Military Review

Jacob Tryapitsyn: In Memory of a Slandered Red Partisan (Part of 2)

The conspirator Andreev and the "court of 103-x"

And he led a speech against his commander (read "betrayal"), the former head of the Sakhalin police Andreev.

About him, too, is to say more. Fortunately, Fufygin managed to gather some information. So, get acquainted:

- Born on October 7, 1884 in the village of Dubki, Yamburg County, St. Petersburg Province, in the family of a peasant Tikhon Andreev. The family had six children. In his youth, sailed in the Baltic, served in the trading navy sailor, fireman, helmsman. He received his primary education in a parish school. He knew Finnish and Swedish well: his grandmother was Finnish. He served in the military for 15 years. Prior to the October Revolution, he served in the Chnyrrakh fortress (i.e., in the defensive structure of Nikolaevsk), rising through the ranks from private to sergeant major of extra-long service. In 1912, after passing the exam, he was awarded the rank of ensign. In 1914 he graduated from the Vladivostok Officers' College, where he was awarded the rank of mediator-ensign of artillery. After the February Revolution in 1917 he returned to Nikolaevsk-on-Amur and began fishing in the Sivuch artel organized by him in the Amur Liman and the Tatar Strait. As standing on the platform of the Bolsheviks during the brief period of Soviet power in Nikolaevsk in 1918, he was an assistant to the deputy military commissar Bebenin, he actively participated in the struggle for Soviet power, was appointed head of artillery in the Chnyrra fortress. Before the seizure of Nikolaevsk in early September 1918, he did much to unload the fortress from unnecessary weapons and projectiles (so that they would not get to the Japanese), some of which entered service with gunboats who arrived in August 1918 from Khabarovsk.

On the eve of the occupation of the fortress and the city by the Japanese, the guns of the fortress were put into disrepair by hiding gun locks in a safe place. When in October 1918, the city was captured by the Japanese, continued to engage in fishing, maintained an illegal connection with the Bolshevik underground.
After the capture (and perhaps more correctly - “liberation”?) Of the fortress Chnyrrakh by partisans in February 1920, under his leadership, the guns were put on alert and took part in the shelling of the city, which forced the Japanese to enter into negotiations with the partisans and, eventually, to let in them to the city.

And immediately clarify something. Even after graduating from the officers' school, Andreev received the rank of mediator-ensign. There was such a rank in the pre-revolutionary Russian army from 1907 to 1917. The designation is a wide strip in the middle of a shoulder strap with an asterisk in the upper third. This order, unlike the ensign itself, was not an officer (it can be very conditionally compared with the rank of ensign in the modern Russian army)! Those. After serving in the army 10-12 for years and being accepted into a military school, he could not finish it with an officer's rank. What, you see, is not the best way to characterize his mental abilities.

I.T. Andreev with family

By the way, a curious detail, Fufigin found a photograph of Andreev 1916. So, on it is Andreev in the shoulder straps of ensign, but not the ensign-ensign! For the title below. The question arises: why? Indeed, it follows from what has been said that he received the rank of ensign ensign in 1914. Anyway...

Further, Fufygin writes, they say, Andreev "understood the destructiveness of the behavior of the Lower Amur dictator." That's why he led the conspiracy to overthrow him.
For some reason, after getting acquainted with all the events described above, it only occurred to me that Andreev’s motives were far from noble. I propose to compare the facts we have.

On the one hand, the young (23 of the year), the successful and undoubtedly gifted commander Yakov Tryapitsyn. For a year in war, the Cross of St. George (albeit one) and the officer’s rank. From a small detachment formed a real army, without serious losses took the city. He managed to keep him, and when it was required to save people, he left in time. Glitter, and more!

On the other - not the first freshness (36 years) non-commissioned Ivan Ivan Andreev. I could not become an officer, despite all attempts. In Civic served, of course, an important service, retaining the serf artillery, as they say, hiding it from the enemy. But can his act go at least to some comparison with what Tryapitsyn had done for Soviet power by that time ?!

In general, I have a suspicion that the ORIENT ANALY was the real reason for making Andreev go against his commander!
It must be said that the plot was not forged overnight. Andreev chose the most opportune moment when people were exhausted by a long retreat, which, as is well known, demoralizes any, even the most efficient army. In addition, there was always a shortage of food.

Moreover, such an excuse as Tryapitsyn's “anarchism” and the “anti-Soviet activity” of his fighting girlfriend (part-time chief of staff) maximalist somaker Nina Lebedeva-Kiyashko (Tryapitsyn's “anarchism” a bit more later) was used. Andreev, as we remember, “stood on the platform of the Bolsheviks” and, with the right approach, could not only destroy the “young and early” commander, but also get into his own hands the army he had already formed (which will happen, as we shall see later). Blaming the commander for “counter-revolutionary”, the conspirator somehow managed to overcome the fact that in the entourage of the “anarchist” Tryapitsyn there was a real Bolshevik (and not “standing on the platform”) Fedor Zhelezin (he was also beaten).

Well, if the commander from Andreev did not work out, then he would not have to occupy the skills of an intriguer. At the time of his arrest, Tryapitsyn did not even understand what had happened. He thought that he was dealing with ordinary discontent of exhausted fighters, which had happened before, and with which he successfully coped.

The arrest was to produce a special group of seven people. They arrived on the steamer of the Commander "Amgunets", showed him a packet with wax seals, and while he was examining it, they went to Tryapitsyn's cabin. Knocked, Jacob quietly opened the door.

And he saw the revolvers aimed at him. A statement was made that he was arrested. Tryapitsyn accepted the message with a grin: “This is not my first time. Who raised a riot? Quite a joke! ”Realizing that resistance was useless, he calmly surrendered his Mauser.

The insurgents did not dare to kill the commander, so they organized a court. As Fufygin writes:

- ... it was decided to elect to try the case of Tryapitsyna and his closest henchmen from military units, workers' unions and the population with. Kerby has two delegates from 50 to create a public People’s Court, and the court’s decision to execute it immediately.

The next day, by order of the commander of the troops Andreev (!!!), it was decided to supplement the composition of the people's court with representatives from all citizens, namely: one delegate from every 25 (twenty-five) people, both from fellow partisans and from all other civilians ...

In total, 103 was elected as a member of the people's court - hence the mention in all sources of the "103's court".

Famously, is not it? And how significant is Andreev’s desire to “dissolve” his responsibility. So that, with a “clear conscience,” I say, it’s not me, but the people who decided.

The sentence of this "court" and the execution of Tryapitsyn in all colors are described in Smolyak, we read:

- The Deputy Chairman of the Court, Peter Vorobyov, reads the decision of the “103-court”. His voice is well heard around: "For the crimes committed, constantly undermining the credibility of the communist system, which can strike the authority of the Soviet government, put the death penalty on ...".
The convoy platoon commander, Peter Prikhodko, abruptly commands: “A convoy, step aside!” Opposite the prisoners, with a raised weapon, the platoon of the former gunners prepared for firing.

Everyone froze. The silence of the night was broken by a piercing cry: “Long live the world revolution! Long live the Soviet power! .. "

The command “Platoon, pli!” Interrupts the cry of Fyodor Zhelezina. The convicts fell into the pit, all but Tryapitsyna. He only staggered after the volley, but then straightened again. For a moment everyone was numb. He bends down and picks up the lifeless body of Nina Lebedeva. “Shoot!” - no longer commands, but Prikhodko shouts. Indiscriminate shooting began in Tryapitsyna, but he continues to stand with Lebedeva’s body in her hands. Prikhodko runs up to him and empties the gun at close range. Tryapitsyn slowly falls into the pit, not letting Lebedev out of his hands. Even dead, he did not want to let her go on his own. And she for this loyalty gave him a few moments of life, taking on the bullets of former comrades in arms.

And indeed a rare loyalty! And to this we add that the wife and chief of staff of Tryapitsyna, Nina Lebedeva, was four months pregnant on the day of the shooting!

A little about the "anarchism" Tryapitsyna and his fighting girlfriend

Since some so obstinately accuse Tryapitsyn of “indiscipline”, stubbornly calling him “anarchist,” we will devote a couple of words to this.
For example, Fufygin writes about it like this:

- Attempts by individual authors to present Tryapitsyn as a highly educated person (here he clearly bent, World War I and Civic did not allow our hero to have time to get an education), versed in philosophy, taking into account the well-known facts of his life path are not confirmed by anything. The only certainty is that he was fascinated by the ideas of anarchists and actually stood on the platform of anarchists.

But in the book Smolyak there is one curious passage from the memories of the former Far Eastern partisan:

- At that time, the partisans did not have formed party organizations. Whoever called himself a Bolshevik wore a red patch on his chest. Those who called themselves anarchists wore black. But there were those who considered themselves anarcho-communists, wore red-black sockets and cockades.
In other words, Tryapitsyn’s tendency toward “anarchism” was approximately at the same level as “standing on the platform of the Bolsheviks” by Andreev. Everything is only at the level of personal preferences, not party affiliation. This is probably why Tryapitsyna is also called an “anarchist individualist”.

Jacob Tryapitsyn: In Memory of a Slandered Red Partisan (Part of 2)
Nina Lebedeva and Jacob Tryapitsyn

Another thing - his fighting girlfriend Nina Lebedeva. She really was an “experienced experience”. Smolyak gives the following brief information on it:
- Born (presumably) in 1895 year in the Penza province, where she spent her childhood and studied at the gymnasium. From a young age she linked her fate with the party of social revolutionaries. For participation in the attempt on the Penza governor in 1914, she was sentenced to penal servitude with deprivation of all rights and sent to Siberia. In Akatuya, the famous Nerchinsk penal servitude, the link was served along with Maria Spiridonova, the leader of the left-wing Socialist-Revolutionary Party, and Fani Kaplan, who attempted to kill V. Lenin in August 1918.

After the February Revolution, Lebedev was one of the organizers of the Chita union of maximalists, secretary of the city council of workers' deputies.

From Semenov's gangs, she fled to Blagoveshchensk, then to Khabarovsk, where she was secretary of an underground organization, and maintained contact with the partisans.

Well, so what from that ?! Did her party affiliation prevent her from honestly fighting for the cause of Soviet power? And once again we recall that in the Far East after 1920, the Civil War had already turned into a war with foreign invaders-Japanese, when party affiliation was completely irrelevant.

In general, I want to emphasize once again that the accusations of Tryapitsyna and his girlfriend of "counter-revolutionary" are purely contrived.

If anything in this sense could be blamed for Tryapitsyna, it is because he did not support the idea of ​​creating a buffer state of the Far Eastern Republic.

Conspirator's fate

I mean it was not planned by me to describe the further fate of Andreev, who treacherously removed his commander from the road, because the article is not about him, but about Tryapitsyn. But, reading the book Smolyak, the letter of one participant of those distant events rushed into the eyes of another, here it is:

- Partizan I.I. Samoilov - partisan N.S. Demidov, 29 July 1960:

“I received your letter and was surprised: do you really not know that Andreev was a Japanese envoy?

Yes, I personally myself and many Sakhalin people know and saw Andreev. Yes, it was he who shot Tryapitsyna and after that with honor was brought by the Japanese to Aleksandrovsk (Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinsky) and lived in the outhouse with millionaire Petrovsky under the protection of Japanese bayonets. Andreev was revered by the Japanese as well as their national heroes. Was in 1925, taken away by the Japanese. His further fate is unknown to me. ”

You understand that such words could not leave me indifferent. Became what is called "dig" further. And excavated ...

Looking ahead, his fate is very instructive. In the sense that for everything in this world, sooner or later, you have to pay.

By order No. 40 of 22.08.1920, the commander of the troops, Andreev I.T. declared himself subordinate to the command of all armed forces DVR20. Soon the partisan army was disbanded and joined the 19 Siberian Rifle Regiment, which was redeployed to the city of Svobodny (they did not give long orders to Andreev).

Freed from his post, Ivan Tikhonovich Andreev went to the city of Blagoveshchensk, where the government was (FER), to report on the Kerbin events.

Irina Vasilievna - the wife of Andreeva I. T., in her autobiography, written in February 1946 in Shanghai, when applying for her restoration in the citizenship of the RSFSR, wrote that “by order from Blagoveshchensk, the husband was appointed head of the artillery depots in Novo-Alekseevsk ( Free). Soon he was transferred to the village of Mariinsk, because in Novo-Alekseevsk, he was twice assassinated as revenge for the arrest of Tryapitsyn. ”

After the execution of Tryapitsyn and his associates, several attempts were made on Andreev, and his life was constantly in danger.

As the eldest son of Andreev recalls, Aleksey Ivanovich:
“In the winter of 1922, in Nikolaevsk, our grandfather, Smyshlyaev, Vasily Fedorovich, came to our home and told us to leave the house immediately. He put us on a sleigh (my mother Irina and my two brothers, Mikhail and Victor) and took us through the strait to Sakhalin, where our father met us. ”

It is known that Andreev insisted on leaving for Khabarovsk, where he hoped to find his family, his request was supported in the Amur regional committee, and in the summer of 1922, he was assigned to the village of Mariinskoe-on-Amur as the chairman of the executive committee and the military commander of the so-called demarcation line with the Japanese, held in the village of Mariinsky.

Irina Smyshlyaeva then told her children that her grandfather took the initiative and moved her to Sakhalin with children in order to save her family from the attempts of Tryapitsyn's comrades in arms, and there were good reasons for that.

Thus, having found a family, Ivan Tikhonovich was on the territory of Sakhalin Island occupied by Japanese troops, and for a long time.

After arriving in Sakhalin, the family lived for a short time with the relatives of the grandfather in the city of Aleksandrovsk, and then moved to the village of Rykovskoye, lived there in the apartment of a peasant, and then moved to the People’s House.

On Sakhalin, Andreev lived almost three years before the Japanese evacuated in January 1925. 9 January 1924, the fourth son, Valentine, was born into the Andreevs family. Andreev thought it impossible to return to Russia (see, too many in the Far East respected Tryapitsyn), and therefore became an emigrant - the family moved to China, where for a long time she lived in a Russian colony in Shanghai. Life in China was difficult and joyless, unable to endure life in a foreign land, Andreev ended his life journey in 1933.

Remaining in a foreign land, Irina Vasilyevna dreamed of returning home with her children, which she had to leave during the tragic years of the Civil War, and such an opportunity was presented after the end of World War II.

Irina Vasilyevna and her children Alexei, Valentin and Mikhail, who, after filing their applications for restoring RSFSR citizenship to the USSR General Consulate in Japan, returned to 1947 at the call of their hearts in the Soviet Union, they had a tragic fate.

The joy of returning to their homeland was overshadowed by the fact that they were not allowed to live on the Amur River, next to their relatives, but were sent to work in the city of Sverdlovsk for a steam engine repair plant.

A few years later, Alexey and Valentine were convicted on 25 years as “American spies” (now it is difficult to say whether it is deserved or not). Ironically, in prison, they were located near the places where they would like to live, returning to their homeland after a long separation. The death of Stalin and the subsequent amnesty gave them the opportunity to return from the Siberian camps, to the city of Rostov-on-Don, to their expecting mother.

As is often the case, the children responded in full to the father’s actions ...
Articles from this series:
Jacob Tryapitsyn: In Memory of a Slandered Red Partisan (Part of 1)
Jacob Tryapitsyn: In Memory of a Slandered Red Partisan (Part of 2)
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 21 January 2014 10: 01
    Hmm - the war always raises the layer of villains and real heroes - the eternal struggle between good and bad.
  2. Walking
    Walking 21 January 2014 11: 28
    In a civil war, there are no heroes in my opinion.
    The author is too partial to the character of the article, he turns out to be a sort of unrecognized genius, and the rest with limited mental abilities are not suitable for him.
  3. lukke
    lukke 21 January 2014 11: 45
    By the way, a curious detail, Fufigin found a photograph of Andreev 1916. So, on it is Andreev in the shoulder straps of ensign, but not the ensign-ensign! For the title below. The question arises: why? Indeed, it follows from what has been said that he received the rank of ensign ensign in 1914. Anyway...

    Yes, there seems to be nothing contradicting: insignia - for the ordinary warrant officers, the second lieutenant’s shoulder straps were installed with a large (more officer) asterisk in the upper third of the shoulder strap
  4. Black
    Black 21 January 2014 11: 47
    The author tries by methods of psychoanalysis to get to the bottom of who in the civil war was a hero and who is a scoundrel. Article minus.
  5. FormerMariman
    FormerMariman 21 January 2014 19: 47
    Great great grandfather?
  6. PPL
    PPL 22 January 2014 00: 35
    During a short biography, Tryapitsin periodically experienced episodes of disobedience: he quarreled with his father and ran away; did not want to obey in Primorye Lazo - left as a separate detachment; in Nikolaevsk refused to submit to the center in a question of politics within the framework of FER. Just like Makhno.
    1. Malofeeva
      Malofeeva 31 May 2014 19: 54
      it is not clear what the author "dug" about Andreev?
      I took the article Fufygin and read.

      Nevertheless, let us return to Tryapitsyn - the speech is in the first place about him.
      What can be called a war criminal, on which as the commander (and the signatures under the relevant orders are his and Nina's), whose conscience is more than 10 thousand dead civilians of Nikolaevsk and its environs, including women and children?

      According to the testimony of the medical commission, after the Reds left the city, they counted 6 thousand UNBURIED bodies! And how much the river took (the bodies were lowered under the ice)! And how many more there were along the coast, as it was his order to "clean up" the fishing trips!

      Regarding Lebedeva - Smolyak repeats legends (by the way, he has no links to archives) DO NOT SIT Lebedev together with Spiridonova !!!! Spiridonova’s seat is well documented and photographed - they very much loved fotkatsa there - NO there Lebedeva!
      Like the second name Kiyashko, she came up with to cast a shadow on the governor of Transbaikalia. During interrogations in Kerby, she admits this.
      By the way, it’s more correct to call her a mistress, because before meeting with Tryapitsyn she was married and she had a son (see the article about her associate Zhuk-Zhukovsky about Lebedeva)
  7. dudalma
    dudalma 5 July 2014 18: 34
    Tripitsyn is a bandit, he shot my great-grandfather, his goal was to rob gold mines and escape to America. He drowned schoolboys, burned Nikolaevsk on the Amur, killed innocent people, robbed. And his girlfriend was out of his mind. The daughter of General Swans Kiyashki, her father was shot and killed in front of her eyes. Oh, my grandmother told me a lot about this gangster. . And the old-timers all cursed him, so do not make him a hero.
    1. Malofeeva
      Malofeeva 6 July 2014 11: 16
      Olga, contact me. I collect eyewitness accounts [email protected] Ekaterina Georgievna Malafeeva
    2. alexander 1
      alexander 1 5 March 2016 17: 51
      A few comments on the article by Vladimir Glybin!
      First of all, about the method of writing an article. Several quotes from V.G. Smolyak "Between strife", which is referenced in the article and is made by comparison with the nameless work of AN Fufygin, dedicated to the relationship between Tryapitsyn and Andreev. Moreover, the author's text of the opponent (Fufygin) is presented as his own. The rules of decency and respect for copyright obliged to indicate that the basis for the work of V. Glybin was the article by A.N. Fufygina "Yakov Tryapitsyn and Ivan Andeev - victim and executioner", published in the Bulletin of the Sakhalin Museum "(Yearbook of the Sakhalin Museum of Local Lore No. 8 - 2001, Yuzhno-Sakhandlinsk). The alleged author's text by V. Glybin about the history of the Andreev family and his children, which, without specifying the source, was copied from the article by Fufygin A.N. "The Smyshlyaev family in the twentieth century", published in 2000 in the Almanac of the Murmansk Genealogical Society. First edition ".
      About the idea of ​​the article: a clear attempt to wash a black male to white (proverb). Volumetric and substantive answer
    3. alexander 1
      alexander 1 5 March 2016 18: 08
      this attempt was given by Malofeeva on 31.05.2014/6000/XNUMX. a completely burnt city, XNUMX corpses and after all this, the author's stated goal of writing an article "to clear the bright name of a glorious partisan from slander" - looks blasphemous.
      After all that Tryapitsyn did, the author's assessment of his deeds: “I managed to keep it (the city), and when it was necessary, saving people, I left it in time. The brilliance, and nothing else,” is astonishing. Is he serious? 6000 killed, a burnt city - and for what?
      As a result - indecent plagiarism and the justification of mass killings - how can that be !!!
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