The war with Poland required comprehensive military training. The Khmelnytsky Uprising revealed the traditional weaknesses of the Polish armed forces. At the same time, this war showed that Rzeczpospolita is ready to set up a large and, in large part, professional army. The Russian troops were faced with clashes with the armor of the gentry cavalry, with German mercenaries, stubborn and skillful in battle, it was necessary to storm well fortified fortresses and cities. The local cavalry, which constituted a significant part of the Russian army, was not suitable for such a war. In addition, it was obvious that the borders with Sweden and the Crimean Khanate could not be ignored.
By the end of 1651, military preparations took a considerable scope. Of the nobles and children of the boyars, the reiter was recruited, of the townspeople and peasants — the dragoons, of the “free men” —the archers, and all who wanted to become soldiers. Mobilization spread to all the relatives of the nobles and children of the boyars, even those who did not serve and did not have estates. They were promised, besides their salaries, that they were put on lists above the city nobility. In case of refusal to serve, they promised to write to the “tillers”. The service was also ordered to take relatives, "adoptees, half-men, zahrebnikov" archers, relatives - boyars' households, if they are not serfs. Foreign officers were invited to serve. Among them were many Englishmen and Scots who escaped from the horrors of the revolution. Among them was Lermon - the ancestor of Lermontov, Wilim the Bruce - the father of Peter Field Marshal Bruce and the ancestor of the poet Bryusov. With the help of foreign specialists, two special regiments were created in Moscow, which became a source of personnel for Russian command personnel. The regiments consisted of noblemen who, under the command of Colonel Buchgofen, were taught European martial art.
In the Pushkarsky order under the command of the boyar Yuri Dolgorukov actively produced guns. Production debugged so that the tools even began to sell abroad. At that time, the Swedish muskets were considered the best, they were lighter than the old systems, without a stand, and charged with a paper cartridge, which increased the rate of fire. Previously, Russia bought them abroad. However, now their production was mastered in Russia.
At this time, the situation in the Commonwealth was alarming. The pans took the Belotserkovsky world into hostility. It would seem that he was more profitable Zborovsky peace. But the Sejm did not approve it. The gentry, especially those who sat out during the war to their homes, or hurried to leave after the Berestets battle, shouted that the world had been concluded in vain, it was necessary to finish off the rioters. For his part, Khmelnitsky also violated the peace agreement. He continued forbidden relations with Russia and Turkey, entered into the register not 20 thousand Cossacks, but 40 thousand people. The peasants responded to the repressions of the landowners with new riots, they did not want to return to the "slave" (slave) state.
Moscow tried to continue the diplomatic pressure on Warsaw. Ambassadors again raised the issue of insulting the Russian tsar. Poland itself was even a worse enemy than the Ottomans and the Cossacks. Pans with their stubbornness, self-will, pride and arrogance ruined a great power. The Sejm, which was convened at the beginning of 1652, was simply thwarted by the gentry. Again they were quarreling with the king, they refused to go to war and decide on the convocation of the Commonwealth of destruction. They also did not want to allocate money, failing proposals for the financing of the army. When the crown hetman Pototsky died, the king could not even appoint his successor.
At this time, Khmelnitsky started another war with the Moldavian ruler. After the defeat of the Cossacks under Berestechko in 1651 and the conclusion of the Belotserkovsky world, Vasily Lupu tried to free himself from the union imposed on him and asked for help from the Poles. Khmelnitsky spring 1652, the army moved to the borders of Moldova and Poland. Martyn Kalinowski, one of Roxanne’s supposed suitors and Pototsky’s temporary successor, came to the aid of Lupu. The battle took place on the Batog field. The Poles were ruined by their traditional disorganization and arrogance. Part of the soldiers, on the pretext of non-payment of their salaries, rebelled and left. The nobles, seeing that there were many Cossacks and Tatars, were reluctant to fight. They refused to attack the enemy and also began to go home. The furious Kalinowski ordered the hired German infantry to open fire on the Polish cavalry. She answered. The son of Bogdan Timothy, noticing the quarrel in the camp of the enemy, immediately attacked. The Polish defense was crumpled, Kalinowski and most of his corps were destroyed.
Lupu had to take "matchmakers" and seal the union by marriage of Timofey and Roxanne. True, this success did not lead to the union of South-Western Russia and Moldova. The Moldavian boyars turned away from the ruler, made an alliance with the rulers of Wallachia and Transylvania. The conspiracy was led by the boyar George Stefan. When Transylvanian troops entered Moldova, they were supported by the local nobility. Vasily Lupu was forced to flee to Bogdan Khmelnitsky. The hetman again sent his troops to Moldova under Timothy. The Cossacks were joined by Moldovan troops, who remained loyal to Lupu. Stephen's troops were defeated. Cossacks entered Wallachia and captured Bucharest. However, this success was temporary. The Moldovan-Cossack army was defeated in the battle near the village of Finta near Bucharest and retreated from Wallachia. Timofey Khmelnitsky died during the defense of the city of Suceava. Cossacks were forced to leave Moldova. Vasily Lupu lost the throne and died in an Istanbul prison.
The defeat in Moldavia somewhat sobered the lords. They temporarily abandoned their squabbles. An extraordinary Seym was assembled. He gave the king permission to gather the Polish-Lithuanian noble militia, allocated money to hire soldiers. Warsaw tried to hammer a coalition against Khmelnitsky. Rome and Venice provided support to Poland. Negotiations were conducted with the Austrian emperor. To the hetman Khmelnitsky, an embassy led by the voivode Adam Kysel from Kiev was sent to divert his eyes. The king promised "forgiveness" if the Cossacks obey, disarm, and the peasants return to their landlords. Khmelnitsky flared up: “Mercy! Forgiveness! Yes for what? What for? ... So you came for this? What are you really, are you simpletons? What are you making jokes with me? Down with the jokes ... The King is preparing to go to war with me, as he pleases! I wish him to be the leader: I am ready to meet him there and then where and when he wants. ”
In March, 1653, 15-th. Charnetsky invaded Bratslavshchina. The Poles captured Korostyshev, Samgorodok and Priluki. Lyahi attacked under the slogan of extermination of all Russians to the last man. Slaughtered people indiscriminately - "rebels" or not, men or women, adults or children. In Brest, a regular Diet was assembled, which adopted the first in European stories genocide ordinance. The Pans decided that the existence of the Cossacks, given their constant riots, is a threat to the Commonwealth, so they must be destroyed. King Jan Casimir was able to defeat the "magnate party." He appointed his chancellor, Stefan Korytsinsky, as chancellor of the great crown. The small nobility was rallied around the king and saw Little Russia as a territory for plunder and seizure of land, and for this they had to “clear out” the local Russian population.
Russia at this time continued mobilization activities. The foreign policy situation has improved somewhat. In Sweden, a wave of peasant unrest began. The northwest frontier was safe. In the army, the number of "new order" regiments was brought to 15. 19 March All the attendants, solicitors and Moscow nobles received orders to appear in the service. March 23 voivods instructed the order to rewrite all the "old soldiers", the formation of new regiments began. New decrees of recruitment followed. The collection of “datochnye people” began - for 1 people from peasant households with 100. Service men carried out auxiliary functions in the army — they drove carts, built fortifications, guarded a wagon, and could play the role of infantry if absolutely necessary. Merchant Vinius went to Germany and Holland for the additional purchase of gunpowder and wicks and the hiring of foreign officers.
Bohun defeated Charnetsky detachment under the Monastery. At this time, the Russian embassy of Matveyev and Fomin arrived in Khmelnitsky with a positive response to the request of Bogdan to accept the Hetmanate into the Russian kingdom.
However, Moscow made a final attempt to negotiate with Warsaw. Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich sent an embassy to Poland under the authority of the boyar Repnin-Obolensky. Moscow promised to forget some violations by the Poles of the peace treaty, if Warsaw reconciles with Bogdan Khmelnitsky on the basis of the Zborowski peace agreement, returns the Orthodox churches that were taken away by the Uniates. However, this proposal was not successful. Warsaw flatly refused to even consider such terms of the peace agreement. In addition, Repnin-Obolensky learned in the Polish capital of the decision to eradicate the Russians in Little Russia and the Orthodox faith. Then Repnin interrupted the negotiations and declared that the Russian sovereign "will stand for his honor, as much as the merciful God will give him help." However, the Poles even ignored this extremely frank threat. The king marched to Kamenetz-Podolsk, where mercenary detachments and gentry militia gathered.
A letter from Bohdan Khmelnitsky, sent from Cherkas to Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, with a message about the victories over the Polish army and the desire of the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks to go under the authority of the Russian Tsar.
The Russian Tsar conducted an 28 Jun review of the regiments on the Maiden's Field. The steward Lodyzhensky was sent to the hetman Khmelnitsky, who had already given the official letter that the sovereign was taking Little Russia under his high hand. The Don Cossacks Sergeev and Medvedev arrived to help the Cossacks of Khmelnitsky. They were able to repel a large batch of prisoners from the Crimean Tatars, who were escorted to Kiev.
The Polish command again wanted to crush the Hetmania with strikes from three directions - Moldova, Poland and Lithuania. The Lithuanian hetman Radzivill received an order to advance along the Dnieper to Kiev. Walachia, Transylvania and Moldavian boyars, opponents of Lupu concluded an alliance treaty. Poland sent them to the aid of 8-th. Kondratsky's detachment, and they promised to strike at Khmelnitsky. However, these plans were not feasible. Radziwill reported on the concentration of Russian troops on the border and refused to attack against Little Russia. The Polish king insisted on his, not believing in the intervention of Moscow. Even the Pope, who threatened the Lithuanian hetman with a curse, got involved. However, the Lithuanian hetman knew better the situation at the border and did not fulfill the order. Lithuanian pans remained to defend their possessions. The Vallachian and Hungarian governors, who suffered greater casualties near Suceava, sent only a few thousand soldiers to Jan Casimir’s rescue.
October 1 Zemsky Cathedral opened in Moscow. On it, the question of accepting Bogdan Khmelnitsky with the Zaporozhian Army with cities and lands in Moscow citizenship was decided in the affirmative. At the same time, they unanimously decided "war against the king of Poland". It was decided to collect the “tenth money” - an emergency tax on military needs from the “bellies and trades” of merchants (guest merchants, living room members, cloth and black hundreds and settlements), townspeople, zakrebetniki and service people who had trade. The mobilization of the army began. The boyar Sheremetev went to Novgorod to prepare the troops, the okolnichy Streshnev went to Pskov, Prince Khovansky went to Vyazma.
On October 9, a representative embassy left for Khmelnitsky — the boyar Vasily Buturlin, the okolnichy Ivan Alferev, the duma clerk Lopukhin, the stolnik Grigory Romodanovsky, the Streletsky head of Matveyev with numerous retinue of nobles and a convoy of 200 archers. October 23 in the Assumption Cathedral was publicly and solemnly announced that the king commanded and the boyars were sentenced to "go on the enemy of his Polish king" for many of his "lies".
At this time, the Cossack-Tatar army (Islam-Girey again led the troops to help Khmelnitsky) approached Zhvanets. There was no consensus in either army. Therefore, the battle resulted in a series of clashes that took place from September to December 1653. Cossacks and Tatars inflicted several defeats on the Poles, cutting off the royal camp from reinforcements. Smell the complete defeat of the Polish army. Hunger began in the Polish camp, epidemics broke out. Dissatisfied soldiers deserted.
In the light of the stalemate of the Polish king Jan Casimir again decided to bet on the Crimean Tatars. At this time, the news came about the decision of the Zemsky Sobor on the capture of the Zaporozhian Army under the protection of the Russian kingdom and the beginning of the war with Poland. The Commonwealth and the Crimean Khanate understood the need for reconciliation in the face of the Russian threat. Khan Islam-Girei entered into separate negotiations with the Poles. He agreed to the world for ransom in 100 thousand zlotys and the consent of the Polish king to 40-day robbery and theft for sale into slavery of the Russian population of Volyn. In addition, Khan offered the Poles to approve the provisions of the Zborovsky peace in order to keep Khmelnitsky from an alliance with Moscow. Then the combined army of Poles, Cossacks and Tatars was supposed to hit Moscow. If the Cossacks of Khmelnitsky had refused, the Tatars and the Poles should have surrounded and killed them. However, Khmelnytsky failed to deceive. Getman felt betrayal of the Crimean Tatars and did not wait for a backstab. Getman led the troops away and went to Pereyaslav. On the way, Bogdan announced the convening of the Rada.
Punished hetman and "allies." Crimean Tatars, returning to the Crimea, scored a huge full. And now Khmelnitsky did not begin to look at their outrages through his fingers. Sent to intercept troops Bohun. The attacks of the Cossacks was completely unexpected for the Tatars. The Crimean Tatars were defeated, thousands of prisoners were released. Islam Giray was so surprised that he even complained to Khmelnitsky about the antics of Bohun.
December 31 embassy Buturlin solemnly met in Pereyaslavl. Representatives of almost all the regiments (military administrative units) and many cities came to the Rada. Hetman personally invited all senior and noble Cossacks 3 January sent his decision Zaporizhzhya Sich - the circle decided to reunite. January 6 arrived Khmelnitsky himself. The tsarist ambassadors handed him signs of power — a banner, a mace, a queen and a hat.
8 (18) January opened the meeting excited. In the morning Khmelnitsky held a secret officers' council of Zaporizhzhya Cossacks, and then in the afternoon - the general military council. It was decided “to bow a high hand under Gosudarev”. Hetman before the people gathered in the town square made a speech in which he told people “for six years we have lived without sovereign in our land in unceasing swearing and bloodshed with persecutors and our enemies, who want to eradicate the church of God, so that the name Rusko will not be remembered in our land that We were bothered by Velma to all of us, and we see that we cannot live more without the Tsar. ” Therefore, they gathered a number of people to decide with whom to go: Turkey, the Crimea, Poland or Russia. According to the hetman, the Turkish tsar is a basurman, from whom Greek Christians “endure misfortune”; The Crimean Khan is also a basurman, with whom they have formed an alliance for need, and from whom “intolerable evils have accepted.” From the Poles they experienced “the merciless shedding of the blood of Khristiansky ... oppression, no one will tell you; you yourself all know that it is better to have a Jew and a dog than to christianin, our brother, revered. ” The only hope is the Eastern Orthodox Tsar.
Then “All the people cried: die under the King of the East, orthodox, with a strong hand in our pious faith, die rather than doth not see Christ, trash, reach.” Pereyaslavsky Colonel Teteria walked around the people in a circle, “he asked: whether all the people agree with tacos: all unanimously.” Then the hetman said: “Wake up to taco, may the Lord our God be strengthened under His Tsar's strong hand; and the people according to him all unanimously cried: O God! affirm oh god Strengthen it, that all of you shall be one for ever. ” Cossack officers and royal ambassadors went to the Assumption Cathedral. The Cossacks took the oath of allegiance to the Russian Tsar.
After Pereyaslavl, representatives of the Russian embassy visited 177 cities and villages of Western Russia, taking the oath of allegiance from the local population to the Tsar. Most happily took the oath in the hope of peace. But still there was no absolute unanimity (this will serve as the basis for a series of bloody events in the future). Thus, the higher Orthodox clergy, led by Metropolitan of Kiev and Galicia Sylvestre Kosov (Kossov) in Kiev, refused to swear allegiance. It must be said that earlier the Kiev Metropolitan condemned the speech of Bogdan Khmelnitsky against the Poles. Kiev clergy still 50 years existed independently, refusing to obey the Moscow Patriarchate. Some foremen, like Ivan Bogan, refused to take the oath. The colonel was a supporter of Cossack liberty, opposing submission to anyone, even Poland, even Russia. After the death of Khmelnitsky Bohun supported the course of Ivan Vyhovsky and Yuri Khmelnitsky on independence. Moreover, he was still against attempts to get closer to Poland or Turkey, who undertook new hetmans.
The hetman and Cossack officers developed the conditions on which they would like to become citizens of the Russian tsar. Pavel Teteria and military judge Samoilo Bogdanovich in March 1654 presented their (March articles) in Moscow. Getman got almost everything he needed. All rights and liberties of the Zaporozhian Troops were retained. Neither the governor nor the boyars had the right to intervene in the affairs of the troops. Cossacks judged his court. The election of the hetman and the foreman was approved. The registry was approved in 60 thousand people, without a salary could have been more. Getman received the right to intercourse with other states, except Poland and Turkey. The hetman should inform the sovereign about these negotiations. The ambassadors who came with intentions hostile to the sovereign were to be detained. The collection of taxes was carried out by local authorities, the Cossack army was kept from these revenues. Representatives of the Russian administration could only oversee the proper collection of taxes. Cities, landowners, peasants retained all their rights, land, property and trade.
Monument Khmelnitsky in Kiev.
A part of the West Russian (South Russian) lands returned to the Russian kingdom. The rest of the land was returned much later, after a series of brutal wars with Poland, the Crimea and Turkey, of the Commonwealth under Catherine II. Northern Bukovina, which was the territory of residence of the unions of Tiverts' tribes and streets, was returned only under Stalin in 1940 year.
It is necessary to say that Pereyaslavskaya is glad though it was the most important event, but she hasn’t decided anything yet. On the contrary, the main thing has just begun. The Russian lands still had to go through a series of bloody wars, battles, conflicts, betrayals and feats. Already on October 23 (November 2) 1653, the Russian kingdom declared war on Poland, and it lasted for long 13 years, until the 1667 year, when the Andrusov truce was signed. During this war, Russia will return Smolensk, Dorogobuzh, White, Nevel, Red, Velizh, Seversk land with Chernigov and Starodub. Kiev will move to Russia under the terms of the Eternal Peace 1686 of the year. In 1654, the year was only one of the important stages in the gathering of Russian lands into a single mighty power.
Another consequence of the Pereyaslav Council was the Russian-Turkish war of 1672 — 1681. The Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Khanate opposed Russia, trying to gain a foothold in the Dnieper region.