule, are not asked. In other words - each has its own truth.

From all this heap of completely contradictory and sometimes even quite fair demands, the following follows.

The one who directly exploits small arms and whose life directly depends on him, wants it to be smaller in size and weight, device and maintenance - simpler, the power supply capacity, rate of fire and survivability would be higher so that at high rate of fire ribbons and shops should be changed less, and equipping them with ammunition quicker and more comfortably, and, besides, wearable ammunition would be small in terms of weight, and large in terms of the number of shots.

Multi-level (two-level) power supply system machine gun "Revelli-Fiat"

The manufacturer of small arms is trying with all its might to make it constructively and technologically convenient to manufacture, simply dreams that it would not have scarce materials, that it would be suitable for production on existing (and, as a rule, outdated) equipment, and if possible would use the previously harvested assemblies and components from earlier samples (for example, shops, ribbons, etc.) would require minimal time and energy for production.

The main buyers of weapons (the army and other "power" structures) want it to be at high rates and cheap and maintainable as much as possible so that old ammunition, lubricants and maintenance materials, spare parts, cartridge tapes and shops from earlier models, prepared previously, items of ammunition and equipment (such as: pouches, containers, covers of various kinds, belts, etc.), as well as the appropriate devices for its storage (boxes, pyramids, etc.) would be docked with this weapon.

Here, only a part of the requirements for any sample is given, and it only marks the beginning of a long series of problems. Of course, all these variegated and variegated requirements cannot be fully combined with each other. However, there are two or three problems, the solution of which allows to satisfy at least half of the above requirements and get high rates for a new weapon.

German rifle G-11

G-11 rifle in the cut

This should take into account two very important aspects.

First, since virtually any weapon does not exist by itself, but is part of a weapon complex (OK), then small automatic weapons are also part of such a complex, consisting of three equal and interrelated components - ammunition (cartridges), systems power supply (devices for their placement / short-term storage and supply to the Launching part) and from the Launch (Armory) part, which, in fact, is considered a weapon. In addition, there are some third-party organizations - both technical and biological, formally not included in the Complex, but ensuring its efficiency. Therefore, any problem confronting OK is solved jointly in all three of its components; the slightest change in one of them must be closely linked to the functioning of the others, on which it inevitably affects. Therefore, the solution of any issues cannot be a single decision, but becomes a system of measures affecting all three components.

Secondly, there is another “trinity” - three so-called Essential features, which are also closely interconnected with each other: this is the firing rate, capacity and weight. Not only do they not exist separately, they still appear in full force with an enviable constancy in all three components of the Weapon Complex.

Spaceless ammunition for disassembled rifle G-11

Bezglizovy cartridges for v-And in plastic transparent shop

How to ensure high rate of fire

Since the time of the Crimean War, there has been a need for small arms, which ensure the maximum rate of fire for the longest time possible. This is true today. But the rate of fire is ensured not only by the presence of automatic (re) loading, but also by the presence of a sufficiently capacious Power System. And the more its capacity - the more (total) the weight of the array of ammunition (cartridges) put into it. This results in an increase in the weight of the mechanisms and components of both the Power System and the entire weapon (or rather, the Weapon Complex).

One of the most difficult problems for small arms - the problem of weight, or rather, the task of reducing it. Simply put, there are approximate boundaries: for such an ammunition, an automatic rifle or a light machine gun with equipped shops should have weights within strictly defined limits. The task is to increase the capacity of the power supply system (for example, a store) without leaving the weight frameworks set.

Let's see what can be done for this in each component of the OK.

Weight reduction in the “Ammunition” component is possible due to the transition to a new, reduced caliber (with a corresponding change in the geometric dimensions of the cartridge); by replacing the conventional materials and components in the ammunition with lighter and more modern ones; seriously (deeply) changing the design of the ammunition (cartridge) or by switching to a different principle of its operation.

In the case of a transition to a smaller caliber, a change in the size of the munition occurs, a transition to another cartridge. For example, in the AKM Kalashnikov assault rifles, the replacement of the cartridge 7,62x39 arr. 1943 G. on 5,45x39 arr. 1974 d. The first cartridge has a weight of 16,2 g, the second - only 10,5 g. This led to the birth of a new model - AK-74.

If we follow the path of replacing traditional materials with lighter and more modern, then the changes will first of all affect the device, which unites all elements of the ammunition (shot) into one whole, into the unitary cartridge - this is a case. For example, replacing brass or steel in it with light alloys (possibly based on aluminum) or even plastics will significantly reduce the weight of the entire ammunition.

In the case of a serious change in the design of the ammunition, it is the “device that unites the elements of the ammunition that are rigidly fixed relative to each other in the corresponding positions” in a specific sequence. The most famous and common of such devices is the cartridge case, but this is far from the only unifying or connecting structure. In addition to the liner, there are at least five such structures; no one can guarantee that they are not more.

Power systems of domestic light machine guns: problems and prospects
Machine gun "Revelli-Fiat" arr. 1914

9-mm submachine gun MP-40 / I arr. 1942

A fragment of the submachine gun MP-40 / I arr. 1942 d. Movable cartridge with two windows for standard box stores is clearly visible

If we refuse the cartridge case, then we discard the cartridge case cartridge and, most likely, switch to a case without a cartridge. This is a very serious step with far-reaching and not quite predictable consequences. Firstly, it significantly changes the design of the Armory of the complex, and, secondly, the cartridgeless ammo is also different: “checkers” - similar to the 4,7-mm ammunition company “Dynamite Nobel” for the German rifle 0-11 .; “Yubochnye” - similar to the 9-mm cartridge of the Italian machine gun-gun of the Armi Benelli company М2; and other designs. Changes may be required - and required! - not only in the Armory of the complex, but also in the power system. For example, bezgilzovye cartridges "checker" type have an interesting feature - they can form the so-called "phantom" conveyors, that is, some analogues of cartridge tapes. Constructed with this feature in mind, the power supply system has a traction body in the form of a rail or tape, the weight of which is zero: there are cartridges - there is a traction body, there are no cartridges - there is no traction body. Such a vanishing tape, which “disappears” as the cartridges are used up, can significantly reduce the weight of the Power System. All this is true, but the changes that will entail a “only” transition to a cartridgeless cartridge will change the whole Weapon Complex so much that it may be a question of the technical and economic feasibility of this step: enormous problems will arise with the production of new ammunition; equipment at weapons factories will have to replace percents with 80, etc.

Well, if we talk about switching to a different principle of action of a weapon, then this means not so much a change in the principle of operation of the ammunition, as a transition to another type of destructive principle, and therefore, to completely new models, to other Weapon Complexes - perhaps even non-gunshot.

RPD-44 machine gun with accessories

RPK and RPKS machine guns chambered for 7,62x39. These samples differed from each other by the butts - in the PKK it is inconsistent, and in the RPCS - folding

Machine gun RPKS-74 chambered for 5,45x39

The weight reduction in the “Power System” component is solved primarily by placing the maximum amount of ammunition in the minimum space. For this you need:

- pick up as long as possible, but with a minimum number of curves of small radii, the trajectory of the supply of ammunition, "packaged" in a given space (dimensions);

- to create a mechanism for the supply of ammunition, ensuring their safe passage along the chosen path of supply;

- to ensure the lowest possible "dead" weight of the Power System - that is, to solve the problem of the ratio of the capacity of the Power System and its weight in the emptied state: to make so that the capacity unit of the Power System would have as little as possible the weight of its components and mechanisms.

The trajectory of the filing can be any, but not to each of them, you can pick up an easy and reliable mechanism for the supply of ammunition, even if you consider that you can not extend the trajectory of the filing infinitely. The simpler it is, that is, closer to the straight line, and the shorter it is, the simpler it is in design, lighter in weight, and the ammunition supply mechanism functions more reliably. Experiments with the paths of supply and the corresponding mechanisms for the supply of ammunition were conducted by gunsmiths from different countries since the 70-s. XIX century, and by the middle of the XX century there was already a solid "collection" of diverse feeders, bunkers, bands, drums and shops - tubular, box-shaped, rotor, auger, rack, multi-chamber, box, snail, saddle-shaped ... Tried It seemed that all possible types of trajectories of innings - both in “pure” form, and in various combinations. Approximately the same can be said about the mechanisms of supply of ammunition - in general, they are known; Although the original designs of such mechanisms can still be created, they are unlikely to have a “breakthrough” character.

Product “RPKS-SP No. XXUMX” (below) and “RPKS-SP No. XXUMX” (above). View from above. Barrel covers, bolt closures, trigger parts, barrels and magazines are missing for clarity. The mechanism for controlling the feeding of the cassette is well visible; "Pocket" receiver under the breech

Cartridges for standard shops of products "RPKS-SP No. XXUMX" (on the left) and "RPKS-SP No. XXUMX" (on the right)

Product "RPKS-SP No. XXUMX" (bottom view). Clearly visible spring feed cassette

Product cassette “RPKS-SP No.3” with three 30-cartridge standard plastic magazines

For the Power System, the “dead” weight is the ratio of the weight of the emptied food system to its maximum capacity (number of cartridges) and is expressed in grams - this is the “dead” weight “in grams”. “Dead” percentage weight is the ratio of “dead” weight “in grams” to the table weight of one ammunition (cartridge) and expressed as a percentage of the weight of ammunition, that is, multiplied by 100.

Very often, and frankly, almost always for automatic weapons with tape feed - most of the cartridge feed mechanism is fixed on the weapon itself and when reloading an empty Power system it is not separated from it (that is, it serves as a so-called non-replaceable part). In practice, this leads to the fact that it is necessary to consider the absolute and “dead” weights (simple and percentage) of two objects: the replaceable part of the Power System (magazine, tape with a box) and the “dead” weights of the emptied Power System completely (replaceable + non-replaceable parts) together with the weapon on which it is all set.

The “dead” weights of the replaceable part of the Power Supply System are defined in the same way as for store Supply Systems. The “dead” weight in grams for an emptied Power System together with a weapon is the ratio of the weight of a weapon with an empty Power System to its maximum capacity, and the percentage “dead” weight is the ratio of the “dead” weight of a weapon in grams with an emptied Power System to a table weight of one ammunition as a percentage of its weight, that is, multiplied by 100.

Weight reduction in the “Weapon” component is the main direction of weapons creation (at least abroad). It involves two ways:

- development of high-performance original weapon mechanisms, which, due to the merits of the design, are small in size and light in weight. This is a difficult, complex and multi-cost way;

- replacement of the heavy and metal-consuming parts and assemblies in the well-known and already developed weapons with parts and assemblies from light alloys (based on aluminum, titanium, etc.), composite materials, some types of metal ceramics, plastics and synthetic rubbers.

The latter path requires, in addition to the use of these materials, use and appropriate technology. Today, "casting under pressure", special types of welding, various types of stamping and drawing, "powder" metallurgy, soldering, gluing, etc. are used. General technical fasteners are also widely used - "roll-on" and tubular axes and pins, lock washers, etc. D. All this really significantly reduces not only the weight of the weapon, but also the cost of its production; however, in parallel with this, there is a decrease in its performance. Reduced resistance to heat, shock, pollution; significantly maintainability. Repair is possible only by replacing units (units) - and then only if the weapon is designed according to the so-called. modular principle. In fact, in recent years abroad they have been following the path of creating a one-time weapon that was not designed for repairs: shot out the prescribed number of shots or before the appearance of faults - and threw it away.

Power systems problems

Taking into account the military-economic situation in our country, we hardly need to copy the decisions of foreign gunsmiths. Yes, their experience must be taken into account, but it is necessary to go its own way - our developments should not stand still.

From the foregoing, it is obvious that, at the present time, when developing new and modernizing old small arms, the ammunition should remain unchanged, and to make minimal, minor changes to the weapon itself.

Thus, in the OC two components (“Ammunition” and “Weapon”) are not subject to fundamental changes; a leap in quality and, in the first place, a solution to the weight problem should be achieved practically only at the expense of the Power System. The situation is difficult, but not hopeless.

Characteristics of stores for domestic 7,62-mm rifle cartridges mod. 1891-08-30 biennium. (Aka 7,82x0411) used in automatic small arms

Devices for placing ammunition


Weapon sample

DCT-35 / SVT-38





Ammo Capacity






Store body material






Weight of the magazine without cartridges, g






"Dead" weight, g






"Dead" weight,%






Weight with cartridges, g






Note. DKT-35 - an automatic carbine of the Tokarev system arr. 1935, S8T-38 — self-loading rifle systems ,! Tokarev arr. 1938, ABC-38 - an automatic rifle of the Simonov system arr. 193B., LS-26 - machine gun system Lahti Salorant arr. 1926 (Finnish, under the Russian military cartridge), DP-27 - machine gun of the Degtyarev system arr. 1927, DT-28 - tankHe is a manual machine gun of the Degtyarev system arr. 1928

Product “RPKS-SP No. XXUMX” - cassette and stores

Power systems have always been the “unloved sons” of the developers of rifle systems. There are many classifications of automatic weapons and weapons, written fundamental works on its evolution, there are very complex methods of calculations of almost everything that relates to weapons and ammunition. But there is not a single extensively developed classification of power systems, nor is there any serious work on them.

So, you need to create a power system of increased capacity, but with a minimum weight - both absolute and "dead." Where to begin? With the analysis of the situation! Table 1 shows the characteristics of the magazines under the 7,62-mm rifle cartridge 7,62x54R.

The weight to capacity ratio for them is noted in Fig. 1 as 1 curve. This curve is very close to the parabola; if it is continued, that is, to create stores with the capacity of 80-100 cartridges, then it may even go parallel to the ordinate axis. Even without this, it is clear that an increase in the capacity of shops for rifle cartridges will be paid for by an excessive, disproportionately large weight. The weight of "iron" per unit capacity will negate the feasibility of creating such a store. Despite the appearance of new materials, the question of reliable, capacious and light stores under the domestic rifle cartridge remains open, and so far cartridge cartridge reigns supreme.

Characteristics of stores and ribbons used in domestic machine guns for automatic cartridges.

Devices for placing ammunition



Capacity, cartridges













Material, magazine / tape case and its box



"Light" alloy




"Light" alloy



Weight unloaded, g












"Dead" weight, g












"Dead" weight,%












Weight with cartridges, g












The situation is somewhat different with the power systems for domestic 7,62xXNNUMX and 39x5,45 mm automatic cartridges. Table 39 shows the characteristics of shops and ribbons of light machine guns of the RPK type (store supply) and RPD (tape feed). The weight-capacity ratios are also shown in fig. 2 curves 1, 2, 3, 4.

It should be immediately noted here that these curves are closer in appearance to straight lines. Moreover, they do not “fly up” as steeply as the 1 curve discussed above. The 2 curve, although it “risks”, with its continuation, turns into a parabola - but not so steep as 1. The curves, or rather the straight lines 4 and 5, are much closer to the x-axis than to the y-axis. But this is all in stores, the capacity of which does not exceed 75 cartridges; Attempts to create reliable stores of larger capacity will inevitably “pull” curves upward, repeating the situation with the 1 curve. The reasons? Objective! Even if you use “super-light” modern materials, it is impossible to create a reliably working, rigid and lightweight box magazine with a capacity of 100 cartridges at their staggered arrangement. Firstly, it must have a very powerful supply spring to move the entire array of cartridges placed in the mine of the shop body, but then in the fully-equipped state of the store at the bolt of the machine gun or machine gun just do not have the strength to “tear out” the cartridge from the bends of the store and send it in the barrel, and in fact it is necessary not only to close the bolt, but also to lock it. Secondly, having such a long store, it is very difficult to shoot from the “lying” position; it seems that the store will have to dig a separate trench. Thirdly, to ensure the rigidity of such a store, it is necessary to significantly increase the thickness of its walls and strengthen the neck, which will cause a disproportionate capacity increase in weight, and so on. There are examples of such kinds of “arts”, obviously, made in China - boxed monsters on 50 and 80 7,62x39 cartridges.

Product "RPKS-SP No. XXUMX". Bottom view

General view of the product "RPKS-SP No. XXUMX"

In order to get away from such a curve of the shaft sticking out of the receiving window of the machine gun or machine gun, it is necessary to place the trajectory of the supply of ammunition in space more compactly, i.e. bend it even more, turn it into a circle, spiral or helix, in other words, go to the drum , disk and screw shops. But these stores have more complex and material-intensive buildings, more complex and capricious mechanisms for the supply of cartridges, which means their weight increases - both absolute and “dead”. In addition, these types of stores are much more difficult to operate than the box. It remains when creating a power supply system with a capacity from 100 cartridges and higher to switch to tape feed, which, by the way, has no less disadvantages than advantages ...

All of this suggests that none of the applied paths of supply and none of the corresponding mechanisms for the supply of cartridges does not provide an increase in the capacity of the power system with acceptable weight and performance characteristics.


Weight characteristics of replaceable parts of experienced Power systems of increased capacity to domestic light machine guns of type РПКС

Light machine gun



Applicable cartridge



Tape weight without stores, g



Number of stores in the cassette, pcs.



The weight of the replaceable part of the power system (the weight of the cassette with stores of various materials)







Mat. building

is empty.


РіСЂР ° Рј


is empty.


РіСЂР ° Рј























Easy alloy






























Easy alloy



















The Old New Thing

To create a satisfactory power supply system, it is necessary to change the principle of supplying ammunition, move away from simple, single-level feed and move on to complex, multi-level feed. Of the complex Power Systems, the simplest are the two-tier Systems, characterized by the presence of a feed on two levels - upper and lower. At the lower level, the delivery of ammunition from “devices for placing ammunition”, made in the form of clips, packs, shops, cartridge belts, etc., is known. At the upper level, “two or more” pre-loaded “devices for ammunition placement” are supplied in the Armory of the Complex to the so-called "power position". Feed paths at both levels can formally be of any complexity, but in practice, the shortest paths that are close to straight lines should be used. This approach provides:

- in the "devices for the placement of ammunition" - their minimum weight and maximum compactness;

- maximum compactness and minimum weight of devices that provide the supply of "devices for the placement of ammunition."

When powered by automatic cartridges, all this creates prerequisites for the successful creation of Power Systems that have capacities within 80 - 200 cartridges with quite acceptable mass-dimensional indicators. Such Systems may well become an alternative to tape power.

This idea is not new, although little known even to specialists. In the serial automatic rifle weapons for the first time such Power systems were applied on the Italian 6,5-mm machine guns of the Perino system arr. 1909 and the "Revelli-Fiat" arr. 1914 g., As well as on the German 9-mm submachine gun MP-40 / I arr. 1942 (also known as GERAT 3004).

In our country, various aspects of the construction of two-tier Systems were quite seriously worked out and outlined in the “Power supply system of automatic and semi-automatic firearms”, compiled in 1984 at the insistence of Colonel Semyonov Vyacheslav Vladimirovich - at that time the head of the BRIZ of the USSR Academy of Commerce.

One of the main issues discussed in the aforementioned work was the problem of using two-tier power systems on light PKK-type light machine guns. First of all, I was interested in the fundamental possibility of using such power systems on RPK machine guns, as well as the capacitive, weight and dimensional characteristics of the resulting products. The mock-up products were counted - the mass-size models of both machine guns and the power systems installed on them. Unfortunately, combat prototypes have never been built and have not been subjected to operational tests. Some materials from the work "The power supply system of automatic and semi-automatic firearms," ​​adjusted for the latest data, are used in this article.

To use a two-tier power system with regular box magazine in the PKK machine guns, regardless of caliber, the following changes must be made:

1. Run through the transverse notch in the receiver near the receiving window;

2. To provide fastening on the receiver of the U-shaped rails in the block with the feeder of the cassette with magazines;

3. To provide accommodation in the so-called “pocket” of the receiver of the stepping mechanism for controlling the supply of the cassette with magazines;

4. Change some parts of USM - in particular the fuse, self-timer and enter the shutter stop;

5. To abandon the monolithic folding stock, and make it skeletal (frame);

6. Change the configuration of the bolt carrier.

These transformations do not require large material costs, especially since the shutter has already been shut down on some Izhevsk and Yasnaya Polyana products, the shutter handle is planned to be changed, the frame butt is produced in at least two forms and you only need to slightly change its geometry near the shoulder rest, well and finally, on some products, a fuse of almost the required type is installed.

The power supply system developed for the RPKS machine gun chambered for 7,62x39 mod. 1943, designed for the placement of four regular box-type stores with steel, plastic or “light alloy” cases of 30 or 40 cartridges. This system bears the conditional index "РКСКС-СП №2". It is attached to the chute of a standard PKK receiver and is shown in Fig. 1 without stores.

Power system for RPKS machine gun chambered for 5,45x39 mod. 1974 was designed to accommodate three regular box stores with plastic cases with 30 and 45 cartridges. It bears the conditional index "РПКС-СП №3", and is also attached to the receiver RPK-74М and is presented in Fig. 1 with stores.

In both cases, the receiver has standard overall dimensions. The changes are in the presence of cuts on the sides and bottom in the receiving window area to ensure the unimpeded movement of the cassette with stores through the receiver in the transverse direction - from right to left and vice versa.

Both Power Systems include a non-replaceable part - non-detachable from a machine gun when reloading ammunition and a replaceable part removed from a weapon for the convenience of filling cartridges. For each machine gun, the non-replaceable part is presented in a single copy, while the replaceable parts for convenience of operation may include several (two or more) in the product package.

The non-replaceable parts of both Power Systems are almost identical and include U-shaped guides attached to the receiver at the cut-outs, a spring-type cassette feeding mechanism attached to both guides and the bottom of the receiver, and a cassette feed control mechanism. The feed control mechanism is step-by-step, plunger-type and differs only in the controls — in the “RPX-SP No. XXUMX” product it has a lever, and in the “RPX-SP No. XXUMX” with a button.

Replaceable parts of both models are also slightly different and consist of a cassette with three or four box-shaped stores. Frame type cassettes, steel; stores move their mouths in the cassette with its door open. The latter closes and closes with a latch, securely holding the stores inside the cassette. Magazine with stores manually moves from right to left in the guide and moves through the receiver to the leftmost position. At the same time, the cassette feed mechanism spring is compressed, and the step-by-step feed control mechanism runs idle until the right-most magazine in the cassette takes up a place in the machine gun receiver that allows the cartridges to be fed from the magazine to the receiver box to the feed position. Note: all the above manipulations with the cassette and magazines moving along the guides through the receiver box are possible only when the slide frame of the machine gun retracted to the rearmost position, therefore, it became necessary to stop the bolt. Correspondingly, the equipped magazine also carries out the change of the emptied store with the bolt carrier retracted to the extreme rear position; to move the cassette with magazines from left to right, press and release the button or lever of the cassette feed control mechanism.

The total weight of the array of ammunition entered into the power system




Amount of cartridges, pcs.


































The characteristics of the 7,62-mm machine gun of the Degtyarev system. Arr. 1944 RPD-44 - chambered for 7,62x39. In addition to a number of positive qualities, especially operational ones, this machine gun is distinguished by a capacious and easy replaceable part of the Power System - a box with empty cartridges for 100 cartridges weighs only 800 g. Of course, since the main nodes of the ammunition feed mechanism are installed on the machine gun and are an irremovable part of the System power supply, in general, it has a more impressive weight, but due to the enviable simplicity of the automation of this machine gun, its total weight together with the Power supply system without cartridges of all 7400 g and 9020 g with cartridges.

The dependence of the weight on the capacity of the replaceable parts of the Power supply system of the products "РПКС-СП №2" and "РПКС-СП №3" are marked in the graph with 6, 7, 8 and 9 curves. Replaceable parts are designated respectively "SP №2" and "SP №3".

The proposed power supply systems can use regular box-type shops with cases of various materials and different capacities, which is marked on the chart and in the tables with numbers 2, 3, 4. Table 4 is a summary, it contains all the data we are interested in on machine guns of the RPCS type, both with standard Power Systems and with experienced RPS-SP No. 2 and RPX-SP No. XXUMX.

Practice shows that a light machine gun with a power supply system equipped with cartridges should not exceed the weight in 9000 - 9500. That is why the RPD-44 machine gun is taken as the standard; all weapon versions exceeding its weight should hardly be considered acceptable.

Table 5 shows the data of the most successful versions of machine guns of the type RPS with power systems of maximum capacity with weight of samples in the equipped state, not exceeding 9500 g.

At the same time, for the RPCS-SP No. 2, chambered for 7,62x39, the author excluded from consideration the options with the light alloy shops (most likely silumin), since they are very rare. Box stores with steel cases are also excluded - since in our country they have practically become obsolete.

Analysis of results

One glance at the 5 table is enough to establish - increasing the absolute weight of the machine gun “RPX-SP No. XXUMX” relative to the RPX with the 2-cartridge magazine on 75 kg is justified by more than one and a half times (2 cartridges!) Increase in capacity. And this is with very good indicators of “dead” weight - it is reduced by 120. Compare with RPD-20: the weight of an empty “RPX-SP No. 44” is less on 2 g, in the curved state between them there is less 200 g difference, and in capacity “RPX-SP No. 100” on 2 cartridges (on 20%) surpasses the RPD-20, and even on the “dead” scales it is ahead of the standard.

The situation with the RPCS-SP №3 is quite good. When comparing it and RPKS-74 with the newest 60-cartridge plastic store, we see that the absolute weight of the RPX-SP No. 3 in running condition is more on 1900 g, but the capacity of the Power System is more than twice as high (135 versus 60 !) At the same time "dead" weight is reduced by half.

Let's compare “RPSKS-SP No. 3” and RPD-44 - although this is not entirely correct due to the large difference in tabular weights of cartridges (7,62x39 munition weighs 16,2 g, and 5,45X39 weighs 10,5 g). Even here it is noticeable that the capacity is increased by 35 cartridges, the weight in curbed condition per kilogram and a quarter less, and the "dead" weight in percent is almost the same.

Thus, it was proved that according to the weight characteristics, the machine guns “РКСКС-СП №2” and “РПКС-СП №3” have very good indicators on the ratio

"Weight-capacity", and surpass them in existing machine guns such as RPS. It should also be noted that the proposed products, at least, do not lose to the RPD-44 machine gun.

Those interested can check the validity given in the calculation tables.

In the process of working on samples "РПКС-СП №2" and "РПКС-СП №3" it was found that the dimensions of the main parts, assemblies and assemblies of AK-47, AKM, AK-74 machine guns and RPK type machine guns remain unchanged. The above prototypes were created only to clarify the fundamental possibility of creating new power systems, and therefore had a minimum margin of safety. When developing on the basis of these models of military weapons, revisions and changes are inevitable. Thus, the profile of the guides is likely to change without a noticeable increase in weight, the weight of the receiver and parts of the trigger is likely to remain the same or slightly more, the weight of the cassette will significantly decrease due to the optimization of profiles and the use of light alloys and plastics, perhaps the design will change Cassette feed and feed control mechanisms. In other words, the usual correction of weight characteristics will occur. But this will not change the fundamental side of the issue. What conclusions can be drawn from the results obtained?

Well, firstly, it is quite possible to create “complex” “multi-level” power systems. Like any phenomenon, they have very specific characteristics, and therefore their strengths and weaknesses.

Secondly, the fact of their existence of the “RPSKS-SP No. XXUMX” and “RPSKS-SP No. XXUMX” devices confirms not only the possibility, but I’m not afraid of this word, the need to modernize the Kalashnikov small arms system.

Thirdly, the RPSKS-SP No. XXUMX and RPKS-SP No. XXUMX devices fit so well and harmoniously into the M. Kalashnikov small arms system that they did not even need to change the basic sizes of the samples. And this, first of all, is the advantage of not the above-named devices, but evidence of the plasticity, vitality and enormous design potential incorporated into Kalashnikov rifle systems. This indirectly, but very eloquently, indicates that attempts by some officials in the Russian Ministry of Defense to abandon Kalashnikov assault rifles and machine guns are irrational.

Obsolete is not the Kalashnikov machine gun and his machine guns. Over the past 20 years outdated in the methods of management and in the views on the problems of the state almost everything, including the military, the bureaucracy of the Russian Federation. Therefore, the problem of Complex Power Systems is a purely technical problem; it threatens to turn into a political problem that can only be solved by top officials of the state.
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  1. ramsi
    ramsi 1 February 2014 09: 10
    curious, but what would the bolt group look like if the longitudinal reciprocation was completely excluded from it? With such automation, the rate of fire of the system would be limited only by the time the bullet went through the barrel, and by heating ...
    For example, two faceted drums rotate towards each other and tighten a metal tape with cartridges. When one face coincides with the other, they form a shutter from two halves, in which the link of the tape with the cartridge is recessed, a shot occurs, the gas outlet rotates the drums one face under the next link. The transition of the drums through the ribs seems somewhat complicated, although the lower half of the shutter can be made stationary, and the shot tape remains with sleeves
    1. Fullback
      Fullback 1 February 2014 09: 31
      When fired, the cartridge must be in the chamber, otherwise the cartridge will break, does not apply to weak, pistol cartridges, although there the cartridge is still deformed.
      1. ramsi
        ramsi 1 February 2014 10: 00
        well, it seems to be between the two halves in the "chamber and locked by the bolt"; and while the bullet goes along the barrel should remain in this position. Unfortunately, I do not see an opportunity to avoid some gas breakthrough at the point where the bullet enters the barrel, and it is bad that it will not be possible to use it for gas venting either; so it may be better to abandon the gas outlet completely and install an electric motor, all the same the system turns out to be stationary
        1. Prapor-527
          Prapor-527 1 February 2014 10: 49
          More crazy ideas still search wassat Why do you even need a trunk then? To mount the bayonet? .. laughing The bullet moves in the barrel under the influence of powder gases, and not by inertia (in your scheme). hi
          1. Cpa
            Cpa 1 February 2014 16: 00
            Quote: Prapor-527
            A more crazy idea is to look. Why do you even need a trunk then? To mount the bayonet? .. The bullet moves in the barrel under the influence of powder gases, and not by inertia (in your scheme).

            How then do you think the bullet moves in machine guns like Vulcan, Giatling? In my opinion, the barrels there independently rotate.
            1. wasjasibirjac
              wasjasibirjac 4 February 2014 21: 40
              Quote: KPA
              How then do you think the bullet moves in machine guns like Vulcan, Giatling? In my opinion, the barrels there independently rotate.

              the trunks rotate with the bolts and the bolt opens during rotation with the barrel
              1. Cpa
                Cpa 5 February 2014 18: 30
                Quote: wasjasibirjac
                the trunks rotate with the bolts and the bolt opens during rotation with the barrel

                The trunks rotate with the chamber, the shutter locks each barrel in turn.
        2. Cpa
          Cpa 1 February 2014 15: 57
          If you come up with these clips in the form of a wedge in the breech and the lock of two halves of the drums, then it is quite possible. hi
    2. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 1 February 2014 15: 04
      It was. Even during the First World War, the Germans depicted an aircraft machine gun according to this scheme. Everything was great: a huge rate of fire, small dimensions, simplicity plus, a small but pleasant bonus, in the form of solving the problem of collecting cartridge cases on an airplane. One "but" this unit did not work. It turned out to be technically impossible to provide the required accuracy of the toe-in of the drums, as a result, the machine gun stably wedged at most after several shots. Although it must be said that the Germans were not the first here, before them the Americans practiced in this direction even during their civil war. They practiced with this scheme during the Vietnamese. One of the experimental automatic grenade launchers was created according to this scheme, and even an experimental batch was released, transferred for trial operation.
      1. ramsi
        ramsi 1 February 2014 15: 17
        Thank you, curious, that’s what it means to be lazy to poke around on the Internet. Although amid the gatling kinematics, the problem still does not seem hopeless
        1. anomalocaris
          anomalocaris 1 February 2014 15: 48
          She's just what is hopeless. Unfortunately, creating a composite chamber will not succeed due to the inevitable backlash and gaps. This task was more or less satisfactorily solved by Dardik (there was an article on the site about this very interesting system). But she is seriously inferior to the classical scheme.
          1. ramsi
            ramsi 1 February 2014 17: 03
            Well, why, backlash and clearances for weaving tolerances, with a metal tape with high-quality perforation, with bevel (centering) teeth, with simple kinematics, should work worse than a multi-level system for pulling a cartridge out of a tape, feeding, locking, ejecting a sleeve, with rotation the barrel, during the passage of a bullet on it? .. (and this under extreme loads!)
            Oh yes, I forgot, in case of misfire with an external drive, the system will simply push the tape further
            1. anomalocaris
              anomalocaris 1 February 2014 19: 00
              With such tolerances, this unit will cost like a piece of gold of similar weight and will only work in a sterile, laboratory atmosphere.
              1. ramsi
                ramsi 2 February 2014 09: 10
                well, but how do you like this option: the lower part of the matrix is ​​motionless, only the upper one moves along the guides up and down; the rear guides are integral with it and pass through the lower one, they work as a crank from rotation, the front guides are integral with the lower part; the tape-pulling drum is installed behind the shutter. The design is somewhat more complicated, but still quite simple, in addition, it becomes possible to eliminate the breakthrough of gases. I mean, I wanted to know - have you tried this option?
                1. anomalocaris
                  anomalocaris 2 February 2014 12: 38
                  Oh no easier. I will tell you more, to ensure the accuracy of conjugation in this case, however, will be more difficult. And so all the flaws are the same. It will turn out the same as it turned out in the Dardik system, with a weak cartridge - more - less efficient, with slightly more power - the army appears.
                  In general, the chamber is too responsible and difficult part to make it detachable.
                  1. ramsi
                    ramsi 2 February 2014 15: 08
                    Well, the drum systems do not go crazy? .. The accuracy of pairing the halves walking on four guides, but with one entering the other will be no worse than in the traditional scheme. Perforation on the tape will provide an acceptable position of the cartridge in the "anatomical" stock (you can put another drum in front of the slide, which does not pull anything, but simply optimizes the position of the tape at the entrance), "soft" entry into the barrel ... Well, to be honest I don't see any particular problems
                    1. anomalocaris
                      anomalocaris 2 February 2014 18: 39
                      Do you understand the difference between a drum and a composite chamber?
                      1. ramsi
                        ramsi 2 February 2014 19: 47
                        the drum is movable relative to the barrel, but there is no composite chamber (at least in its lower part): I believe that the main thing for us is to get into the hole ...
                      2. SIT
                        SIT 2 February 2014 21: 09
                        [quote = ramsi] the drum is movable relative to the barrel, but there is no composite chamber (at least in its lower part): I believe that the main thing for us is to get into the hole ... [/ quote]
                        parts): I think that the main thing for us is to get into the hole ... [/ quote]
                        You did not forget that we are talking about a light machine gun? In the absence of moving parts of the shutter, what to do with recoil?
                      3. ramsi
                        ramsi 3 February 2014 08: 42
                        the machine gun is presumably stationary and does not in any way cancel the existing schemes; it is a simpler and cheaper alternative to the "gatling", although it cannot replace them, in particular, in the air defense system
                    2. anomalocaris
                      anomalocaris 3 February 2014 16: 26
                      You are very mistaken, and I can’t help you here.
                    3. ramsi
                      ramsi 3 February 2014 17: 18
                      mistaken what?
                    4. anomalocaris
                      anomalocaris 4 February 2014 15: 37
                      In your ignorance I have already come across with you about the "pig-driven unit". But it never dawned on you that you cannot argue with an engineer.
                    5. ramsi
                      ramsi 4 February 2014 19: 00
                      I’m ready to admit that you were tired of a debate about a thing that does not exist and whose principle of action is described on fingers. But if you just see Dardic’s scheme before your eyes, or whatever it is ... then this is really a hopeless case: the cartridge moves in the transverse plane during the shot and to remove it, the only thing that comes to mind is the leaf spring in the frame of the drum, in the alignment of the barrel — it would press the cartridge, and at the same time reduce the breakthrough of gases into the gap between the groove and the frame of the drum, but how much will it withstand, and what will be the additional effort on the descent, already increased by the spring of the cage? ..
                      In my proposal there are no such defects: the cartridge with an interference fit sits in a metal tape, the tape is stretched by drums on the lower part and fixed by the upper one. I’m rather afraid of the warp
                    6. anomalocaris
                      anomalocaris 5 February 2014 17: 00
                      Yes. I was tired of arguing with an amateur. You just very badly imagine how "the thing that does not exist, and the principle of operation that is described on the fingers" works, but I can imagine very well how it will work. For unlike you, I am an ordinary Soviet engineer, who has been interested in these issues for a quarter of a century. Do you know where you can put a leaf spring capable of compressing 2900 atmospheres? Or tell you?
                    7. ramsi
                      ramsi 5 February 2014 18: 18
                      about 2900 you still got excited, wise guy, the spring does not need to tighten them all; shot a gun without her, well, and with her it’s worse, he definitely won’t
                    8. anomalocaris
                      anomalocaris 6 February 2014 15: 28
                      And what is the maximum pressure in the chamber of our three-line cartridge?
                      I repeat again, it sucks to be dumb, try drawing a compound chamber in any system available to you. Whether in "Compass", even in "Solid Works" Both programs have a calculation module. Accordingly, you can calculate the loads and deformations.
                      If YOU do not have enough minds for this, then you are a TOP manager.
                    9. ramsi
                      ramsi 6 February 2014 21: 55
                      but I didn’t write about the crank of the drive, and, therefore, it will be locked at the bottom dead center? .. Or continue the thought of the brain is not enough
                    10. anomalocaris
                      anomalocaris 7 February 2014 15: 37
                      The crank also relies on bearings, where you can put it, maybe you will guess?
                    11. ramsi
                      ramsi 7 February 2014 18: 12
                      uncle, I see you mess at every opportunity. Maybe, after all, dominoes? ..
                    12. ramsi
                      ramsi 8 February 2014 19: 32
                      it seems the argument is over. Then a few words in conclusion, if, suddenly, who was interested.
                      In some ways, my opponent is right, the design of the locking unit needs to be changed. Not the G-orbase upper part, but the U-shaped; and attach to both on the connecting rod on a common axis with a counterweight between them. The guns will not work out, but the heavy machine gun ... well, who knows ... In principle, you can be foolish with additional latches, though it will not be so beautiful anymore - a kind of sewing machine on the central rack
                    13. anomalocaris
                      anomalocaris 11 February 2014 16: 26
                      Baby, I see, as you were half-wit, they remained so.
                      And the argument is really over, it’s just hard to be a manager, and not understanding the subject, it’s really hard for a specialist to get involved in something. In my case, not real.
  • The comment was deleted.
  • chunga-changa
    chunga-changa 1 February 2014 15: 25
    Technically solved the problem of increasing rate of fire for a long time. The problem of radical weight reduction of weapons and ammunition is not yet available. Obviously, the future of individual portable weapons for coherent beam weapons. You can kill a person not only with a bullet. In most cases, it’s not necessary to kill, it’s enough to disable, sometimes even just blind for a short time. Another way is to make a person the operator of guidance of robotic or self-propelled guns, where the weight of ammunition and weapons does not affect a person. The article is excellent.
    1. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 1 February 2014 15: 41
      For radiation - hardly. Too much loss in a dense earthly atmosphere.
      Until an acceptable source of energy has been developed, there can be no question of any alternative to firearms.
      1. chunga-changa
        chunga-changa 1 February 2014 16: 39
        You can radiate a lot of things, from microwaves to just loud directional sound. The range of use of personal hand weapons is not great, a maximum of 300-500 meters, but in reality the city is even smaller. Well, the technology does not stand still. Now the situation is like in the late forties in aviation. Replaced by an excellent propeller propeller came not perfect, dangerous jet. They were quickly replaced by turbojets and turboprops, and everything was fine.
        1. anomalocaris
          anomalocaris 1 February 2014 19: 07
          So far, nothing that can replace gunpowder as an energy source, and easily transformed, I personally do not observe.
          As for emissions, any, they are all very actively absorbed by the medium. In addition, many of their species are almost impossible to focus. So the game, so far, is not worth the candle, will it be next? I don’t know, but I’m sure that in the near future nothing will change dramatically.
  • luiswoo
    luiswoo 2 February 2014 11: 35
    Quote: ramsi
    ... but what would the bolt group look like if the longitudinal reciprocation was completely excluded from it? With such automation, the rate of fire of the system would be limited only by the time the bullet went through the barrel, and by heating ...

    Congratulations, you invented the Gatling system, I suspect that it can be done without problems, by analogy with a revolver, to one barrel, but it makes no sense - the heating and wear distributed between several trunks will fall on one:


    The Slostin machine gun is another unit with a parallel charge-shot-ejection cycle.
    (I apologize for not commenting chunga-changa with a gatliga card holder ...)
    1. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 2 February 2014 12: 42
      You're wrong. Revolving guns are quite firmly registered in aviation. They are simpler, lighter and almost as fast as the gatlings.
  • dpurpur
    dpurpur 1 February 2014 09: 20
    Thank you for the article.
  • jjj
    jjj 1 February 2014 09: 35
    It seems that increasing the capacity for cartridges will require a removable barrel
  • Srgsoap
    Srgsoap 1 February 2014 10: 01
    Well, now the big s ... h starts again. Well, start with the fact that the PKK by and large is that AK, with increased firepower, but the RPD, it is enough to update the power supply system and loose tape in a cloth box like FN Minimi. However, as far as we know, loose ribbons are not used on any of our small arms, including large-caliber machine guns. If there are specialists, please explain the reason. Although I can guess, production technology and savings. In the photo RPD
    1. Per se.
      Per se. 1 February 2014 14: 23
      Quote: SrgSoap
      RPD, it is enough to update the power supply system and loose tape in a cloth box like FN Minimi.
      In your photo, the creation of the American company DS Arms, which modernized our machine gun, and, moreover, it is produced not only under the native cartridge 7,62x39, but also under the 6,8x43 Remington SPS, the very concept of which was proposed by our gunsmith Vladimir Fedorov even before the First World War. The 6,8x43 cartridge significantly improves the characteristics of an already wonderful machine gun, undeservedly forgotten in our country. The use of a soft box made of synthetic material on the RPD not only reduces the weight, but also eliminates the noise inherent in the metal version. Why don't they do it, the question ... Why don't they return the RPD, an even bigger question, especially if the machine gun is recognized as a reference, and even more so that its stocks must still be in warehouses. As for the PKK, it would be much better if they did not try to portray this "sub-machine gun" from it, but supplemented it with the RPD as an intermediate weapon between a light machine gun and a sniper rifle, for shooters with initial sniper training operating in infantry battle formations ... Its options for this topic may vary, from adding a simple red dot sight to a machine gun, to converting it to a light automatic rifle.
      1. Srgsoap
        Srgsoap 1 February 2014 16: 03
        Thanks for the detailed answer, but there is information about loose ribbons ??? This topic is interesting. Thank.
        1. Per se.
          Per se. 1 February 2014 19: 50
          Yes, you were wondering why we do not use loose belts. Of course, this is the decision of the hanging "tail", when the links of the tape crumble after the shot cartridge. There are several reasons for this, from the "two-story" power supply system of the same PC against "flashing" by the design of our cartridge (7,62x54), to the banal savings on actually "disposable" machine gun belts. In the photo, loose tape chambered for 5,56 mm (USA). There is a lot of information on the net, you can start from this (Machine gun belts - history).
          1. Srgsoap
            Srgsoap 1 February 2014 21: 31
            Thanks for the link. good
        2. saygon66
          saygon66 1 February 2014 21: 29
          - Equipped "loose" come "ready-made" directly from the factory. It is not possible to re-equip them "in the field". There are cartridges, but there is nothing to shoot ... something like this ...
          1. Srgsoap
            Srgsoap 1 February 2014 21: 33
            Thank you too, I knew about the fact that those already equipped with the plant came, therefore, I concluded that it was economical ... in my opinion, swelling is still more convenient than a hanging tape.
            1. wasjasibirjac
              wasjasibirjac 4 February 2014 21: 51
              and when are the cartridges left in packs? on Russian machine guns it is elementary to equip the tape and continue to fight, with loose tape - you have to invent an alternative power system - from stores for assault operations.
      2. Corsair
        Corsair 2 February 2014 05: 56
        Quote: Per se.
        In your photo, the creation of the American company DS Arms, which modernized our machine gun, and it is produced not only under the native cartridge 7,62x39, but also under 6,8x43 Remington SPS

        + replacement of the barrel with a shorter and finned one with the installation of a flame arrester.
      3. SIT
        SIT 2 February 2014 21: 41
        Quote: Per se.
        but also under 6,8x43 Remington SPS, the very concept of which was offered by our gunsmith Vladimir Fedorov even before the First World War. The 6,8x43 cartridge significantly improves the performance of an already wonderful machine gun, undeservedly forgotten with us.

        That's where you have to dig! Therefore, I do not agree with the author of the article that there is no need to look for new ammunition. Under such a cartridge, you can make both an automatic machine gun and a light machine gun by really upgrading the RPD. A soft cordura box under the tape weighs almost nothing. Making a machine with a manual drive that will equip bulk belts is also not a problem. Just applying multilevel power systems to existing RPKs will not work, because to the 4th store, the trunk will overheat so that it just spits.
        1. terrible
          terrible 3 February 2014 07: 15
          ) as you can imagine, in a combat situation, loose tape equipment) try to collect the links from the ground) they will fall like husks from seeds) a machine for equipping tapes is needed when the machine gun is on a machine or on equipment where cartridges are spent in thousands.)) was we have such a thing. it weighs almost a kilogram) it is uncomfortable in battle in short. threw out as unnecessary)
  • Owl
    Owl 1 February 2014 10: 27
    One of the divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, probably after watching the film "Terminiore-2", ordered the development of a 5,45 mm shortened assault machine gun with a belt feed. Why should a law enforcement unit storm, sweeping away with a downpour of small-caliber, heavily ricocheting bullets that pose a great threat to random citizens, besides, the barrel will overheat quickly enough. For these purposes, special forces units of the Russian armed forces received a shortened "Pecheneg", it is already on supply, probably the Ministry of Internal Affairs unit does not have enough physically trained employees who can use 7,62x54 weapons or laundering and squandering of funds continues.
    1. Corsair
      Corsair 2 February 2014 06: 02
      Quote: Eagle Owl
      One of the divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, probably after watching the film "Terminator-2", ordered the development of a 5,45 mm shortened assault machine gun with a belt feed.

      Here is the amersky "special" from the Vietnam War with a shortened RPD for action in the jungle ...
    2. Doznanied
      Doznanied 3 February 2014 09: 59
      Units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs are currently performing and, so to say, combined-arms tasks. "Protect the rule of law" not only in settlements, but also in the mountains, forests and other areas. Chechnya and Dagestan are an example of this. And about physical fitness - I hope this is a joke, but it somehow sounds insulting.
      1. Owl
        Owl 3 February 2014 10: 23
        An insult for similar units is the fact that significant funds are spent on crazy "requests" from the ministerial unit, other units do not have enough funds to upgrade and equip already existing models, there is not enough money for special ammunition and special equipment for training employees.
  • Prapor-527
    Prapor-527 1 February 2014 11: 00
    Alteration of the "Pecheneg" machine gun according to the "Bullpup" scheme. Doubtful expediency ...
    1. rereture
      rereture 1 February 2014 12: 43
      And the fact that it is more compact with the same barrel length doesn’t seem to be taken into account, is it?
    2. Owl
      Owl 1 February 2014 14: 09
      A good photo, the dimensions of the weapon are important for special forces units, they sometimes need to land and the ability to "work" from a limited volume (a car, shelter, urban and industrial premises) is sometimes necessary.
      1. Cpa
        Cpa 1 February 2014 16: 02
        The tape may be skewed. The main trigger must be disconnected from sin.
  • svp67
    svp67 1 February 2014 12: 47
    Not scanty, and God forbid, the Russian land will not scanty with talents ...
  • archi.sailor
    archi.sailor 1 February 2014 12: 50
    very interesting and interesting article. Thanks to the author, article plus of course
  • xomaNN
    xomaNN 1 February 2014 12: 50
    One feels that this is a report of the R&D of a professional gunsmith. Maybe not exciting for the average reader, but also strongly in the case.
  • alex-cn
    alex-cn 1 February 2014 13: 31
    The article is interesting, plus unconditional, and the idea of ​​layering is interesting.
    After all, no one has yet created a weightless tape and a working sleeveless automatic weapon, although a lot of its designs were proposed in the 80s, but everything died down, and maybe I did not track. Hunting shellless ammunition existed and was offered for sale. But something is very similar to the promotion of its rational offer ... Still, reviews from the troops are somehow more reliable than any calculations.
    1. saygon66
      saygon66 1 February 2014 21: 35
      The article mentions the West German G11 rifle under caseless ammunition. The rearmament was prevented by the requirements of the unification of cartridges in NATO, and the caliber was something 4 mm.
      1. anomalocaris
        anomalocaris 2 February 2014 05: 24
        Caliber G-11 4,7 mm. The rearmament was prevented not only by NATO standards. First of all, the cost of the rifle itself and, most importantly, the cost of ammunition, plus technical problems that were not completely resolved, interfered. And the effectiveness of this unit was lower than expected (in terms of penetration and effective range).
  • La-5
    La-5 1 February 2014 13: 39
    Shellless ammunition has a drawback; they allow breakthrough of powder gases through the bolt.
    1. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 1 February 2014 15: 56
      Well what are you. This problem is completely solvable and was resolved back in the 60-70s of the 19th century. and in many ways. Just the task of obturation is transferred from the sleeve to a special device called the obturator and, most often, part of the shutter.
      By the way, most guns of caliber from 8 "are cartridge-loaded, that is, they are caseless.
      1. La-5
        La-5 1 February 2014 16: 19
        This is in artillery, and not in small arms.
        1. anomalocaris
          anomalocaris 1 February 2014 19: 13
          Yah? Type in the search engine "breech-loading capsule rifles", "needle rifles" and just read.
          You see, the problem of obturation is not the only problem that the liner solves and, however, is far from the most important.
    2. Hudo
      Hudo 1 February 2014 16: 24
      ... and self-ignition of gunpowder charges of ammunition in the chamber during intense firing.
    3. saygon66
      saygon66 1 February 2014 21: 37
      -In the photo of the G11 ammunition, the detail following the bullet is the same obturator, flying out after the bullet after ...
      1. anomalocaris
        anomalocaris 2 February 2014 05: 16
        This is not a shutter. This is a cup with a capsule and an expelling charge. Since the cartridge G-11 is telescopic, the bullet must exit the powder block before igniting it. So I had to make a two-stage system. First, the expelling charge pushes the bullet out of the powder block, and then the main powder charge accelerates it in the barrel. Obturation is achieved due to the design of the shutter chamber.
        However, the Germans failed to solve the problems with the cartridge for reasonable money.
        1. saygon66
          saygon66 2 February 2014 14: 02
          - Indeed! Thanks! "4 - Booster charge in a copper case." At the same time, I will fill in the gaps in knowledge ... "The bullet of the caseless cartridge is closed from the outside with a plastic plug (1), due to the use of which, firstly, the mechanical strength of the cartridge increases, and secondly, the obturation of the bullet in the barrel bore is improved, and sufficient pressure is created for giving the bullet a high initial velocity ... "" Arms and Hunting "2000.
  • Prapor-527
    Prapor-527 1 February 2014 17: 29
    Quote: Eagle Owl
    A good photo, the dimensions of the weapon matter to special forces units, they sometimes need to land and the ability to "work" from a limited volume (a car, shelter, urban and industrial premises) is sometimes necessary.
    I totally agree. But we need a completely new machine gun for solving special problems. And I am sure that domestic gunsmiths are able to create such a machine gun that meets the requirements of the security forces ... But are there any "requirements"? ..
  • Andrey77
    Andrey77 1 February 2014 17: 44
    Obsolete is not a Kalashnikov assault rifle and not his machine guns.
    Deprecated Served faithfully for half a century, but is outdated.
  • Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 1 February 2014 20: 08
    Good article.
    Surprisingly funny this sight - the designer of small arms in modern times! What can you invent now? Fair? The truth? Absolutely nothing. Which is perfectly clear from this article. The evolution of small arms was irrevocably over 40 years ago, when the last crumbs were "licked". What are all these gunsmiths doing? They spoil old weapons to justify their existence.
    Tales about "the latest materials" are designed to hide the fatal flaw of all the latest "innovations" - the improvement of one, a certain parameter is due to the collapse of the rest. Have you lost weight? Strength and durability have collapsed. Increased the amount of ammo? The weight is gone. Etc. All new and new modifications of weapons in terms of the sum of the parameters, at best, try to reach the old models, usually not achieving success. Usually they are worse in everything, except for one thing, which is under pressure from marketing. The matter is already so bad that they are trying to introduce a modular principle - this barrel for sniping, this one for oncoming combat, this one for the mountains, this one for the plains ... this slice for a hedgehog, this slice for a snake ... the reliability of modular systems timidly fluctuates around zero and will always remain there.
    The evolution of small arms based on the principle of ejection of a bullet of various kinds with solid mixtures is over! Forever and ever! And it happened a long time ago. Regarding the song "Outdated AK", which has gotten into my teeth. This groan is already 40 years old. He began to gain strength when the gunsmiths realized that they would never, for anything, under any circumstances, come up with anything better. What is the myth behind? Yes, on the fact that we managed to stop the modernization of AK production. Now we have it produced on such ... such ... how do these crooked fakes generally shoot? But they shoot! Upgrading AK production lines to closed-loop machining centers - and no samples of super-super modern gunsmiths can even come close to it. But this is not done. I suspect for the same reason that the USSR froze the development of lines of revolving technologies that could solve all the problems with industrial production limping on both paws.
    A miserable and meaningless creature - a modern gunsmith, will not find a new meaning to existence before a revolutionary, now unknown way to transmit an impulse to destroy the target is invented. The hope for lasers has already died. Need something else ...
    1. your1970
      your1970 3 February 2014 11: 11
      well, in fact, about machine guns once upon a time they said "They shoot too fast for China" ...
      and the K-98 rifle was also a reference.
      the time has come and the standard has changed, so we are waiting ...
    2. georg737577
      georg737577 9 February 2014 13: 33
      Quote from the article -
      ... Given the military-economic situation in our country, we are hardly worth copying the decisions of foreign gunsmiths ...
  • wei
    wei 1 February 2014 21: 23
    In fact, in recent years, abroad, they have taken the path of creating disposable weapons that are not designed for repairs: they shot the required number of shots or before malfunctions appeared and threw them away.

    this trend is not only in the arms business but also in any technique, the teapot has recently flowed to him for only 2 years (the former served more than 10)
    1. saygon66
      saygon66 1 February 2014 21: 47
      - There are two principles for the production of mechanisms (and indeed any goods): "expensive durability" and "cheap fragility" just like glass and laminated containers. It seems that the second recipe began to be written out of place and out of place ...
  • saygon66
    saygon66 1 February 2014 21: 56
    - AK is outdated ...? But what about this "old man"? True, it goes as "one", but still in the service.
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  • Aleksey_K
    Aleksey_K 1 February 2014 22: 50
    Small arms are not obsolete. In return, he has nothing but beautiful theories. Another thing is "smart" patrons and smart guidance systems. At one time, the half-witted shrapnel in the artillery plunged all armies into terrible fear. There was no escape in the trenches. Recently, in the Military Secret, Prokopenko made a reservation about jet cartridges for a sniper rifle. Without bragging, I will say, back in 1965 the thought occurred to me, what if a bullet is made reactive and another cartridge. I was 15 years old. I had no experience in making weapons and there were no such acquaintances. I drew my machine gun on paper and, on thought, destroyed it. And in general he gave himself his word not to invent a weapon. Subsequently, the "devil" prompted me more ideas that I rejected, and which were later embodied by others.
    1. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 2 February 2014 05: 31
      It was at this time that a similar idea occurred to the Americans. They carried it out - it turned out to be a "jirojet". The toy is original, but not at all practical.
      1. badger1974
        badger1974 2 February 2014 16: 51
        the author of this invention pursued the idea of ​​tight fire, accuracy was not priority, he achieved this, but the idea is stupid in the region, like a New Year’s reusable firecracker, the ammunition ignition unit also raises a lot of questions, although electro ignition is not new, but it’s exactly in this wunderwafer that the edge looks funny,
        1. anomalocaris
          anomalocaris 2 February 2014 18: 35

          "Girojet" had quite an ordinary capsule, it didn't look like a firecracker (although, most likely, you meant the so-called "Roman candle"). The samples were made in the form of a carbine pistol.
          1. badger1974
            badger1974 3 February 2014 00: 07
            except for Mike O'Dwyer, no one has dealt with this problem in more detail, nevertheless, it's a stupid idea
    2. badger1974
      badger1974 2 February 2014 17: 00
      active-reactive ammunition is not new, it’s another matter to stabilize such a bullet after leaving the barrel is a huge task, it is it that does not provide a stable flight path with such small masses and sizes, the ammunition must be of exceptional accuracy, and this is uneconomical
  • terrible
    terrible 2 February 2014 17: 28
    ) crazy idea as a machine gunner I tell you. The mass of stores is comparable to the weight of the tape for the same number of rounds. Are the full stores outweighed by an empty swing some kind of machine gun how to hold on? And equipping them is also a hassle. Another fool like with sparks. Without tape, the whole funny machine gun - continuous fire. on the 1st world machine gun this is still okay) and even Italian) it’s easel. and on the handbrake the nonsense. loose belt is also not an option. if you only try the rag again.
  • Terrible ensign
    Terrible ensign 2 February 2014 18: 18
    I agree with "formidable", absolutely.
    In general, the article gave an impetus to controversy and reasoning - this is good ...
    However, from a practical point of view, it seems that there is no better RPK with a drum or an updated RPD for the rifle compartment.
    If we continue this kind of experimental "trend - chatter", then we can dream up further ...
    You can also play with the structure and staff of units performing certain tasks on the battlefield or leading separate databases.
    But, colleagues, turn back structures from regular stores and metal frames (I don’t know how much time to kill for this), make a bunch of conditional comparisons, calculations and calculations (since some of the weapons with which the “know-how” is compared has simply been removed from service). .. It reminds in a sense of "engineering itch and painful desire to get confused." About six months ago, one friend immediately on the resource demonstrated his traumatic PM with a disk magazine from the PCA. Also very enchanting! ..
  • max702
    max702 2 February 2014 21: 55
    But what about the bourgeois notion of a 100-round Beta-C store? link to the manufacturer’s website there it is shown for everyone, from machine guns to pistols
    1. badger1974
      badger1974 3 February 2014 00: 19
      what city to fence, there is a box for machine guns for any quantity for ammunition, for ex-Soviet for 100, 200 and 250, choose to fight, but for a machine you can twist two horns with tape, the situation is the same for bourgeois, another thing is a lot of private upgrade firms have bred, and here they have fun in shooting galleries
    2. terrible
      terrible 3 February 2014 07: 27
      ) how much weight did the machine with such a store gain weight? hands dry it to drag) and shoot offhand? with a standard start up at 0.25 seconds, but you can direct the target faster) and your life depends on this.
  • Doznanied
    Doznanied 3 February 2014 12: 06
    Quote: formidable
    hands dry him drag

    I agree, somehow everything is very cumbersome, and it can clog with dirt and snow.
  • jar.zoom
    jar.zoom 3 February 2014 14: 19
    It is very strange that this article caused so many comments. To write down so much paper, sorry, press the keys so many times, bring up the theoretical base to just advertise the 90 cartridge magazine on the RPK that nobody needs? And in the comments, it’s out of date, it’s not out of date, you need , it’s not necessary, etc. There is no other weapon than a firearm, and it’s not always foreseen. There is not always a PKK, and the problem of weight, quantity, and type of stores has been solved for the past 100 years by the correct formulation of the problem, competent interaction between the military branches and the normal rear This, of course, is ideal. So why the hell, sorry goat button accordion? Normal infantry needed! Yes, and the main cartridge, if not expensive, but you need to change it.
    1. terrible
      terrible 3 February 2014 17: 58
      ) Yes, I'm tired of all the other articles about banderlogs) and here is a practical article with real trunks. But not snot about Ukraine.
  • Sledgehammer
    Sledgehammer 4 February 2014 00: 36
    All the same, it seems to me that there is no particular problem. There must and are machine guns under the machine gun cartridge in the department
    and the choice is normal, a drum or a horn, preferably in 4 rows. Here, dead weight is further reduced.
    Machine guns 7.62 is a separate topic, although perhaps the issue would be less acute if the Sun moved to a new
    cartridge type 6X49, especially 7,62X54 is outdated
    1. badger1974
      badger1974 5 February 2014 10: 47
      is it called changing the flea, changing the profile of the enterprise and where to put the accumulated waste into waste? Only the USSR could afford such a thing when switching from 7.62 -39 to 5.45-39, this is a very, very big cost, and if something is changed so with a margin for the future, for example, a sleeveless case, but not the one that is currently represented by some companies
      and 7.62-54 is morally outdated, falling under the fire of a PC or SVD doesn’t think about the obsolete ammunition, and in the future the picture will be the same, but 6-49 is unlikely to improve, money wasted
      1. Sledgehammer
        Sledgehammer 7 February 2014 15: 30
        Quote: badger1974
        is it called changing the flea, changing the profile of the enterprise, and where to put the accumulated waste into waste? Only the USSR could afford it when switching from 7.62 -39 to 5.45-39

        Why re-profile them? Let them make weapons and ammunition.
        In the scrap, is it? Yes, if you shoot them on the oath and once a year at the shooting range,
        then another 100 years is enough.

        Quote: badger1974

        only the USSR could afford such a thing when switching from 7.62 -39 to 5.45-39, this is a very, very big cost, and if something is changed so with a margin for the future, for example, a sleeveless one, but not the one that is currently represented by some companies

        With a modular scheme of weapons, the costs are minimal, the advantages are obvious.
        A variety of ammunition is not a luxury, but a necessity.

        Quote: badger1974

        falling under the fire of a PC or SVD, something like marally outdated ammunition is not thought of, and in the future the picture will be the same, but they will hardly improve the picture 6-49, money wasted

        Yes, even under the company of machine gunners with PCA, this is not an argument. Patron is more than a hundred years old,
        maybe we’ll keep Mosin rifles?
        6X49 (plus its modern incarnation) is much better in many ways, while it weighs less and the weapon under it weighs less.
        1. badger1974
          badger1974 10 February 2014 00: 16
          on the first and second question, in 1941, the disagreement in armament played a cruel joke on the loss of manpower because it was precisely here and now that there were no such ammunition and components, and we didn’t adapt with the allied standards yet, the councils learned a good lesson
          and at the expense of Daddy and the pugs, ammunition is still alive, PC and SVD norms use them, and the Mauser 7.62 is still in service, and at the expense of the weight of the weapon under 6-49, I doubt that the weight will decrease, the sleeve is large, the stock strength to nothing will "carry away" all the benefits, and even with the ballistics it is not known how and what is shorter in a dark forest without the potential of a ray not to climb, but it just does not
          1. Sledgehammer
            Sledgehammer 10 February 2014 02: 51
            At 41, her military leadership played a cruel joke with the Soviet Army,
            and not a variety of ammunition and weapons. Cartridges for the handle. arrow weapons
            the bulk were standardized.

            7.92 Mauser has long been replaced by 7.62X51 NATO.

            The potential is huge and if not for the 90th CA would have switched to a new cartridge with a very high
            probability. Real progress always gives a bunch of new.patron and weapons under it,
            this is a historical fact. And with ballistics everything is fine, there is a hit table from snipers in the article.
  • orsker
    orsker 4 February 2014 00: 46
    Thanks, I learned a lot!
    1. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 6 February 2014 17: 46
      Well, if you have learned a lot here, then I am sorry for you. If you really want to have a concept, then read books.
      1. Obscurantism
        Obscurantism 7 February 2014 23: 14
        Well, I don’t know, I personally found out that bulky, angular, easily contaminated store hitch turns out to be much more convenient than soft boxes and ribbons.
        1. Michael HORNET
          Michael HORNET 19 October 2016 22: 39
          . The author brings science-based arguments to an idea that is not worth a damn, due to the viability of the design. Poor homemade work instead of real work
          The modern RPK-16 was finally equipped with a drum for 96 rounds - this is the real solution to the problem. And optics 1-4 added. It turned out to be an excellent overall weapon, as it had to be made long ago. You also need to bring to mind the already existing quadruple for 60 (they are made by some completely odious technologists almost manually and its reliability is not enough when hit / dropped - the store wedges to death) - or make also a tambourine for 60 rounds, the Americans (Magpool) made for 16 mm tambourine with its M15 / AR-60 is an excellent thing, it is small and light, unlike a store with large capacities and does not seem to wedge when dropped
          Here's what you need to develop, not weld any garbage with a PKK