True, Vladimir Ilyich was too inveterate atheist. Awareness of his own insignificance turned him not to the Lord, but to thoughts of suicide. Even in his youth, he liked the example of the Lafarg couple, son-in-law and Marx’s daughters: when they considered that they could not serve the cause of revolution by age, they took poison together as a family. But Stalin managed to dissuade Lenin from such an option.
And in the Soviet leadership, the first stroke did not cause serious shocks. To temporarily replace Lenin, who was often ill, had become accustomed. He treated his best luminaries, by the fall he began to recover, joined in the preparation of measures for the formation of the USSR. However, on the night of December 16 a second stroke struck. Now it was clear that Lenin’s health was being destroyed by an irreversible, full-fledged leader. And there were four figures of the “first size” in the Bolshevik elite. Zinoviev - Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Comintern and the St. Petersburg Communist Party Organization, Kamenev - Chairman of the Labor and Defense Council and the Moscow Party Organization. Stalin - people's commissar of two commissariats, general secretary of the party Central Committee. Trotsky was commander of the armed forces and the All-Russian Council of National Economy.
It is this pair that has become real candidates for power. In the first round of the struggle, an attempt was made to use the authority of the still living Lenin. It manifested itself in the form of the notorious “political testament”. Anyone who has experienced a stroke case knows its features. It greatly affects the psyche. The patient easily falls into anger and tantrums, becomes inclined to dwell on some "fad" - and easily inspired. All this we see in the articles of the so-called “testament”. And only one person could influence Lenin - Krupskaya, who was constantly with him. The apartment of the patient has become the epicenter of cruel intrigue.
18 December 1922, the plenum of the Central Committee, at the insistence of the doctors, decided to strictly observe the regime for the patient — Krupskaya was the violator. No, she did not resign. She insisted to the doctors that Lenin should be allowed to dictate at least 10 minutes a day. Say, he will then feel less slighted. After that, one of Vladimir Ilyich’s secretaries was removed from her duties. Alliluyeva, Stalin's wife! There were only secretaries from the Krupskaya team - Glyasser, Volodicheva, Fotieva. This is where the works of the “testament” began to be born.
When exactly they were dictated is unknown. A lot of inconsistencies have been found in the “Journal of duty doctors” and “Journal of duty secretaries”. And the works themselves are typed copies, not certified by anyone, not registered anywhere, without any marks, without originals of transcripts. But their focus is obvious. Krupskaya winds up her husband against Stalin - and pushes Trotsky to the side (although it was difficult, Vladimir Ilyich did not like Lev Davidovich too much). Lenin was constantly reminded of the long-standing, still October scandal in Tbilisi, when Ordzhonikidze gave in the physiognomy to one of the local “national communists,” Kabakhidze. Lenin dwells on the “Georgian business,” recalls him in January, in February, he demands materials.
In addition, Krupskaya did not tire of reminding her husband of a personal offense against Stalin, also last — in December he reprimanded Nadezhda Konstantinovna for violating the plenum resolution, to ensure Lenin had complete peace of mind. By the way, not just reminded. The sister of the leader MI Ulyanova recalled that Krupskaya arranged wild scenes “was not like herself, sobbed, rolled on the floor.” She got her way. 5 March 1923 Lenin dictated two notes. Trotsky offered to take the defense of the "Georgian cause". Stalin, for some reason, was found guilty. Joseph Vissarionovich Lenin dictated the note, demanding to apologize to his wife and threatening to break off the relationship. Krupskaya delayed this note for two days. So that Stalin did not apologize in time! But she overdid it. Lenin was worried, and March 7 had a third stroke. He was speechless and finally dropped out of the game.
Now the latent power struggle began to spill out. Trotsky underestimated Stalin. I imagined myself an exceptional talent, a genius. He was supported by most party leaders. Finally, behind him were the powerful forces of the "world backstage" - the Masonic organizations and the shadow circles of Western financiers, whose order for the destruction and looting of Russia, he worked out. Could any craftsman compete with him?
In the spring of 1923, propaganda attacks began. On the eve of the XII Party Congress, Radek published an article entitled “Leon Trotsky - organizer of victory” in Pravda. He was credited with all conceivable merit and merit - "great mental authority", "a great representative of the Russian revolution ... whose work and work will be the subject not only of love, but also of the science of new generations of the working class preparing for the conquest of the whole world." Pravda was the main press organ of the Communists, and its line was determined by the chief ideologue, Bukharin. Party members openly prompted whose side to take. There were other characteristic shares. Petrograd has not yet become Leningrad, but the city of Gatchina in 1923 was already turned into Trotsk.
In the course of this struggle, the work of "Lenin's political testament" began to surface. But not at once. Krupskaya threw them into use in turns, one by one. She suddenly remembered that she still had some important work of Vladimir Ilyich. But Trotsky was at the peak of his power! For housing occupied Yusupov Palace in Arkhangelsk. He kept a staff of the best cooks, servants. Conducted own receptions of foreigners, negotiations, meetings, which did not consider it necessary to inform the government. He was very careful about his health, he was taken care of by personal doctors, even at the most difficult moment of the war, Trotsky did not forget to take vacations, he went to resorts, to hunt and fish. Still, his supporters miscalculated.
The “gray” mass of party members was repelled by his nobility and arrogance. The soldiers did not forget how he spent in the retreating shelves "decimation", shooting every tenth. They remembered how he drowned peasant uprisings in blood. How he made "labor armies", proclaimed the restoration of industry and transport, for the slightest violations brutally cracking down on workers and railway workers. Well, those officials who by their position were more informed knew more. How foreign businessmen travel to Trotsky, conclude treaties that are extremely beneficial for themselves, receive concessions ... Lev Davidovich was a “stranger” for ordinary communists. Stalin looked much closer, he became the leader of the patriotic wing of the party. The 12th Congress turned into triumph, not for Trotsky, but for Joseph Vissarionovich.
His opponents realized that in an open struggle, Stalin had too much support in the “lower classes” - at any congress or conference, ordinary delegates would be on his side. Switched to other methods, backroom. In July, government leaders went on vacation, and Zinoviev, his assistant Evdokimov, Bukharin, and Lashevich, the commander of the Siberian military district, gathered in a cave under Kislovodsk under the guise of a picnic. Trotsky was also in the Caucasus. He did not take part in the “cave conference”, but the participants acted in his favor. Developed requirements to reorganize the party leadership. They sent Stalin a letter, actually an ultimatum. They blackmailed him with "Lenin's testament." They insisted on curtailing his powers, giving part of them to Trotsky and Zinoviev. Kamenev pretended to be a supporter of Stalin, helped to develop compromises, but in fact he played along with the conspirators.
Joseph Vissarionovich maneuvered, led the negotiations, agreed to "share power." Zinoviev, Trotsky, Bukharin added a few more senior positions. However, in the fall, the balance of power in the Soviet elite began to change. Lev Davidovich already considered himself a winner, he was puffed up with a consciousness of his own greatness, but he pushed away even his comrades - Zinoviev, Kamenev from his arrogance and unwillingness to reckon with anyone. Moreover, he was out of control of foreign owners, the "world backstage." In Germany, the economic and financial crisis broke out, unrest began. Trotsky insisted that the time had come to “put everything on the map” - the very existence of the Soviet state. Kindle the revolution with the Germans, and at the same time in Poland, Bulgaria, the Baltic States!
At the same time, Trotsky himself was automatically promoted to the role of not even a Russian, but a European leader! Colossal funds were sent to Germany, tens of thousands of Comintern activists and instructors went. Strikes, demonstrations began, revolutionary detachments were formed. Trotsky already saw himself as a new Bonaparte. Subordinate divisions advanced to its western borders. But the Western oligarchs did not smile at all in Europe. It needed revolutions in 1917 and 1918 in order to overthrow Russia, to win the war with Germany and Austria-Hungary. In 1923, they wanted to quietly “digest” the fruits of the successes achieved and row the profits.
Why, even Stalin did not want to risk the Soviet Union for the sake of the ghost of the “world revolution”. And even more so for the sake of Trotsky's ambition and elevation. However, in this case, not only Stalin became the opponent of Lev Davidovich. Kamenev, Zinoviev, Bukharin became thoughtful. By the way, all three were also emissaries of the "world backstage". But none of them wanted to put a “napoleon” on the neck of “Lev Davidovich”. But they, like Trotsky, underestimated Stalin. Were sure that this figure is not far, colorless performer. They believed that they could control his actions and decisions.
In November, with a united front, with the exception of Trotsky, the Politburo suddenly decided that the revolutionary situation in Germany was “overestimated” and the uprising must be canceled. Lev Davidovich disrupted his plans infuriated. He accused Stalin and other members of the Politburo of cowardice, of political mistakes. Anger so inflated him that he rushed into an open fight. He fanned the campaign as if “bureaucrats” had broken away from the party, betrayed the revolution and led it to “Thermidor” (the Bolsheviks often used comparisons with the French Revolution, and “Thermidor” - its rebirth when the bourgeois Directory overthrew the Jacobins). To avoid this, Trotsky demanded the expansion of party democracy. True, in the mouth of Lev Davidovich, who always proved himself an extreme dictator, the call for “democracy” sounded absurd, but what difference does it make?
The Trotskyists made a fuss in Moscow and St. Petersburg, where there were many all kinds of "internationalists" in the party ranks. Slogans against "bureaucrats" aroused the youth, small party members. Lenin's “testament” was distributed on the lists (by the way, it is curious that Gorbachev, starting “perestroika”, will play on the same slogans - expanding party democracy, fighting “bureaucrats”, will try to rely on fragmented articles of Lenin's “will”). But Kamenev and Zinoviev Trotsky insulted the attacks, they are even closer to Stalin.
Lev Davidovich caught very simply. They pretended to agree with him. Do you want democracy? You are welcome. A general party discussion was announced. Trotsky was inspired by reading the New Deal brochure. Thus framed. From his pamphlet, they pulled quotes and beat him. Even the name “new course” could be interpreted as different, not Leninist. Lev Davidovich was reminded of his previous disagreements with Lenin, the whole press fell on him. And once the general party discussion was announced, the province was involved in it, lower party organizations, where Trotsky's positions were weak. The XIII party conference, which opened on 16 on January 1924, was to sum up the results. But it was already clear that Trotsky had lost. At the conference, he chose not to appear, referred to the disease. And his supporters were crushed, denounced Trotskyism as “anti-Leninist deviationism”.
Well, then really mysterious played out история. January 18, the day the conference closed, Trotsky unexpectedly takes off. Leaves in Abkhazia, allegedly treated and relax. And January 21 did not become Lenin ... We emphasize that Lev Davidovich knew about his state of health. His personal physician, Fyodor Getye, was among the doctors serving the leader. On January 18, on the day of departure, Getya visited Trotsky twice. Lenin’s death was announced when he reached Tbilisi. But he did not return to the funeral! I telegraphed an obituary and continued on my way to Sukhum ...
Later in his memoirs, Lev Davidovich wrote - a “conspiracy” was formed against him and he was deceived. They told him: "The funeral on Saturday, you still do not have time, we advise you to continue the treatment." But in fact, the funeral was on Sunday, I could have time. This is a blatant lie. Please note that Trotsky does not operate with numbers, but with days of the week. If you take the numbers, the discrepancy is immediately visible. From Moscow to Tbilisi, he traveled from 18 to 21 in January — three days. And Lenin's funeral took place on 27. Even if he was lied to and called 26, 5 days remained! He had time anyway. It turns out he did not want.
Already in 1940, Mr .. Trotsky made new accusations, published in the American newspaper “Liberty” the article “Superborges in the Kremlin”. Referring to Doctor Goethe, he wrote that Lenin was recovering quickly, could soon return to business, and Stalin would have had difficulty. But Vladimir Ilyich was poisoned. And he, Trotsky, was deceived about the date of the funeral, so that he could not conduct an investigation. All this is also a lie, and very arrogant. About improving Lenin's health is known only from one source. From Trotsky himself. He voiced such accusations only when he was no longer alive in Gruete, Krupskaya, and none of those persons to whom he refers, who could allegedly confirm his words. All medical data and eyewitness memories show that the “improvement” was very conditional. Lenin did not even learn to speak. He could only repeat individual words, remember them by inscriptions and pictures. And since October, 1923 has deteriorated again.
In this state, Vladimir Ilyich could not pose a threat to either Stalin or anyone. But the accusations of violent death could indeed be played. Such an attempt really took place! As already noted, after the first stroke, Lenin had a thought about suicide. He returned to this idea after the second attack, asked Fotiev to get poison. And on March 17, after the third stroke, Krupskaya suddenly turned to Stalin. Say, Lenin demands to give him poison, and Joseph Vissarionovich must do it. By the way, according to the “Journal of duty doctors” it is clear that Lenin could not make any requests for March 17. He only moaned that day. So, the initiative came from Krupskaya herself. But Stalin did not fall for the bait. He informed all members of the Politburo: Krupskaya insisted to give Lenin poison, but he, Stalin, refused. The Politburo (including Trotsky) approved his actions.
Could Lenin "contribute" to die? To answer this question, it is necessary to take into account - in January, 1924 was not necessary for this to happen. It was enough a nervous shake. And biographical chronicles contain an eloquent fact. 19-20 in January, Krupskaya, again violating the doctors' instructions, read to her husband the decisions of the XIII party conference. The conference that defeated Trotskyism — and the woman who warmly sympathized with Trotsky read. Well, how could it not spill out of emotions? Do not comment on your own?
When the leader was gone, Lev Davidovich had opportunities for a very large game. He had a trump card of the “political will”. He had an army! Among the military, in fact, began a dangerous fuss. The head of the political department of the Red Army, Antonov-Ovseenko, launched an agitation in the units, appointed party conferences at military schools for February, calling Trotsky the "legitimate successor" of Lenin. He stated more than transparently that “the army can become the guarantor of the unity of the party” and “will call to the order the presumptuous leaders”. Trotsky was supported by the commanders of the Moscow District Muralov and the Siberian District Lashevich. The commander of the Western Front, Tukhachevsky, rolled from Smolensk to Moscow, and conducted negotiations with supporters and opponents of Lev Davidovich, who promise the most. Reports of the GPU testified to fermentation in schools, parts of the Moscow garrison. There were talks that it would be necessary to come forward and support Trotsky by force.
But he himself did not appear, remained in the Caucasus, walked along the deserted Sukhumi beaches. Why? It begs the version that he wanted to stay away from the coup. Everyone will arrange without him and "call upon the kingdom." It will remain clean. Will take power "by the will of the masses." Again, if the coup fails, he will have nothing to do with it ... However, the absence of Trotsky provided Stalin with free hands. Magnificent burial of Lenin was organized. At the II Congress of Soviets of the USSR, Joseph Vissarionovich brought the solemn “Oath of the disciple to the teacher” - thereby already assuming the supreme power.
But Trotsky, Stalin and his supporters neutralized very simply. The figure of Lev Davidovich was too large and authoritative, it was overthrowing — oh, how problematic! But ... he himself never dealt with practical guidance. Only shone, posed, distributed instructions. Concrete work was carried on him by talented, but inconspicuous assistants. In particular, command and control was closed to Deputy Commissar Sklyansky. That is what turned out to be Trotsky's weak point. The secondary Sklyansky could be shifted without congresses and conferences, without shocks. With a simple working decision of the Politburo he was transferred to another job, in the Supreme Economic Council. And Frunze, who was popular in the army and had long feuded with Trotsky, was appointed to replace him. And then already with his help they shot Antonov-Ovseenko, Muralov, Lashevich. And that's all. Lev Davidovich, retaining the post of Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs, became “Bonaparte without an army”. His career is still quietly, but steadily rolled toward sunset.