“Everything for the front! Everything is for victory! ”, The slogan of the Communist Party, formulated in the Directive of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR 29 from June 1941 ... and proclaimed 3 in July 1941 on the radio in a speech of the State Defense Committee I.V. Stalin. He expressed the essence of the program, which was developed by the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and the Soviet government to transform the country into a single military camp.
World War II 1941 - 1945. Encyclopedia
According to the memories of A.I. Mikoyan 30 June 1941, colleagues I.V. According to Stalin’s party - Voznesensky, Mikoyan, Molotov, Malenkov, Voroshilov and Beria, without any participation, decided to create the State Defense Committee (GKO), to give him all the power in the country, to transfer to him the functions of the Government, the Supreme Council and the Central Committee of the party. Considering that “in Stalin’s name there is so much power in the minds, feelings and faith of the people” that it will facilitate their mobilization and leadership of all military actions, they agreed to put the former all this time in their near country house I.V. Stalin headed the State Defense Committee. And only after all this, I.V. Stalin returned to governing the country and its armed forces. The Soviet Union in all its full power was involved in the war with Germany. But not for the defeat of the Nazis in Germany, but to prevent their further breakthrough into the Soviet Union.
July 1 K.A. Umansky “met Welles again and gave him a request for the necessary military supplies from the United States, which consisted of 8 points and included fighters, bombers, anti-aircraft guns, and some equipment for aviation and other factories. " In Moscow, V. Molotov told the head of the British mission, MacFarlane, that "the present moment is the most suitable" for strengthening the activity of British aviation in West Germany, in the occupied territory of France and the landing of troops in the cities mentioned by Beaverbrook. "If, said Molotov, General MacFarlane cannot consider this issue, then it may be advisable to refer it to England, to the military cabinet."
“One of the most important acts of the Soviet government, which to a certain extent gave direction to changes in the state apparatus, was the resolution of July 1 of July 1941“ On the expansion of the rights of the people's commissars of the USSR in wartime conditions ”. Under the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR, the Committee of Food and Apparel Supplies of the Soviet Army and the main directorates for the supply of the national economy with coal, oil and timber were formed. In the process of reorganization of the state apparatus there was a sharp reduction in the staff of the people's commissariats, institutions and managerial units. Specialists from the institutions were sent to factories, to production. The work of the State Planning Committee of the USSR, the system of planning and supplying the economy were restructured. Arms, ammunition, shipbuilding, aircraft building and tank building departments were created in the State Planning Committee. On the basis of the tasks of the Central Committee of the Party and the State Defense Committee, they developed plans for the release of military equipment, armaments, ammunition by enterprises regardless of their departmental subordination, controlled the state of material and technical support, and controlled the state of material and technical support of military production. ”
On June 30, 1941, the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks approved the mobilization national economic plan for the third quarter of 23, developed by the USSR State Planning Committee on the basis of the instructions of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks and the Council of People's Commissars of June 1941 — the first planning document aimed at transferring the national economy of the USSR to war ". As we recall June 24, 1941, in case of failure of the main version of the plan of V.D. Sokolovsky decided to create tank industry in the Volga region and in the Urals, as well as the evacuation council. With the beginning of the implementation of the fallback plan V.D. Sokolovsky, these decisions began to be implemented. On July 1, the GKO decided to transfer the Krasnoye Sormovo plant to the production of T-34 tanks, and the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant to production of the KV-1. “Thus, a comprehensive base for the tank industry was created.” “On July 4, the State Defense Committee instructed the commission headed by Chairman of the USSR State Planning Commission N.A. Voznesensky "to develop a military-economic plan to ensure the country's defense, bearing in mind the use of resources and enterprises existing on the Volga, Western Siberia and the Urals, as well as resources and enterprises exported to these areas by evacuation." On July 16, 1941, the State Defense Committee reassigned itself an evacuation council.
3 July 1941 year I.V. Stalin personally appealed to the peoples of the USSR, however, no longer with a call to beat the enemy both on Soviet and on his own territory, but with a call to rally in a protracted fight with the enemy and beat him wherever he appeared. The Soviet troops left, which had become unnecessary overnight, the Lvov salient and in the country began the organization of long-term resistance to the enemy in the territory they occupied. I.V. Stalin was appointed People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR, the Headquarters of the High Command was transformed into the High Command Headquarters, and intermediate strategic management bodies were created — the main commands of the North-Western, Western and South-Western forces. 16 July 1941 issued an order of the State Defense Committee to shoot the former commander of the Western Front, Army General Pavlov, the former chief of staff of the Western Front, Major General Klimovsky, the former communications chief of the Western Front, Major General Grigoriev, and the former commander of the 4 Army of the Western Front, General-Major Grigoriev and the former Commander of the XNUMX Army of the Western Front, Major General Grigoriev. Korobkova.
In early July, the 1941 of the year the Soviet leadership went to meet the proposals to allow "the Poles, the Czechs and the Yugoslavs to create national committees in the USSR and form national units for the joint struggle with the USSR against German fascism ... and ... the restoration of the national states of Poland, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia." In particular, "5 July in London with the mediation of England began negotiations between" the Soviet and Polish government in exile. “July 30, after many fierce disputes, an agreement was reached between the Polish and Russian governments. Diplomatic relations were restored, and a Polish army subordinated to the Soviet High Command was to be established on Russian territory. Borders were not mentioned, with the exception of the general statement that the Soviet-German treaties from the 1939 on territorial changes in Poland "have lost their force" (Churchill W. World War II).
The restoration by the Red Army of the line of defense in the Western direction predetermined the collapse of the Barbarossa plan (part of 3, 2 scheme). “By July 1 (ie, in the first 8 days of the war), 5,3 million people were called up as a result of the hard work of party and state bodies” (PT Kunitsky. Restoration of a broken strategic defense front in the year 1941). July 14 1941 of the year, in full accordance with the May 1941 proposal of the year G.K. Zhukov on the construction of new fortified areas on the rear line of Ostashkov - Pochep (part of 2, 2 scheme), "together with the troops of the 24 and 28 armies advanced here a little earlier," the newly created 29, 30, 31- I and the 32 armies were united “in the front of the reserve armies with the task of taking the line of Staraya Russa, Ostashkov, Bely, Istomino, Yelnya, Bryansk and prepare for a stubborn defense. Here, to the east of the main defensive line, passing along the rivers Western Dvina and Dnieper and already broken by the enemy, a second line of defense was created. 18 July The Stavka decided to deploy another front on the distant approaches to Moscow - the Mozhaisk line of defense - with the inclusion of 32, 33 and 34 armies in its structure ”(By the roads of trials and victories. The fighting path of the 31 army).
A guerrilla movement and sabotage was organized on the territory occupied by the enemy. Began the formation of divisions of the national militia. "June 27 Leninsky Party Committee [of Leningrad - approx. the author] turned to the High Command of the Red Army with a request to allow the formation of seven volunteer divisions from the city’s working people. Such permission has been obtained. On this basis, all areas of Leningrad 30 June began the formation of divisions, which soon became known as the militia.
“At a meeting of secretaries of the Moscow regional, city and district committees of the capital’s party, convened by the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) in the Kremlin on the night of 1 on July 2, party organizations were invited to lead the creation of volunteer divisions of the people's militia of Moscow. 3 July 1941, the resolution on the creation of the people's militia adopted the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Moldova, July 6 - the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Belarus, July 7 - the Central Committee of the Communist Party, Council of People's Commissars and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR. On the same days, the regional, regional, city and district party committees of the Russian Federation issued the relevant decisions. ”
"29 June SNK USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) sent a directive to the leaders of the party and Soviet organizations in the frontline areas, which, along with the general tasks of the Soviet people in the fight against the German fascist aggressors, defined the tasks and duties of local party, Soviet, trade union and Komsomol organizations in the deployment of a nationwide partisan struggle in the rear of the German fascist army. ... 30 of June, the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine formed an operative group to deploy the partisan struggle, and the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Belarus adopted and sent to the directive number 1 "on the transition to the underground work of party organizations of the areas occupied by the enemy."
1 July 1941 of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (B) of Belarus approved the directive No. 2 on the deployment of guerrilla war in the enemy's rear, 4 of July the Central Committee of the Communist Party (B) of the Karelo-Finnish SSR decided similarly to the directive No. 1 of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (B) of Belarus, and 5 – XNUM July 14, the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine "made a special decision to create armed detachments and organizations of the party underground in areas threatened by the fascist occupation." On July 6, the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) introduced a special decision “on organizing the struggle in the rear of the German troops”, which supplemented and specified the directive of June 18. In it, the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) demanded from the central committees of the communist parties of the union republics, from the regional and district party committees to improve the leadership of the Soviet people's struggle in the rear of the enemy, to give it "the widest scope and combat activity."
“In July 1941, the Military Council of the North-Western Front adopted a resolution on the creation of a department under the political administration, which was entrusted with the work of organizing partisan detachments and directing their combat activities. He received the name of the 10 department of the political department - by the date of the decision. ... subsequently, by decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), such departments were created in the entire active army. " The chief of the 10 department of the political department of the North-Western Front, A.N. Asmolov was assigned the task: “to help speed up the creation of partisan forces in the front line, to engage in the selection and military training of commanders, to establish communication with those who are already fighting in the rear of the enemy. In a word ... to take into our hands the operational leadership of partisan actions "on the sector of the North-Western Front. His "conversation with the head of the political department of divisional commissar KG Ryabchim ... ended as follows:" Go to the personnel officers, Comrade Asmolov, select people to the department, and if necessary, to partisan detachments. "
"July 20 1941, the Military Council [North-West - approx. author] front endorsed the instructions for the organization and actions of partisan detachments and groups. It began with the words: “The guerrilla movement in the rear of the enemy is a popular movement. It is called upon to play a huge role in our Patriotic War. ” ... Printed in 500 copies, the instruction was sent to the committees of the party in the frontline areas that were part of the North-Western Front. Several dozen copies were sent to the Main Political Directorate of the Red Army, from where they were sent to other fronts. According to Soviet studies, this was the first instruction on the organization of partisan actions in the Great Patriotic War. She certainly played a role in summarizing the accumulated experience of guerrilla warfare against the fascist invaders.
In connection with the decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) of 18 July 1941, "On the organization of the struggle in the rear of the German troops" and to address the emerging issues in the organization and leadership of the guerrilla forces, the Front Military Council held an extended meeting in the second half of July. commanders and political workers, as well as party activists of front-line city and district committees. ... at the meeting, the very important issue of uniting partisan detachments into larger units — partisan brigades — was resolved. ... A few days later, the Front Military Council approved the plan for the formation of the first partisan brigades. ... For the first time in stories The Great Patriotic War was found the most appropriate form of unification of the armed partisan forces, which allowed to successfully operate in the rear of the enemy in a modern war. ...
The intense July days of 1941, associated with the creation of partisan brigades and detachments, ended with the formation of significant partisan forces in the front line. It was possible to report to the Military Council of the front and the Leningrad Oblast Party that in the territory of the south-eastern districts of the Leningrad region an 43 partisan detachment was formed, numbering about 4 thousands of fighters and united into six partisan brigades. Part of the partisans had already been deployed across the front line and deployed partisan operations in the rear of the 16 German Army from Army Group North, which was operating against the forces of the Northwestern Front. ”
According to the memoirs of the chief of the Leningrad headquarters of the partisan movement, the secretary of the regional committee of the party, M.N. Nikitin "in July-August 1941 of the year switched to the illegal situation in the 32 district of the district committee of the party of the Leningrad region. Already in the occupation, the Pskov inter-district party body was created. The illegal committees headed the 86 secretaries of the district committees and city committees that headed them before the war. 68 authorized by the regional committee left for the districts ”. Guerrilla groups and sabotage groups were created in August and September 1941 in almost all the fascist-occupied areas of the Kalinin Oblast ”(Pskovshchina guerrilla. Collection).
In Belarus 13 July 1941, on the initiative of I. Starikov and PK, Ponomarenko, the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Party of Belarus, a partisan school was created - the Operational Training Center of the Western Front. Already in July-August, the first guerrilla units began their armed actions ..., and ... the first underground district committees began to lead the struggle in the rear of the enemy. "
“In the western regions of Ukraine, it was not possible until the capture of them by the fascist troops to finish all the work on the formation of partisan detachments and the party underground. ... In the second half of July, the formation of partisan detachments, sabotage groups and the party underground in all regions of Left-Bank Ukraine began. Here bases were created in advance. weapons and food. In particular, after the performance of I. Stalin 3 July 1941, S.A. Kovpak began the creation of partisan bases in the area of Putivl. In addition to partisan detachments, the activities of party and Komsomol organizations were launched in Ukraine.
“July 7 1941 in the regional committee of the CP (b) U t. Burmistenko and the secretary of the Kiev regional committee of the CP (b) U t. Serdyuk held a meeting of the secretaries of the city and district committees of the CP (b) U, which gave exhaustive instructions on the evacuation of material values, people and the creation of underground Bolshevik organizations and partisan detachments to fight behind enemy lines. As a result, in most cities and districts of the region, during July and August 1941, underground KP (b) U district committees, underground sabotage groups and partisan detachments with a network of safe houses and material base were created. In the city of Kiev, the underground city committee of KP (b) U was left. ... In the districts of the city, 9 was created by the underground district committees of the CP (B) U and 3 of party, Komsomol organizations and sabotage groups. ... In the districts of the region of all, 21 was created an underground town committee and a KP (b) U district committee. ” “In total, 1941 regional and more than 13 district, city, district and other underground party bodies began work in Ukraine in 110. They routinely led the selfless struggle of the Soviet patriots against the invaders. "
However, in the summer of 1941, the partisan struggle in the occupied territory was still in its infancy. Only “by the spring of 1942, it encompassed a vast territory - from forests of Karelia to the Crimea and Moldova. By the end of 1943, there were over a million armed partisans and underground fighters. ” All this the Soviet political and military leadership was able to achieve as a result, in fact, brilliant improvisation, from scratch, almost from scratch.
According to I. Starinov’s recollection, “faithful to Lenin’s instructions, Mikhail Frunze and other Soviet commanders did a great deal to study the objective laws of partisan actions and to prepare for the guerrilla war in the event of an attack on the USSR by any aggressor. The participants in this training took an active part from 1925 to 1936 and then the People's Commissar of Defense, K.E. Voroshilov. During the period of repression against the military, partisan training was stopped. All the guerrilla bases prepared in advance were liquidated, a large number of explosive weapons were removed and transferred to the army from secret warehouses, and tens of thousands of foreign rifles and carbines, hundreds of foreign machine guns and millions of cartridges to them were simply destroyed in these warehouses.
The most terrible thing was that in 1937-1938, well-trained guerrilla cadres were repressed, who were shot, who were exiled, and survived from the "guerrillas" only those who accidentally changed their place of residence or, fortunately, ended up in distant Spain, accepted participation in the fight with the fascist. The very idea of the possibility of conducting a partisan war by us was buried. The new military doctrine ruled out a long strategic defense for the Red Army, prescribing in the shortest possible time to respond to the blow of the enemy with a more powerful one, to transfer hostilities to the territory of the aggressor. Naturally, in the cadre troops, neither the command, nor even the rank and file, already received knowledge that would enable them to act confidently behind enemy lines. ”
Meanwhile, the opponents of the USSR took the military failures of the Soviet Union very seriously. In Germany, 30 June 1941, the final version of Directive No. 32 was adopted. As mentioned above, Hitler’s strategists had already calculated since the fall of 1941, after the defeat of the USSR, to reduce the Wehrmacht from 209 divisions to 175, to allocate 65 divisions (of which 12 tank and 6 were motorized) as occupying troops in Russia, to increase the number of tropical divisions, aviation and fleet for the subsequent opposition of Great Britain and the United States of America. It was planned to begin the conquest of Egypt, the Suez Canal region, Palestine, Iraq and Iran. Subsequently, the fascist German leadership hoped, having annexed Spain and Portugal to Germany, to quickly capture Gibraltar, cut off England from its sources of raw materials and undertake the siege of the island.
3 July 1941 of the year at the Headquarters of the High Command of the Land Forces of Germany discussed further plans: the occupation after the forcing of the Western Dvina and the Dnieper industrial areas of the USSR and the Wehrmacht offensive in the Middle East. 15 July 1941, the requirements of the occupation and protection of Russian territory were detailed. It was assumed that “as soon as the Russian troops east of the Dnieper-Dvina line are overwhelmed, the operations will need to be continued, if possible, only by motorized formations, as well as those infantry formations that will finally remain on Russian territory. The main part of the infantry formations should begin a return march after reaching the Crimea – Moscow – Leningrad line in early August. ” The German Armed Forces should have been reduced from 209 divisions to 175 connections.
The European part of Russia was divided into four state formations - the Baltic States, Russia, Ukraine and the Caucasus, for the occupation of which two army groups were allocated as part of 65 German formations, as well as one Italian and Spanish corps, one Finnish, one Slovak, one Romanian, and one Hungarian:
Baltic States - 1 security division, 8 front;
Western Russia (Central Russian industrial region and the northern Volga region) - 2 guard divisions, 7 PD, 3 etc., 1 md, one Italian corps;
Eastern Russia (North and South Urals) - 1 guard division, 2 PD, 4 TD, 2 md, one Finnish unit;
Western Ukraine - 1 guard division, 7 front; one Slovak and Romanian connection;
Eastern Ukraine (Donsko – Donetsk industrial region and the Southern Volga region) - 2 guard divisions, 6 PD, 3 etc., 2 md, 1 cd, one Hungarian unit;
Caucasus, Transcaucasia, the Caucasus-Iran group - 2 guard divisions, 4 PD, 3 gds, 2 etc., 1 md, one Spanish corps.
2 July in Japan at the imperial meeting adopted the "Program of the national policy of the Empire in accordance with changes in the situation", which included "the continuation of the war in China and the simultaneous completion of preparations for war against both the United States and Britain, and against the Soviet Union. From the transcript of the imperial meeting (Godzen Kaigi) 2 July 1941: ... Our attitude towards the German-Soviet war will be determined in accordance with the spirit of the Tripartite Pact. However, until we intervene in this conflict. We will secretly strengthen our military training against the Soviet Union, adhering to an independent position. At this time, we will conduct diplomatic negotiations with great caution. If the German-Soviet war develops in a direction favorable to our empire, we, having resorted to armed force, will solve the northern problem and ensure the security of the northern borders. ...
By the decision of the imperial meeting, an armed attack on the USSR was approved as one of the main military and political goals of the empire. Having made this decision, the Japanese government essentially broke up the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact signed only two and a half months ago. In the adopted document, the Neutrality Pact was not even mentioned. ” Despite pressure and threats from Germany, “Japan was preparing to attack the USSR under the condition that the Soviet troops were clearly defeated in the war with Germany. War Minister Tojo stressed that the attack should occur when the Soviet Union "becomes like a ripe persimmon ready to fall to the ground." ...
In accordance with the decision of the Imperial Conference of 2 July 1941, the General Headquarters of the Army and the Ministry of War of Japan developed a set of broad measures aimed at speeding up preparations for conducting offensive operations against the Soviet armed forces in the Far East and Siberia. In the Japanese secret documents, he received the coded name "Kantogun to Enshu" ("Special Maneuvers of the Kwantung Army") - abbreviated "Kantokuen". 11 July 1941, the imperial headquarters sent a special directive No. 506 to the Kwantung Army and the Japanese armies in northern China, which confirmed that the purpose of the "maneuvers" was to increase readiness for action against the Soviet Union. " “Kantokuen” was based first on the operational-strategic plan of the war against the USSR, developed by the General Staff at 1940 year, and from the first half of July 1941 year - on the “Project of operations in current conditions” (Koshkin AA “Kantokuen” - “Barbarossa” in Japanese).
In accordance with the schedule for completing the preparation and conduct of the 5 war on July 1941, the Supreme Command of the Japanese Armed Forces "issued a directive ... to conduct the first mobilization phase ... After the second mobilization stage was ordered by order No. 102 of 16 on July 1941, the territory of Manchuria and Korea was concentrated 850 thousand soldiers and officers of the Japanese army "(Koshkin AA" Kantokuen "-" Barbarossa "in Japanese). 16 July Matsuoka resigned.
“On July 25, President Roosevelt responded to the Vichy Act by freezing Japanese funds in the United States, including the Philippine army led by its Commander-in-Chief, General Douglas MacArthur, into the US army and warning Peten that the US might consider it necessary to occupy French possessions in the Caribbean for self-defense . According to many, it was precisely the moment when the United States was to seize the French West Indies. However, the president, on the advice of the US Secretary of State, decided to refrain from such advice. His decision was justified by subsequent events, although at the time in the maritime ministry it was regrettable, and among some of the public this decision, assessed as “appeasement” of the Axis powers, was severely criticized ”(Morison S.E. American Navy in World War II : Battle of the Atlantic).
Perhaps it can be assumed that, contrary to popular belief, if conservative circles in England and America came to power, confrontation with Germany and Japan could quickly be transformed into a division of the world into spheres of influence. In any case, as Franz Halder notes in his diary, 30 June 1941, Hitler discussed the unity of Europe as a result of a joint war against Russia and the possibility of overthrowing Churchill in England by conservative circles. “Hitler’s confidence that the resolution of the issue with respect to Russia will be reached in September 1941 of the year has determined his cautious strategy in the war on the Atlantic Ocean. "Until mid-October there should be no incidents with the United States." However, Russia stubbornly held on ”(Morison, SE, US Navy in World War II: The Battle of the Atlantic).
27 July 1941 of the year, in connection with the tightening of hostilities in the East in Germany, was considered a plan of operation against the industrial area of the Urals, which provided for not so much occupation as an expedition to destroy the Urals industrial region. The operation was supposed to be “carried out by motorized forces using eight tank and four motorized divisions. Depending on the situation, separate infantry divisions are involved (for the protection of rear communications). ... The operation should be carried out with full observance of surprise with simultaneous performance of all four groups. Its goal is to reach the Ural industrial area as quickly as possible and either to hold, if the situation permits, seized, or to retreat again after the destruction of vital structures by specially equipped and trained troops. ”
“In the summer of 1941, the Kwantung Army deployed the battle formations of the six armies and a separate group of troops against the USSR, not counting the reserve. In accordance with the Kantokuen plan, three fronts were formed for conducting combat operations: the eastern part of the 4 armies and the reserve, the northern part of the 2 armies and the reserve, and the western part of the 2 armies. By early August, the grouping allocated for the invasion of the Soviet Union was basically prepared. Approaching the scheduled time to make a decision about the beginning of the war - August 10. However, the ruling circles of Japan were hesitant, awaiting the defeat of the Soviet Union in the West ”(Koshkin AA“ Kantokuen ”-“ Barbarossa ”in Japanese). 6 September 1941 of the year at the imperial meeting due to the failure of the German Barbarossa plan, as well as the entry of Soviet and British troops into Iran 25 August 1941, the implementation of the Kantokuen plan in 1941 was canceled, which, however, did not mean abandoning the Kantokuen plan , but only postponed the deadline for its implementation ”(Koshkin AA“ Kantokuen ”-“ Barbarossa ”in Japanese).
“At the beginning of July 1941, the Soviet government proposed to England to conclude an agreement on an alliance in the struggle against fascist Germany and its accomplices. On this occasion, negotiations were held in Moscow with the British Ambassador S. Cripps. " Having handed over 8 on July 1941, I.V. To Stalin, "the text of Churchill Cripps' personal message noted that he considers the decision of the British Admiralty to take action in the Arctic as the most important part of the British message." In turn, I.V. Stalin raised the issue of Iran, pointing to the threat of both the Soviet oil fields in Baku and the British colony in India in connection with the large concentration of Germans in Iran and Afghanistan.
“On July 10, the Soviet leader again took over S. Cripps. The British ambassador said that he had telegraphed to London and asked to consider the issue of Iran immediately. After promising to consult with R. Bullard, S. Kripps suggested that "perhaps, it would be necessary to support diplomatic measures by the military." On the same day, the English commander-in-chief in India, General A. Wavell, warned his government about the German danger in Iran and the need to “stretch out your hands with the Russians through Iran.” ... 11 July 1941, the Cabinet instructed the chiefs of staff to consider the desirability of action in Persia together with the Russians if the Persian government refuses to send a German colony operating in this country ”(Orishev AB Struggle for intelligence services. 1936 – 1945)
As a result of negotiations I.V. Stalin and S. Cripps 12 July 1941, the Soviet-British agreement "On joint actions in the war against Germany." The agreement obliged the parties to render each other assistance and support of every kind in the war against Hitler Germany, and not to negotiate and conclude a truce or a peace treaty, except with mutual consent. ... Despite the fact that the agreement was of a general nature and it did not indicate specific mutual obligations, it indicated the interest of the parties in the establishment and development of allied relations. ” Raising the Iranian question I.V. Stalin wanted, as he did in March 1941, to link the security of India from the German invasion from Iran to the opening of a second front in Europe against Hitler Germany. By offering assistance to England in ensuring the security of India, I.V. Stalin called on the British government 18 July 1941 to create a front against Hitler in the West in Northern France and in the North in the Arctic.
However, the deplorable state of affairs on the Soviet-German front predetermined the failure of I.V. Stalin to link the entry of British and Soviet troops in Iran with the opening of a second front against Nazi Germany in Europe. Having proposed 19 on July 1941 of Moscow to carry out the entry of troops into Iran, W. Churchill, at the same time "in a message to Stalin received on 21 on July 1941 of the year ... wrote that the chiefs of British headquarters" do not see an opportunity to do anything in such proportions "that could bring the Soviet front "at least the smallest benefit" (Orishev, AB. Combat intelligence services. 1936 – 1945). As a result, I.V. Stalin had to accept the fact that the entry of Soviet and British troops into Iran 25 August 1941 was linked by England with the military technical assistance of the USSR. He had to wait for a year to conclude an alliance treaty between Germany and the Soviet Union and England - until May 1942 of the year, and the opening of a second front in Northern France for three years - until May 1944 of the year.
As for American aid, the issues related to it were resolved in the USA for a long time either extremely slowly or were not resolved at all, and the matter was replaced by endless rumors. In contrast to the United States, the British War Cabinet on July 26, 1941 “unanimously decided to send 200 Tomahawk fighters to Russia as soon as possible. Therefore, it should not be surprising that “the first cargo of the Allies arriving in Arkhangelsk on August 31, 1941 with the Dervish convoy (7 transports and 6 guard ships) were English. ... It is interesting that although military supplies to our country from the United States began a few months after the start of the war, they came at a normal price, and officially the President of the United States Franklin Roosevelt signed the Lend-Lease Act for the USSR only on June 11, 1942 ”(Krasnov V ., Artemyev A. On Lend-Lease Supplies the fleet).
Summarize. With the beginning of the implementation of the backup plan V.D. Sokolovsky Soviet Union immediately began to turn into a single military camp to repel the invasion of Nazi Germany. A State Defense Committee, headed by I.V., was accumulating the full power in the country, the functions of the Government, the Supreme Council and the Central Committee of the Party. By Stalin. The rate of the High Command was transformed into the High Command Headquarters. 3 July 1941 year I.V. Stalin personally appeals to the peoples of the USSR to rally in a protracted struggle with the enemy and beat him wherever he appears.
The rights of the people's commissars of the USSR expanded under wartime conditions. Under the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR, the Committee of Food and Apparel Supplies of the Soviet Army and the main directorates for the supply of the national economy with coal, oil, and timber were formed. The work of the State Planning Committee of the USSR, the system of planning and supplying the economy were restructured. In the Volga region and in the Urals an integrated base of the tank-building industry was created. The State Defense Committee reassigned itself to the evacuation council and instructed a special commission “to work out a military economic plan for the defense of the country, bearing in mind the use of resources and enterprises existing on the Volga, Western Siberia and the Urals, as well as resources and enterprises exported areas in order to evacuate. "
The newly formed units created the rear line of Ostashkov - Pochep and the Mozhaisk line of defense. The organization of the partisan movement, underground activities and subversive struggle began on the territory occupied by the enemy. Began the formation of divisions of the national militia. After the first failures of the Red Army, Germany and Japan began to carry out activities to implement plans for the joint occupation of the Soviet Union. However, the restoration by the Red Army of the line of defense in the West direction predetermined the collapse of the Barbarossa plan, after which both Directive No. 32 and the plan Kanktoken were not implemented.
Attempt I.V. Stalin to link the entry of Soviet and British troops into Iran with the opening of a second front in Europe failed. The troops entered Iran, but the Soviet Union in response received only military-technical assistance. The second front was opened by Allied troops in 1944 year - after the consistent failure of the Soviet and German Blitzkrieg, the war became extremely difficult and protracted.
The Soviet Union still had its great victories at Stalingrad and Kursk, in Belarus and in Ukraine, in Berlin. However, all of them became possible due to the first imperceptible and not famous victory in the hot summer of 1941 - the failure of the Barbarossa plan and the prevention of the joint occupation of the Soviet Union by Germany and Japan. And this victory is inextricably linked with the plan of V.D. Sokolovsky, who was evident first because of his secrecy, and then from the reluctance to raise the topic of the disaster of the Western Front and the crisis of the Red Army unpleasant for the Soviet political and military leadership in the summer of 1941, remained unknown.