Military Review

360 years ago, Ukraine reunited with Russia. Battle for Little Russia. Part of 2

35
Quite often, Russia is reproached that it behaved indecisively, for too long it was pulling with the decision to accept Ukraine. For years there was a fierce war, blood flowed like a river. However, we must not forget that the Commonwealth was a serious opponent. Russia has already failed in the 1632 — 1634 war (Smolensk war). It was necessary to prepare well for the war with Poland. It is necessary to take into account all sorts of external (Crimea, Sweden) and internal threats. As noted in the first part of this article, Russia in 1648-1649. shaken all sorts of internal turmoil, and the war with a strong enemy could lead to large-scale unrest.


The war with Poland required comprehensive military training. The Khmelnytsky Uprising revealed the traditional weaknesses of the Polish armed forces. At the same time, this war showed that Rzeczpospolita is ready to set up a large and, in large part, professional army. The Russian troops were faced with clashes with the armor of the gentry cavalry, with German mercenaries, stubborn and skillful in battle, it was necessary to storm well fortified fortresses and cities. The local cavalry, which constituted a significant part of the Russian army, was not suitable for such a war. In addition, it was obvious that the borders with Sweden and the Crimean Khanate could not be ignored.

By the end of 1651, military preparations took a considerable scope. Of the nobles and children of the boyars, the reiter was recruited, of the townspeople and peasants — the dragoons, of the “free men” —the archers, and all who wanted to become soldiers. Mobilization spread to all the relatives of the nobles and children of the boyars, even those who did not serve and did not have estates. They were promised, besides their salaries, that they were put on lists above the city nobility. In case of refusal to serve, they promised to write to the “tillers”. The service was also ordered to take relatives, "adoptees, half-men, zahrebnikov" archers, relatives - boyars' households, if they are not serfs. Foreign officers were invited to serve. Among them were many Englishmen and Scots who escaped from the horrors of the revolution. Among them was Lermon - the ancestor of Lermontov, Wilim the Bruce - the father of Peter Field Marshal Bruce and the ancestor of the poet Bryusov. With the help of foreign specialists, two special regiments were created in Moscow, which became a source of personnel for Russian command personnel. The regiments consisted of noblemen who, under the command of Colonel Buchgofen, were taught European martial art.

In the Pushkarsky order under the command of the boyar Yuri Dolgorukov actively produced guns. Production debugged so that the tools even began to sell abroad. At that time, the Swedish muskets were considered the best, they were lighter than the old systems, without a stand, and charged with a paper cartridge, which increased the rate of fire. Previously, Russia bought them abroad. However, now their production was mastered in Russia.

At this time, the situation in the Commonwealth was alarming. The pans took the Belotserkovsky world into hostility. It would seem that he was more profitable Zborovsky peace. But the Sejm did not approve it. The gentry, especially those who sat out during the war to their homes, or hurried to leave after the Berestets battle, shouted that the world had been concluded in vain, it was necessary to finish off the rioters. For his part, Khmelnitsky also violated the peace agreement. He continued forbidden relations with Russia and Turkey, entered into the register not 20 thousand Cossacks, but 40 thousand people. The peasants responded to the repressions of the landowners with new riots, they did not want to return to the "slave" (slave) state.

Moscow tried to continue the diplomatic pressure on Warsaw. Ambassadors again raised the issue of insulting the Russian tsar. Poland itself was even a worse enemy than the Ottomans and the Cossacks. Pans with their stubbornness, self-will, pride and arrogance ruined a great power. The Sejm, which was convened at the beginning of 1652, was simply thwarted by the gentry. Again they were quarreling with the king, they refused to go to war and decide on the convocation of the Commonwealth of destruction. They also did not want to allocate money, failing proposals for the financing of the army. When the crown hetman Pototsky died, the king could not even appoint his successor.

At this time, Khmelnitsky started another war with the Moldavian ruler. After the defeat of the Cossacks under Berestechko in 1651 and the conclusion of the Belotserkovsky world, Vasily Lupu tried to free himself from the union imposed on him and asked for help from the Poles. Khmelnitsky spring 1652, the army moved to the borders of Moldova and Poland. Martyn Kalinowski, one of Roxanne’s supposed suitors and Pototsky’s temporary successor, came to the aid of Lupu. The battle took place on the Batog field. The Poles were ruined by their traditional disorganization and arrogance. Part of the soldiers, on the pretext of non-payment of their salaries, rebelled and left. The nobles, seeing that there were many Cossacks and Tatars, were reluctant to fight. They refused to attack the enemy and also began to go home. The furious Kalinowski ordered the hired German infantry to open fire on the Polish cavalry. She answered. The son of Bogdan Timothy, noticing the quarrel in the camp of the enemy, immediately attacked. The Polish defense was crumpled, Kalinowski and most of his corps were destroyed.

Lupu had to take "matchmakers" and seal the union by marriage of Timofey and Roxanne. True, this success did not lead to the union of South-Western Russia and Moldova. The Moldavian boyars turned away from the ruler, made an alliance with the rulers of Wallachia and Transylvania. The conspiracy was led by the boyar George Stefan. When Transylvanian troops entered Moldova, they were supported by the local nobility. Vasily Lupu was forced to flee to Bogdan Khmelnitsky. The hetman again sent his troops to Moldova under Timothy. The Cossacks were joined by Moldovan troops, who remained loyal to Lupu. Stephen's troops were defeated. Cossacks entered Wallachia and captured Bucharest. However, this success was temporary. The Moldovan-Cossack army was defeated in the battle near the village of Finta near Bucharest and retreated from Wallachia. Timofey Khmelnitsky died during the defense of the city of Suceava. Cossacks were forced to leave Moldova. Vasily Lupu lost the throne and died in an Istanbul prison.

The defeat in Moldavia somewhat sobered the lords. They temporarily abandoned their squabbles. An extraordinary Seym was assembled. He gave the king permission to gather the Polish-Lithuanian noble militia, allocated money to hire soldiers. Warsaw tried to hammer a coalition against Khmelnitsky. Rome and Venice provided support to Poland. Negotiations were conducted with the Austrian emperor. To the hetman Khmelnitsky, an embassy led by the voivode Adam Kysel from Kiev was sent to divert his eyes. The king promised "forgiveness" if the Cossacks obey, disarm, and the peasants return to their landlords. Khmelnitsky flared up: “Mercy! Forgiveness! Yes for what? What for? ... So you came for this? What are you really, are you simpletons? What are you making jokes with me? Down with the jokes ... The King is preparing to go to war with me, as he pleases! I wish him to be the leader: I am ready to meet him there and then where and when he wants. ”

In March, 1653, 15-th. Charnetsky invaded Bratslavshchina. The Poles captured Korostyshev, Samgorodok and Priluki. Lyahi attacked under the slogan of extermination of all Russians to the last man. Slaughtered people indiscriminately - "rebels" or not, men or women, adults or children. In Brest, a regular Diet was assembled, which adopted the first in European stories genocide ordinance. The Pans decided that the existence of the Cossacks, given their constant riots, is a threat to the Commonwealth, so they must be destroyed. King Jan Casimir was able to defeat the "magnate party." He appointed his chancellor, Stefan Korytsinsky, as chancellor of the great crown. The small nobility was rallied around the king and saw Little Russia as a territory for plunder and seizure of land, and for this they had to “clear out” the local Russian population.

Russia at this time continued mobilization activities. The foreign policy situation has improved somewhat. In Sweden, a wave of peasant unrest began. The northwest frontier was safe. In the army, the number of "new order" regiments was brought to 15. 19 March All the attendants, solicitors and Moscow nobles received orders to appear in the service. March 23 voivods instructed the order to rewrite all the "old soldiers", the formation of new regiments began. New decrees of recruitment followed. The collection of “datochnye people” began - for 1 people from peasant households with 100. Service men carried out auxiliary functions in the army — they drove carts, built fortifications, guarded a wagon, and could play the role of infantry if absolutely necessary. Merchant Vinius went to Germany and Holland for the additional purchase of gunpowder and wicks and the hiring of foreign officers.

Bohun defeated Charnetsky detachment under the Monastery. At this time, the Russian embassy of Matveyev and Fomin arrived in Khmelnitsky with a positive response to the request of Bogdan to accept the Hetmanate into the Russian kingdom.

However, Moscow made a final attempt to negotiate with Warsaw. Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich sent an embassy to Poland under the authority of the boyar Repnin-Obolensky. Moscow promised to forget some violations by the Poles of the peace treaty, if Warsaw reconciles with Bogdan Khmelnitsky on the basis of the Zborowski peace agreement, returns the Orthodox churches that were taken away by the Uniates. However, this proposal was not successful. Warsaw flatly refused to even consider such terms of the peace agreement. In addition, Repnin-Obolensky learned in the Polish capital of the decision to eradicate the Russians in Little Russia and the Orthodox faith. Then Repnin interrupted the negotiations and declared that the Russian sovereign "will stand for his honor, as much as the merciful God will give him help." However, the Poles even ignored this extremely frank threat. The king marched to Kamenetz-Podolsk, where mercenary detachments and gentry militia gathered.

360 years ago, Ukraine reunited with Russia. Battle for Little Russia. Part of 2

A letter from Bohdan Khmelnitsky, sent from Cherkas to Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, with a message about the victories over the Polish army and the desire of the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks to go under the authority of the Russian Tsar.

Воссоединение

The Russian Tsar conducted an 28 Jun review of the regiments on the Maiden's Field. The steward Lodyzhensky was sent to the hetman Khmelnitsky, who had already given the official letter that the sovereign was taking Little Russia under his high hand. The Don Cossacks Sergeev and Medvedev arrived to help the Cossacks of Khmelnitsky. They were able to repel a large batch of prisoners from the Crimean Tatars, who were escorted to Kiev.

The Polish command again wanted to crush the Hetmania with strikes from three directions - Moldova, Poland and Lithuania. The Lithuanian hetman Radzivill received an order to advance along the Dnieper to Kiev. Walachia, Transylvania and Moldavian boyars, opponents of Lupu concluded an alliance treaty. Poland sent them to the aid of 8-th. Kondratsky's detachment, and they promised to strike at Khmelnitsky. However, these plans were not feasible. Radziwill reported on the concentration of Russian troops on the border and refused to attack against Little Russia. The Polish king insisted on his, not believing in the intervention of Moscow. Even the Pope, who threatened the Lithuanian hetman with a curse, got involved. However, the Lithuanian hetman knew better the situation at the border and did not fulfill the order. Lithuanian pans remained to defend their possessions. The Vallachian and Hungarian governors, who suffered greater casualties near Suceava, sent only a few thousand soldiers to Jan Casimir’s rescue.

October 1 Zemsky Cathedral opened in Moscow. On it, the question of accepting Bogdan Khmelnitsky with the Zaporozhian Army with cities and lands in Moscow citizenship was decided in the affirmative. At the same time, they unanimously decided "war against the king of Poland". It was decided to collect the “tenth money” - an emergency tax on military needs from the “bellies and trades” of merchants (guest merchants, living room members, cloth and black hundreds and settlements), townspeople, zakrebetniki and service people who had trade. The mobilization of the army began. The boyar Sheremetev went to Novgorod to prepare the troops, the okolnichy Streshnev went to Pskov, Prince Khovansky went to Vyazma.

On October 9, a representative embassy left for Khmelnitsky — the boyar Vasily Buturlin, the okolnichy Ivan Alferev, the duma clerk Lopukhin, the stolnik Grigory Romodanovsky, the Streletsky head of Matveyev with numerous retinue of nobles and a convoy of 200 archers. October 23 in the Assumption Cathedral was publicly and solemnly announced that the king commanded and the boyars were sentenced to "go on the enemy of his Polish king" for many of his "lies".

At this time, the Cossack-Tatar army (Islam-Girey again led the troops to help Khmelnitsky) approached Zhvanets. There was no consensus in either army. Therefore, the battle resulted in a series of clashes that took place from September to December 1653. Cossacks and Tatars inflicted several defeats on the Poles, cutting off the royal camp from reinforcements. Smell the complete defeat of the Polish army. Hunger began in the Polish camp, epidemics broke out. Dissatisfied soldiers deserted.

In the light of the stalemate of the Polish king Jan Casimir again decided to bet on the Crimean Tatars. At this time, the news came about the decision of the Zemsky Sobor on the capture of the Zaporozhian Army under the protection of the Russian kingdom and the beginning of the war with Poland. The Commonwealth and the Crimean Khanate understood the need for reconciliation in the face of the Russian threat. Khan Islam-Girei entered into separate negotiations with the Poles. He agreed to the world for ransom in 100 thousand zlotys and the consent of the Polish king to 40-day robbery and theft for sale into slavery of the Russian population of Volyn. In addition, Khan offered the Poles to approve the provisions of the Zborovsky peace in order to keep Khmelnitsky from an alliance with Moscow. Then the combined army of Poles, Cossacks and Tatars was supposed to hit Moscow. If the Cossacks of Khmelnitsky had refused, the Tatars and the Poles should have surrounded and killed them. However, Khmelnytsky failed to deceive. Getman felt betrayal of the Crimean Tatars and did not wait for a backstab. Getman led the troops away and went to Pereyaslav. On the way, Bogdan announced the convening of the Rada.

Punished hetman and "allies." Crimean Tatars, returning to the Crimea, scored a huge full. And now Khmelnitsky did not begin to look at their outrages through his fingers. Sent to intercept troops Bohun. The attacks of the Cossacks was completely unexpected for the Tatars. The Crimean Tatars were defeated, thousands of prisoners were released. Islam Giray was so surprised that he even complained to Khmelnitsky about the antics of Bohun.

December 31 embassy Buturlin solemnly met in Pereyaslavl. Representatives of almost all the regiments (military administrative units) and many cities came to the Rada. Hetman personally invited all senior and noble Cossacks 3 January sent his decision Zaporizhzhya Sich - the circle decided to reunite. January 6 arrived Khmelnitsky himself. The tsarist ambassadors handed him signs of power — a banner, a mace, a queen and a hat.

8 (18) January opened the meeting excited. In the morning Khmelnitsky held a secret officers' council of Zaporizhzhya Cossacks, and then in the afternoon - the general military council. It was decided “to bow a high hand under Gosudarev”. Hetman before the people gathered in the town square made a speech in which he told people “for six years we have lived without sovereign in our land in unceasing swearing and bloodshed with persecutors and our enemies, who want to eradicate the church of God, so that the name Rusko will not be remembered in our land that We were bothered by Velma to all of us, and we see that we cannot live more without the Tsar. ” Therefore, they gathered a number of people to decide with whom to go: Turkey, the Crimea, Poland or Russia. According to the hetman, the Turkish tsar is a basurman, from whom Greek Christians “endure misfortune”; The Crimean Khan is also a basurman, with whom they have formed an alliance for need, and from whom “intolerable evils have accepted.” From the Poles they experienced “the merciless shedding of the blood of Khristiansky ... oppression, no one will tell you; you yourself all know that it is better to have a Jew and a dog than to christianin, our brother, revered. ” The only hope is the Eastern Orthodox Tsar.

Then “All the people cried: die under the King of the East, orthodox, with a strong hand in our pious faith, die rather than doth not see Christ, trash, reach.” Pereyaslavsky Colonel Teteria walked around the people in a circle, “he asked: whether all the people agree with tacos: all unanimously.” Then the hetman said: “Wake up to taco, may the Lord our God be strengthened under His Tsar's strong hand; and the people according to him all unanimously cried: O God! affirm oh god Strengthen it, that all of you shall be one for ever. ” Cossack officers and royal ambassadors went to the Assumption Cathedral. The Cossacks took the oath of allegiance to the Russian Tsar.

After Pereyaslavl, representatives of the Russian embassy visited 177 cities and villages of Western Russia, taking the oath of allegiance from the local population to the Tsar. Most happily took the oath in the hope of peace. But still there was no absolute unanimity (this will serve as the basis for a series of bloody events in the future). Thus, the higher Orthodox clergy, led by Metropolitan of Kiev and Galicia Sylvestre Kosov (Kossov) in Kiev, refused to swear allegiance. It must be said that earlier the Kiev Metropolitan condemned the speech of Bogdan Khmelnitsky against the Poles. Kiev clergy still 50 years existed independently, refusing to obey the Moscow Patriarchate. Some foremen, like Ivan Bogan, refused to take the oath. The colonel was a supporter of Cossack liberty, opposing submission to anyone, even Poland, even Russia. After the death of Khmelnitsky Bohun supported the course of Ivan Vyhovsky and Yuri Khmelnitsky on independence. Moreover, he was still against attempts to get closer to Poland or Turkey, who undertook new hetmans.

Pereyaslav Treaty

The hetman and Cossack officers developed the conditions on which they would like to become citizens of the Russian tsar. Pavel Teteria and military judge Samoilo Bogdanovich in March 1654 presented their (March articles) in Moscow. Getman got almost everything he needed. All rights and liberties of the Zaporozhian Troops were retained. Neither the governor nor the boyars had the right to intervene in the affairs of the troops. Cossacks judged his court. The election of the hetman and the foreman was approved. The registry was approved in 60 thousand people, without a salary could have been more. Getman received the right to intercourse with other states, except Poland and Turkey. The hetman should inform the sovereign about these negotiations. The ambassadors who came with intentions hostile to the sovereign were to be detained. The collection of taxes was carried out by local authorities, the Cossack army was kept from these revenues. Representatives of the Russian administration could only oversee the proper collection of taxes. Cities, landowners, peasants retained all their rights, land, property and trade.


Monument Khmelnitsky in Kiev.

Aftermath

A part of the West Russian (South Russian) lands returned to the Russian kingdom. The rest of the land was returned much later, after a series of brutal wars with Poland, the Crimea and Turkey, of the Commonwealth under Catherine II. Northern Bukovina, which was the territory of residence of the unions of Tiverts' tribes and streets, was returned only under Stalin in 1940 year.

It is necessary to say that Pereyaslavskaya is glad though it was the most important event, but she hasn’t decided anything yet. On the contrary, the main thing has just begun. The Russian lands still had to go through a series of bloody wars, battles, conflicts, betrayals and feats. Already on October 23 (November 2) 1653, the Russian kingdom declared war on Poland, and it lasted for long 13 years, until the 1667 year, when the Andrusov truce was signed. During this war, Russia will return Smolensk, Dorogobuzh, White, Nevel, Red, Velizh, Seversk land with Chernigov and Starodub. Kiev will move to Russia under the terms of the Eternal Peace 1686 of the year. In 1654, the year was only one of the important stages in the gathering of Russian lands into a single mighty power.

Another consequence of the Pereyaslav Council was the Russian-Turkish war of 1672 — 1681. The Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Khanate opposed Russia, trying to gain a foothold in the Dnieper region.
Author:
Articles from this series:
360 years ago, Ukraine reunited with Russia. Battle for Little Russia
360 years ago, Ukraine reunited with Russia. Battle for Little Russia. Part of 2
35 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. rugor
    rugor 20 January 2014 10: 23
    +4
    It is always interesting to read historical essays, but at heart it is a pity that nothing can be returned or changed.
  2. Dmitry 2246
    Dmitry 2246 20 January 2014 10: 38
    +3
    A small typo: in the third paragraph, not 1551, but 1651.
    Thank you for the article.
  3. smel
    smel 20 January 2014 11: 08
    +2
    Thank you for the reminder of the great and glorious history. There is only a little left - we should be worthy of her.
  4. paul72
    paul72 20 January 2014 11: 32
    0
    in modern Ukrainian textbooks, most likely, the Pereyaslav Rada is cursed with the last words.
    Why, the damned m.as.k.a.l. did not allow civilized Poles to bring European values ​​to Ukraine. Outskirts would now be "Second Storage"
    1. OPTR
      OPTR 21 January 2014 20: 59
      0
      the word "Ukrainian" needs to be deciphered, but if you take into account what was meant, then you are behind the times.
      It is alleged that there was no Treaty as such, that it was tampered with, or that it was attended by and signed by secondary people, not the first persons.
      1. nnz226
        nnz226 22 January 2014 12: 51
        0
        From a letter from B. Khmelnitsky: "I appeal to you, Russian people, residents of the capital of Chervona Rus!" He wrote this to the inhabitants of Lviv, the current stronghold of the Banderaites. And in 1653 they considered themselves Russians ...
        1. Viktor64
          Viktor64 11 June 2014 13: 15
          0
          But because they were all Russian. And those who believe that they are Ukrainians and not Russians are the ones to whom all brains have been glued by Ukrainian-Polish propaganda.
          If only one "pure" crest thought with his head, whence in the language that theoretically (as they believe) appeared in Russia, there is so much in common with Polish. Those whom the Poles did not "have" have similar languages ​​- Russian, Bulgarian, Serbian, from Cyril and Methodius, and those who were under the Teutons, and then under the Poles, have languages ​​practically unlike other Slavic languages.
      2. Viktor64
        Viktor64 11 June 2014 13: 10
        0
        Read less the nonsense that your "historians" feed you. Start with the fact that there was no Ukraine, there were no Ukrainians. These terms, in your understanding, appeared in the 18th century, created by the Poles, just like your parody language itself. Ukrainians are Russians, whom the Poles forced to forget their history, their clan and turned into bastards, without clan and tribe.
  5. anarh
    anarh 20 January 2014 12: 30
    +3
    Oh god affirm, God! Strengthen, so that all may be one forever. ”


    "Wake up tacos"
  6. xan
    xan 20 January 2014 12: 56
    0
    What can I say - the series of articles ended in the most interesting place. It is clear that the Pereyaslavl Rada is the most important event, but in my humble opinion, the events after the Rada are no less interesting and much more dramatic.
    Why doesn’t anyone write about this?
  7. AVV
    AVV 20 January 2014 13: 02
    0
    In light of recent events, all the same Poles and the West want to take revenge for their defeats in the past !!! He set West on Klitschko, the turmoil of recent days shows that no one canceled Ukraine’s plans to join the Blue Brotherhood by skating and washing !! ! They want everything from Ukraine, without giving it anything !!! So far, the South-East looks at it from the side, but if the interests of people in this region are infringed, then it will not seem to anyone !!!
  8. Taezhnik
    Taezhnik 20 January 2014 13: 18
    0
    In March 1653, 15 thousand the army of Charnetskiy invaded Bratslavshchina. Poles captured Korostyshev, Samgorodok and Priluki. Poles attacked under the slogan of extermination of all Russians to the last man. They cut people indiscriminately - “rebels” or not, men or women, adults or children. The next Sejm was assembled in Brest, which adopted the first genocide decree in European history. Pans decided that the existence of the Cossacks, taking into account their constant riots, is a threat to the Commonwealth, therefore they must be destroyed.
    And even in times of turmoil in mother Russia, these Europeans did great troubles. And somehow it becomes a shame when you hear from this country tough claims to Russia over the events of the 20th century, although these claims are not so simple on their part. And yet, you look at the events in Ukraine (Little Russia) of the 17th century, the 20th and already the 21st, and you think, but when will they finally decide who they are going to
  9. svp67
    svp67 20 January 2014 14: 47
    0
    Another consequence of the Pereyaslav Council was the Russian-Turkish war of 1672 — 1681. The Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Khanate opposed Russia, trying to gain a foothold in the Dnieper region.
    And in this light it would be very interesting and informative to tell the story of the Khanate of Ukraine ... So, there is still something to write about.
  10. Litvin
    Litvin 20 January 2014 15: 51
    -4
    I'm going. This article expresses only a subjective opinion, or rather the fantasies of the comrade who published it. based on ignorance. Let's start with the fact that Rzeczpospolita is not Poland. And the union of Poland and Great Lithuania. And it is very strange to read that as a comrade he describes the separatist uprising and the occupation of the lands of the Commonwealth by the troops of the Muscovite state as "reunification."
    1. svp67
      svp67 20 January 2014 15: 56
      0
      Quote: Lіtvyn
      And it is very strange to read that as a comrade he describes the separatist uprising and the occupation of the lands of the Commonwealth by the troops of the Muscovite state as "reunification."
      Well, you’ll write an article about your vision of these events. And so we perceive these events as "the restoration of RUSSIAN sovereignty over the TEMPORARILY OCCUPIED Rzeczpospolita territories ..."
      1. Litvin
        Litvin 20 January 2014 16: 11
        -3
        Quote: svp67
        restoration of RUSSIAN sovereignty over the TEMPORALLY OCCUPIED Rzeczpospolita
        - when is this? I’m afraid that such facts will not even be in the chronicles of Narnia. :) And you don’t have to perceive history, you just need to know the history.
        1. svp67
          svp67 20 January 2014 16: 26
          +1
          Quote: Lіtvyn
          - when is this?

          When? Yes, at that moment when the PRINCIPAL RUSSIAN principalities found themselves, because of their weakness under the occupation of Lithuania, namely the occupations, since they were FORCED by the Lithuanian prince Algerd, unlike the time that is described in the article, where they had to fight for it, but because of the seizure, namely, EXEMPTION, of the territory that wanted to voluntarily join Russia ...
          By the way, not content with the southern Russian regions, Olgerd attempted to assert his influence in Novgorod and Pskov and supported Tver against Moscow. But there he was not lucky ...
          1. Litvin
            Litvin 20 January 2014 17: 38
            -2
            It's funny. The funny thing is that we and, as the Ukrainians themselves believe, that Olgerd liberated Russia from the Tatars. And it’s just you, for some reason, perceive the liberation of Russia by Lithuania from the Tatars as an occupation .. :) As it is said in our chronicle about the occupation garrison of Muscovites in Minsk: “Tatars and Mordovians don’t know Russian.” This site had an excellent article about the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The author very subtly bypassed all the "sharp corners", but at least explained in it that Belarus is the heiress of Great Lithuania. And from myself I will say that it was Great Lithuania that was the collector and, most importantly, the liberator of Russia from the Tatars and Germans, and not the Moscow ulus, now the Russian Federation, which was part of the Horde at that time.
            1. svp67
              svp67 20 January 2014 18: 13
              +1
              Quote: Lіtvyn
              that Olgerd liberated Russia from the Tatars
              But only at that time there were no Tatars in the cities and he fought with the locals when he captured the cities ...
            2. asadov
              asadov 20 January 2014 18: 16
              0
              about "Belarus - the heiress of Great Lithuania". Can you change names with the Lithuanians? and it is somehow inconvenient - the heirs are one another?
              1. svp67
                svp67 20 January 2014 18: 43
                0
                Quote: asadov
                Can you even change the names with the Lithuanians?
                The fact is that initially Lithuania was the principality of SLAVS and modern Lithuanians are not even relatives to them ...
                1. Litvin
                  Litvin 21 January 2014 13: 08
                  -1
                  The fact is that Lithuania is the Western Balts and Western Slavs. But the modern Lithuanians, in our Zhmujins, who are Eastern Balts and judging by them are the same Latvians, really have nothing to do with Great Lithuania and we are not relatives.
            3. svp67
              svp67 20 January 2014 18: 17
              0
              Quote: Lіtvyn
              And from myself I’ll say that it was Great Lithuania that was the collector and, most importantly, the liberator of Russia from the Tatars and Germans, and not the Moscow ulus
              This is your prejudice, since HISTORY put everything in its place and the ORTHODOX PRINCIPLE of Moscow turned out to be more consistent in this process, and the VLK itself ended up under the yoke of Poland, and as a result renounced its faith and as a result lost the right to be called the COLLECTOR OF RUSSIAN LANDS ...
              1. Litvin
                Litvin 21 January 2014 13: 05
                -1
                Quote: svp67
                HISTORY put everything in its place and the Orthodox Church of Moscow

                aha ... while the peasants from the Mera tribe worshiped stumps on the site of the future Moscow, St. Sophia Cathedral was already built in Polotsk. And as Georg Schluizing writes in his book "Religion of Muscovites" (1695): Russians consider themselves Greek Orthodox, but instead of greeting they say "Salom". bugulma? :)
            4. svp67
              svp67 20 January 2014 18: 42
              +1
              Quote: Lіtvyn
              And from myself I’ll say that it was Great Lithuania that was the collector and, most importantly, the liberator of Russia from the Tatars and Germans, and not the Moscow ulus


              In 1368 and 1370 Olgerd conducted successful campaigns against the Moscow principality, destroyed the capital, besieged the Kremlin ... And he fought and killed some "Tatars" ...
              1. Litvin
                Litvin 21 January 2014 12: 59
                -1
                firstly, there were three campaigns. Secondly, he did not destroy Moscow. Thirdly, well, the Muscovites went out to meet our prince on Poklonnaya Gora, according to their tradition, to meet their masters, and Olgerd gave them an Easter egg for this, and stuck a spear into the wall at the Kremlin gates. Only you do not care, for another 300 years you continued to say "fat" and did not shave your beards, which is considered a sin for Muslims :)
            5. KuzmichDP
              KuzmichDP 20 January 2014 19: 22
              0
              I can recommend you, who calls himself Litvin, to download a three-volume edition of your compatriot, historian and writer Evfimiy Fedorovich Karsky "Belarusians", then perhaps you will understand the fallacy of your views. Here is the address for downloading books http://zapadrus.su/bibli/etnobib/133 -qq.html. I also recommend that you read it for everyone interested in the history of Western Russian regions, you can visit this site http://zapadrus.su/. You will learn a lot of new things on the history of Belarus. good fellow
              1. Litvin
                Litvin 21 January 2014 12: 55
                -1
                Quote: KuzmichDP
                You will learn a lot about the history of Belarus.

                you would read the history of Belarus not on such chauvinistic sites propagating fascist ideology, but at least, to start with, on Wikipedia. The term Western Russia was introduced by the invaders after numerous uprisings of the Litvinians, modern Belarusians. You better read why and when the terms Lithuania and Belarus were forbidden and the term Western Region was introduced. And asking me to read your links is the same as asking the Armenians to read some Turkish site where they say that there was no genocide in which 1,5 million Armenians were killed, and a Jew to go to a neo-fascist site where it says that there was no holocaust .. think next time ..
        2. svp67
          svp67 20 January 2014 17: 08
          +1
          Quote: Lіtvyn
          And history does not need to be perceived, history just needs to be known.
          No, it’s not enough to know ... it must be perceived precisely through LOVE to YOUR MOTHERLAND ... What are you demonstrating here.
          1. KuzmichDP
            KuzmichDP 20 January 2014 18: 56
            +2
            Dear site visitors, do not be offended by the poor, zmagars, banderlog and other "urapseudopatrites" wassat laughing , for them, Russia and the Great Russians are not Slavs, but glorified Finno-Ugric peoples and Turks belay who were slaughtering and destroying the poor, primordial Russians and Poles, in revenge for the fact that they tried to civilize them. hiTherefore, these people have been brainwashed for a long time, and they cannot be convinced otherwise. Once again, with Respect and understanding wink
  11. old rocket man
    old rocket man 20 January 2014 18: 53
    0
    Quote: Lіtvyn
    Great Lithuania was a collector and, most importantly, a liberator of Russia from the Tatars and Germans,


    Lithuania, and in particular Olgerd, was a great craftswoman grabbing a stranger into a tyhara, a gatherer, but Lithuania never waged serious battles alone, always in alliance with Poland, then with Russia, then with the Tatars, and managed to get to clapboard analysis, or even and even to the division of production, a kind of medieval America
    1. Litvin
      Litvin 21 January 2014 12: 48
      0
      Quote: Old Rocketman
      Lithuania never fought serious battles alone

      You would be sweetest, before you write such things you would have learned, and before you draw such conclusions, looking back at the history of Muscovy and judging Great Lithuania from it. Since Olgerd was remembered here, it was during his reign in 1362 that the Litvins defeated three khans near the Blue Waters and liberated Kiev and Podillia from the Tatars. But about you, our neighbors, I will say in your words: you could not do anything without us. We printed books for you, taught your kings, gave you Orthodoxy and taught the Russian language. And even on the Kulikovo field there were the Litvin princes Dmitry and Andrei Olgerdovich with a squad. So, without us you would not have won and would not have been called Russia today. Like this. :)
      1. KuzmichDP
        KuzmichDP 21 January 2014 16: 32
        0
        Everything is clear with you, even it is useless to talk about nationalism, so you profess it, only at least you can communicate with you, unlike most other supporters of Litvinism and Belarusian nationalism, what a pity, this is a diagnosis. fool
        1. Litvin
          Litvin 21 January 2014 16: 47
          0
          Quote: KuzmichDP
          Everything is clear with you, even it is useless to communicate
          I just didn’t understand: Is it useless with me or can I communicate? :) I ask you to decide so that it would be clear to me whether it is possible to communicate with you. And also I ask you, if you do not agree with the facts I have cited, indicate which of them are not reliable. :)
  12. uzer 13
    uzer 13 20 January 2014 22: 08
    +1
    The Polish army consisted of two structural divisions: the militia and the regular troops. Regular troops were commanded by colonels under the general control of the crown hetman, they were appointed to the post by the king and received salaries from the treasury. The additional income was looted booty, which was shared by everyone according to certain rules. The head of the militia, which could be much larger than the regular army, was also the hetman (or great hetman). The discipline in the militia was a purely conventional concept and the gentry often ran home. considering that the difficult conditions of military service are not compensated by the income received. The Polish Sejm reminded the United Nations, because the decision had to be approved by all the nobles, otherwise it would not be approved. Therefore, a collective decision was worked out with great difficulty.
  13. igorelo
    igorelo 20 January 2014 23: 02
    0
    YOU ALWAYS HATE UKRAINE AND THINK ITS OWN LAND. LEARN HISTORY AND DO NOT DECIDE
    Quote: paul72
    in modern Ukrainian textbooks, most likely, the Pereyaslav Rada is cursed with the last words.
    Why, the damned m.as.k.a.l. did not allow civilized Poles to bring European values ​​to Ukraine. Outskirts would now be "Second Storage"
    1. uzer 13
      uzer 13 21 January 2014 00: 51
      +1
      In historical chronicles, there is no mention of a state called Ukraine, because it never existed. (Kievan Rus has no relation to Ukraine either) As an independent territorial unit, Ukraine was formed only as a part of Russia, further as a union republic as part of the USSR. Apparently, you’re currently studying the history of Ukraine from textbooks written in the USA by order of Yushchenko. So, whoever breaches here still needs to be looked.
      1. Litvin
        Litvin 21 January 2014 12: 40
        0
        Quote: uzer 13
        because it never happened. (Kievan Rus has no relation to Ukraine either)
        aha-ha ... laughed .. And in your opinion Kievan Rus is related to Muscovy? You probably think that Kiev is located in the suburbs. ))) Kievan Rus is an artificial term, but the existence of the Old Rus state and Rus itself. I think even you will not dare to dispute .. The full name of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania is the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Ruska. So under Ruskim (with one "C", as is customary among the "Slavs", and not with two, in the Latin manner, as Peter 1 Russia introduced it, as Muscovy later began to be called) meant now modern Ukraine.
    2. KuzmichDP
      KuzmichDP 23 January 2014 10: 03
      0
      Igorelo, you’d better tell me right away where you brainwashed, and from what hangover did you take that you didn’t see Ukraine in Russia ??? And, this is our original land, RUSSIAN, so you said it yourself with your own lips, so what other questions are there, it’s not clear, however. request
    3. Viktor64
      Viktor64 11 June 2014 13: 24
      0
      Yes guys, how do you brains (if what you have left in your head that can be called) washed. How the whole can hate the part. How could Russia hate that which did not exist. Most of modern Ukraine - the whole east, part of the center, is a gift from Russia, and the west - the land taken from Poland. Your Ukraine is a patchwork quilt created by Russia and then the USSR. Ukraine was developed, a developed republic was created from it, but patriots-Ukrainians turned the great republic into an ordinary underdeveloped entity, with constant Maidans, coups, revolutions, and gang fights.
      Well, there is only one thing left - to look for the enemy. And of course, such an enemy - Russia, it remains to understand what. Russia is probably to blame for selling gas for almost 20 years for free, buying Ukrainian goods, supplying tourists, and not paying attention to attacks from the Ukrainian authorities. This is Russia - it stole gas, gave all the enterprises to a handful of oligarchs succeeding each other as the authorities changed, Russia ruined the army and set one part of the country on another, Russia forced people to speak a funny language and obliged them to show films with a cool Ukrainian translation. It is Russia that makes people speak Ukrainian, despite the fact that most of the country prefers Russian as the greatest of world languages.
  14. Taezhnik
    Taezhnik 21 January 2014 08: 38
    0
    Quote: igorelo
    YOU ALWAYS HATE UKRAINE AND THINK ITS OWN LAND. LEARN HISTORY AND DO NOT DECIDE

    It seems to me that you hate your homeland if you treat it like that and haite everyone around (especially your own indigenous brothers of the Slavs, in particular Russia) that they are to blame for your troubles. And I was taught that in problems it is always necessary to start the analysis with oneself, with one's actions (here it turns out the uncivilized Soviet-Russian education system and the institution of the family). Lithuania. Well, I'm sorry, you didn't guess your wish. But for some reason, you periodically come to us with requests ... Like Georgia. First it means help, and then "who are you, go, goodbye." And your land (relatively yours, otherwise the Crimea and Sevastopol painfully do not fit into this concept, I hope you will not persuade on "your" historical examples, otherwise it turns out that it was not Khrushchev who included him in the USSSR at all) is not needed, nor is anyone it does not pretend. Only who needs it, the isolation of the two roots of related peoples from each other. Or is it that living in a high-rise building affects you when, behind your four walls of an apartment, we don't know all the neighbors, not only at the entrance, but sometimes even at the floor. Yes, it's just a shame for you, we are worried after all. I personally know purebred Ukrainians living in Russia even from western Ukraine, who left both during the Soviet era and after, Ukrainian citizens working in Russia and feeding their families by working in Russia. And I know their reaction to everything that happens in recent years in Ukraine. And we have nothing to share with them, but at the same table we sit, eat and drink. And we help each other, and help out and do not share anything. In the end, I have a Ukrainian wife who was born in Ukraine. I don't understand you such Ukrainians.
  15. 573385
    573385 21 January 2014 20: 20
    0
    He-he-he. Here is Ukraine, that was exactly! This is the territory, the outskirts, of the Moscow principality, border lands. The Americans called such territories frontier \ border, border \. As Muscovy expanded, Ukraine was also pushed back. First, these were the cities of the present "Golden Ring", then-land on the edge of the Wild Field. In the middle of the XIX century in Russia there was a stratum of merchants who had received some education, who were ashamed to be called petty bourgeois, and "lice" were not enough to buy the nobility. They came up with the self-name "intelligentsia." Little Russians are such "intellectuals" - chauvinists and raised the "banner of independence". Because of their hatred of everything Russian, they were called "Little Russians". This is how the name "Ukraine", which has died in history, emerged \ the border passed along the Black Sea for a long time \. The fact that "Ukrainian" - "Russian border guard", due to the lack of education, noble "intellectuals" were interested in little. The main thing is not to be RUSSIAN ! Here's a story about "Ukraine" ...
  16. ko88
    ko88 21 January 2014 22: 26
    0
    me in Turkey on vacation, the Slav brothers from the Lviv region filled their faces.
  17. KuzmichDP
    KuzmichDP 23 January 2014 09: 58
    0
    Quote: ko88
    me in Turkey on vacation, the Slav brothers from the Lviv region filled their faces.

    You, do not stay in debt the next time, and fill them with hari in response, then fraternally. angry
  18. Viktor64
    Viktor64 11 June 2014 13: 07
    0
    What a nonsense "reunification of Ukraine with Russia". In those days, no Ukraine was close, just as there was no such nationality "Ukrainian". The lands of Russia and present-day Ukraine were inhabited by Russians, some of whom were located on lands in the possession of the Poles. There was a reunification of the Russian lands on which the Russians lived with the main Russia.