Military Review

Jacob Tryapitsyn: In Memory of a Slandered Red Partisan (Part of 1)

I decided to write about this man after reading the article by Elena Gordeeva about the outstanding red commander Sergey Lazowhich was published by the Military Review almost 2 a year ago.

Immediately I will clarify that I came across it (the article) a couple of days ago quite by accident. This is to avoid stupid questions in the spirit, they say, what have you been waiting for two years.

In general, I liked the work of Gordeeva, but one inaccuracy caught my eye. And, unfortunately, the inaccuracy is blatant. Here she is:
- In the 1920 year after the occupation of the Red Army units of Vladivostok, his former allies, the anarchists Nina Lebedeva and Jacob Tryapitsyn, actively intervene in the affairs of Lazo. These figures are very vividly described by contemporaries. Nina Lebedeva differed bad temper, rude habits with a criminal bias, as well as rudeness and pronounced stupidity. Contrary to the opinion of the young commander, they declare Vladivostok a Soviet Republic and begin to terrorize the local population. The criminalization of the decayed parts of the Trans-Baikal Army reaches its apogee. Most of the Red Army men are gangsters who are openly engaged in robbery, murder and violence, Gorelova writes.

And further:
- Sergey Georgievich made the main mistake - he allowed the anarchists to lead the frantic crowd, which the once valiant soldiers of the Red Army had become. In addition, his short-sighted behavior on the eve of his arrest played a role. An entire regiment of Japanese soldiers was massacred in Nikolayevsk. Lazo, most likely, understood that in the near future, the local population, or interventionists based in the city, which were significantly superior to the Bolsheviks in number, would be forced to take retaliatory actions. However, he did not take care of his elementary security, and this determined the course of further events.

Meanwhile, it is necessary to clearly understand that Lazo at that moment was in Vladivostok, and Tryapitsyn with his faithful fighting friend Nina Lebedeva-Kiyashko in Nikolaevsk-on-Amur. In other words, “the former anarchist allies”, as the author calls them, could not annoy Lazo, if only because they were located 1732 km away from him.

However, I'm sorry, I'm running ahead. My goal in no way is to brand Elena Gordeeva, therefore I will not touch her article anymore. But, since she was talking about such a person as Jacob Tryapitsyn, and he was, frankly speaking, not in the best shape, he considered it his duty to write about his true role in the partisan movement in the Far East.

What for? First, so that readers do not have a distorted understanding of our great stories. Secondly, in order to simply remove the bright name of the glorious partisan from slander.

It is very important to note here that they have watered the mud of Tryapitsyna for several decades. In Soviet times, the label "trypitsynets" in the Far East meant about the same as "Makhnovist".

early years

About the early years (strictly speaking, before the “late” Tryapitsyn did not live, on the day of the execution he was only 23 year) the formation of our hero is known very little. Moreover, the information contained in different sources is often contradictory.

Here is what, for example, the well-known and, unfortunately, already deceased (died in 2008) historian and writer Viktor G. Smolyak writes in his book “Civil strife. In the footsteps of the Lower Amur tragedy ":

- Yakov Ivanovich Tryapitsyn. Born in April 1897, in the family of a prosperous peasant in the village of Seveostevka, Murom district of the Vladimir region. He graduated from the four-year rural school with a meritorious certificate. Until 1915, he was engaged in peasant labor. In the same year, he joined the Mordovshchik shipyard as an assistant driver in the locomotive depot of in-plant transport.

In 1916, he volunteered for military service. He served in the lifeguard of the Kexholm regiment in St. Petersburg. He took part in the hostilities of the First World War. For personal bravery rewarded with St. George's Cross. As part of the regiment took part in the storming of the Winter Palace.

In the spring of 1918, after demobilization, he left for the Far East in Vladivostok, where his sister lived. He worked as a loader in the port. Participated in the seizure of the Japanese car with weaponsafter which he fell to the partisans of Suchan (the name of the river). Because of the conflict with S. Lazo went into a partisan detachment under Grodekovo. In one of the battles, the detachment was defeated by Japanese punishers, and Tryapitsyn, with several partisans, departed 1919 in July under Khabarovsk. He commanded a small partisan detachment near the station Korfovskaya.

What is somewhat different is that in the early years of the partisan he wrote in A.N. Fufigin in the article "Jacob Tryapitsyn and Ivan Andreev - the victim and the executioner?":

- Yakov Ivanovich Tryapitsyn was born in April 1897 of the year in the village of Sevostyevka of the Murom district of the Vladimir province in the family of a peasant Ivan Stepanovich Sidorov-Tryapitsyn. Besides him in the village were two sisters, he was the third child. He studied at the 4-year rural school, graduated from it with a meritorious certificate. In 1915, he joined the Mordovshchik shipyard, located in the 12 version from the village. He worked as an assistant driver on a train in the locomotive depot of in-plant transport. LAT 1916 of the year was called up for military service and enlisted in the Life Guard in the capital Kexholm regiment. Jacob corresponded with his older sister, who moved to Moscow. Her brother informed her that the regiment had gone over to the side of the revolutionary workers. Soon he wrote from the army in the spring, and in the spring of 1918, he drove by to visit his sister in Moscow, and then in the village to his parents. He was awarded the St. George's Cross, but did not boast about his merits. He left the cross and the ribbon to his sister, who kept the ribbon for a long time, and gave the cross to someone. He spent all summer in Sevevoivka, helping his father at the hay, Rural life did not satisfy him, he once told his father: "No, you, father, traveled, and you have a family, now I will go ..." Siberia. In winter, 1918 of the year went to Omsk to a fellow villager and, on leaving, said: “I will go to fight for Soviet power” (as a fellow villager wrote in a letter to his sister).

He was arrested in Irkutsk by whites, escaped from prison. He arrived in Primorye and for a short time was a simple fighter in the detachment G.M. Shevchenko. Due to disagreements over the partisan movement at the head of a small detachment, he first moved to the Iman area, and then to the Khabarovsk district.
So here is not much. At the same time, I must say that Smolyak and Fufygin still write in sufficient detail about the early years of the life of Tryapitsyn. The rest - and even less.

It is noteworthy that in the Khabarovsk Express newspaper and on the website of the city of Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinsky, the year of the birth of our hero is called 1898. For some reason, from the son of a peasant in the Vladimir province, he became the son of a “artisan-tanner from the Great Ustyug”, i.e. city, located in a completely different province - Vologda.

In contrast to Fufygin, periodicals tend to agree with Smolyak, emphasizing that Tryapitsyn entered the service voluntarily, and not “was called up.” In addition, they write not about one thing, but about two crosses of St. George and that the future red partisan was promoted to ensign. Ie, I received the first officer rank corresponding to the rank of junior lieutenant in the modern Russian army (here I will continue to call our army specifically RUSSIAN, and not “Russian”).

There is a mention that already joining the ranks of the Red Guard (then not yet the army) after the October Revolution, Tryapitsyn took part in the suppression of the counter-revolutionary revolt in Samara.

Frankly, such a paucity of information about him should not be surprised who might be interested in the modest son of a peasant from the Vladimir province? And if we take into account the fact that later our hero will be slandered and never recognized by the Soviet government, for which he shed blood, then everything falls into place.

But even judging by these scanty data, it can be concluded that we are a man of courageous, resolute, not afraid of responsibility and not without organizational skills, which confirms his further life path.

Jacob Tryapitsyn (in white, in the center of the picture), on his right hand - Nina Lebedeva

Hike to Nikolaevsk

Fortunately, more is known about Tryapitsyn’s activity as a partisan commander.

Fufygin describes this short, but glorious period of his life:

- In November, at a meeting of representatives of partisan detachments in the village of Anastasyevka, Khabarovsk district, it was decided to strengthen the partisan movement in the Lower Amur. On November 1919, from the village of Vyatka, the famous trip of the Tryapitsyn detachment in the number of 10 people to Nikolayevsk began. During this raid, the detachment grew into a partisan army as part of the 35 regiments. They occupied Nikolaevsk. On January 5 (now 19) in the village of Lychee, at the council of commanders, it was decided to convert the partisan rebel army into the regular Red Army.

In general, this coincides with other sources. Here it will not be out of place to dwell on some of the details of the trip of the Tryapitsyn detachment to Nikolayevsk, which, it seems to me, are quite remarkable.

So, in the summer of 1919, about thirty people under the command of Tryapitsyn participated in the battles near the railway stations Kruglikovo and Verino.
In the 2 hours of the night of November 10, 1919, a detachment of Tryapitsyn left the village of Vyatka. So began the campaign down the Amur, with the ultimate goal - the liberation of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur. In the village of Malmyzh, a meeting took place with a detachment of Mizin. Although the detachment was called “Mizinsky”, at that time, it was commanded by Oceeville-Pavlutsky. After the punishers burned the village of Sind, the guerrillas re-elected Mizin, and, nevertheless, after the unification of the detachments, he became Deputy Tryapitsyna.

When the guerrillas approached settlements, the Kolchak police usually ran away. Here in the village of Kiselevka there were about a hundred Cossacks and to avoid bloodshed (you see, it is somewhat strange for a “bloody dictator”), Tryapitsyn personally went to negotiate with the ataman, inviting him to surrender the village without a fight, guaranteeing the life and safety of all those who surrendered their weapons. But the Cossacks preferred to flee. Following them was sent a detachment of skiers, which caught up the retreating Cossacks.

23 November 1919, the partisans occupied Sukhanovka and Zimmermanovka. But on November 26, an equestrian group of partisans in the area of ​​the Puls mail machine was ambushed. By intelligence it was established that a detachment of whites reaches 120 bayonets, while the guerrillas already had about 160 people by that time. They began to prepare the defense of Zimmerman: they dug snow trenches, and loopholes in the walls of barns and sheds. Luck was on the red side. With a well-aimed fire, the arrows knocked out the machine-gun calculations of the whites.

Now the partisans advanced to Kalinovka. Having learned about the defeat of the whites, Medvedev, the head of the Nikolaev garrison, mobilized supplies from the population, put soldiers and volunteers from among the local bourgeoisie into them, sent a detachment led by Colonel Vitz to help the white. Vic decided to gain a foothold in the village of Mariinsky, choosing him as the center for the concentration of all the White Guard forces.

Again, in order to avoid bloodshed, Tryapitsyn went to the disposal of the whites for negotiations. The appearance of the commander of the partisan movement had a strong psychological impact on the soldiers. Tryapitsyn gave them letters and Christmas gifts from relatives. On the offer to surrender, the Vic refused, but, realizing that he had fewer forces, he gave the order to retreat to DeKastri Bay, since the way to Nikolayevsk was cut off. However, the order was fulfilled only by a few, the majority rose up and went over to the side of the partisans (!).

Thus, the guerrilla forces reached nearly one and a half thousand fighters. Separate detachments even reduced in two regiments. One began to command Buzin Beach, the other Naumov-Bear. In addition, auxiliary parts were created: communications, supplies, health and transport. The units introduced tough military discipline (I ask you to pay special attention to these words to all those who are trying to portray Tryapitsyn as a kind of "uncontrollable anarchist"). Everywhere where the partisans passed, Soviet power was restored.

In Nikolaevsk, confusion and panic reigned among the White Guards. The head of the garrison Medvedev managed to make a detachment only in 250 people. All the hope of the local bourgeoisie was on the Japanese. Major Ishikawa, who commanded the Japanese troops in the city, decided to meet the partisans on the approaches, but miscalculated. Already by January 20 1920, partisans surrounded Nikolayevsk. In an effort to avoid a vain battle, the command decided to send parliamentarians to the city ... They did not return (I ask you once again to pay special attention to all those who attribute “atrocities and dishonesty” in red), with this the Japanese and the White Guards put themselves outside the law.

Jacob Tryapitsyn: In Memory of a Slandered Red Partisan (Part of 1)
This ashes was the Russian city of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur

Having made sure that the city would not be surrendered without a fight, the partisans, for the beginning, captured the Chnyrrakh fortress, covering Nikolaevsk from the sea, and 29 in February 1920 entered the city. Under pressure from representatives of various consulates, the Japanese remembered the declaration of Lieutenant General Siramizu about the neutrality of the Japanese army (in other words, after the killing of parliamentarians, they managed to declare themselves "neutral", and the bloody red partisans did not touch the scum). Power passed to the Soviets.

What else can you say? - A brilliant military operation with the overgrowth of a small detachment the size of one platoon in this connection. Do not be Tryapitsyn slandered, and therefore - consigned to oblivion, could take a worthy place among the red warlords of the Civil War. And if we talk about the ability to win with "little blood", so most of them he is completely superior. Moreover, from the above, we see that at the slightest opportunity, Tryapitsyn made sure that the Russian did not kill the Russian.

"The massacre", perpetrated by Trypitsyna's partisans in Nikolaevsk

And now we come to the most exciting question about the so-called "massacre." So where did it start? But from what:

On the night of 11 on 12 in March of 1920, the Japanese attacked treacherously (these are the ones who had previously declared themselves "neutral") on the Red Army units. Having surrounded the headquarters, they set fire to the building with rockets and opened rifle and machine-gun fire at it. Across the city fired on the barracks. Tryapitsyn was twice wounded (!) And asked his comrades to shoot himself, but they saved him.

The fighting in the city continued for three days and ended when a group of Japanese and Major Ishikawa burned down in one of the houses of the Japanese millionaire Shimada quarter.

After the victory over the Japanese, life in Nikolaevsk took its course. Tryapitsyn was appointed commander of the Okhotsk front ... The order of appointment (66 No. 22 of April 1920) for such a high position was signed by the Commander-in-Chief of the People’s Revolutionary Army (NRA) Eyhe (Heinrich Christoforovich Eiche - from March 1920 to April, 1921 was the Chief Commander-in-Chief Far Eastern Republic).

In order to restore order in the city, executions began ... of the Japanese and their henchmen (the latter are called by many “the peaceful population”)! And what else would you do with them after a treacherous attack, equivalent to a shot in the back ?! Maybe even pat them on the head? And what right do we have to blame for this Tryapitsyna ?! He already had the full right to destroy them only by entering the city. So there is no, sorry ... As it turned out, to his grief.

Again, it should be noted that, unlike Lazo, whose parts of Vladivostok could not keep, the soldiers of Tryapitsyna, having overcome the confusion, were able to keep Nikolaevsk. And this, in spite of the unexpected attack of the perfidious enemy (I remind you that professional military men consider an unexpected strike as a half of the victory)! Yes honor them (and their commander) and praise !!!

Let me move away a bit from the topic of the article in order to bring some clarity. We are talking about 1920 events of the year. At the end of that year, the Civil War in the European part of Russia is already over, after which, as is known, blood will flow in the Far East for another two years. But, strictly speaking, the war there will not be civil. After all, the main enemies there are the Japanese, who in the history are usually called “interventionists”.

However, on January 16, 1920, the Supreme Council of the Entente decided to lift the blockade from Soviet Russia and withdraw troops from Siberia (and the troops of European countries left this place!). 24 February 1920, the Soviet government proposes to the Japanese side to begin peace negotiations. But the Japanese did not want to leave the Russian lands. Moreover, the most resolute officers dreamed of Baikal, Angara and Irkutsk. Tokyo refused to Moscow under a very ridiculous pretext: the Japanese stated that they "fear for the lives and property of their subjects."

Those. after February 1920, the Japanese, refusing to leave the Far East, moved from the category of “interventionists” to the category of the most genuine foreign invaders! In addition, unlike their Western "colleagues", the subjects of the Land of the Rising Sun were initially ready to fight not only with the bayonets and sabers of Kolchak and Semenov, who were supported, but also themselves, feeling a clear benefit.

Writer Nikolai Starikov, who calls himself a "historian", in his books on the October Revolution, frankly praises the Japanese for such readiness. Like, they performed the "allied duty" to the whites and fought with the Soviets for real.

Great delusions and hard to imagine! First, they didn’t care about “allied duty”, they fought for their interests (in other words, for seizing new lands). Secondly, the same Semyonov was not an “ally”, but a real weep of the Japanese, kissing their butt!

That way you can again agree to the point that the vile traitor and the most insignificant slug General Vlasov wanted to “liberate Russia from Stalinism”, and an honest Russian officer, Colonel Yury Budanov, who saved hundreds of soldiers' lives, killed the “innocent” such girl Elsa Kungaeva (sniper, only God knows how many Russian guys put this thing!).

I am silent about the atrocities of the Japanese and Semenov Cossacks. Compared to them, the usual executions (without torture!) In Nikolaevsk - a childish prank. In general, I'm sorry for such a vast retreat, but it was necessary to understand that Tryapitsyn did the right thing. He could not do otherwise!

Alas, the red “island” in Nikolaevsk could not survive for a long time when it was opposed by the regular Japanese army and navy. The Japanese, having defeated the revolutionary armed forces in Primorye and Khabarovsk, were preparing to send gunboats and cruisers to Nikolayevsk with the start of navigation. In addition, the landing force was landed on Sakhalin and in De-Kastri. The city began to prepare for defense.

On the northern fairway of the estuary, the red flooded barges, loaded with stones, about with. Sophia put underwater mines, and in the mouth of Amgun near the Tyrsky cliff - batteries. But, realizing that the city could not be held, on April 10 of the year 1920 decided to evacuate to the settlement of Kirby (now the settlement named after Polina Osipenko) five hundred kilometers from Nikolaevsk, deep into the taiga. 30 May 1920 The evacuation of the city was completed and Nikolaevsk flamed on the night of 1 June.

And here again begin the accusations Tryapitsyna. Like, why did the city burn? And what, it was better to leave the enemy ?! They also accuse the red military leader of the fact that all those arrested who were in Nikolayevsk prisons were put to death. I will clarify that those arrested for writing a petition addressed to the emperor of Japan with a request to send troops to the Lower Amur in order to “liberate” it from Soviet power (and, accordingly, the tradition of Japanese power). Those. it was necessary to leave them alone, so that the Japanese would free their lackeys, and they would replenish the already numerous forces of counter-revolution, so what ?!

The civilian population and the wounded were brought to Kirby by steamboats. The Red Army fighters walked all the way. Exhausted to the limit, only on 21 day did the people reach the Amguni River near Krasny Yar, at the Herpuchinsky mines. Tryapitsyn with cavalrymen went to Blagoveshchensk for food, having preliminarily organized defense, having deployed troops with barrage detachments.

In general, the organization of the retreat Tryapitsyn also coped. I think the military people will not let me lie, to retreat, while maintaining discipline, so that it does not turn into a random flight, is not an easy task. A heavier offensive will be! Our hero did not leave peaceful people to the brutal Japanese.

Alas, this retreat was his last operation. In the army Tryapitsyna matured insurgency.
Articles from this series:
Jacob Tryapitsyn: In Memory of a Slandered Red Partisan (Part of 1)
Jacob Tryapitsyn: In Memory of a Slandered Red Partisan (Part of 2)
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  1. Karpv
    Karpv 20 January 2014 10: 01
    Thanks, informative. I never read about this person.
  2. user
    user 20 January 2014 10: 36
    In principle, informative, except that the author, in passing, excuse all the other characters, as if in between times. After such "Historians" there are many questions such as Tukhachevsky who suffered innocently or little Napoleon who was preparing to seize power.
    1. dmb
      dmb 20 January 2014 15: 17
      Do you have a ready, reasoned answer to this question? Lucky man, apparently you are one of those deep analysts who "drop by drop of water, can conclude that the ocean exists." I do not quote the authors of the quotation, because based on the above, you yourself have to guess. But we, less sophisticated fellow citizens, would like more weighty arguments. Well, there: a plan to seize the Kremlin, a list of positions with names in the new government, a program of action after the seizure of power, etc. I have not read the programs, even in the testimony of the "conspirators". Judging by them, she did not interrogate much and was interested.
      1. creak
        creak 20 January 2014 15: 30
        She didn’t interest them because she probably knew how things really were with this program and in the depths of what structure they could have composed ... Big fanciers were imaginative in this part ...
  3. Black
    Black 20 January 2014 15: 20
    Well, just an epic hero !!!!!!
    And the imposition of “social justice” coupled with “terror against the bourgeoisie and its agents”, robbery, rape - according to the decree on “socialization”, the elimination of “reptiles and parasites” - without hiding, the execution of all those arrested (by itself without any trial) - is that how ???? The terror was arranged in full! The gender of the city is the enemy of Russia, or power ??? Burned city .... The author asks us, but what ?? - should we leave it to the Japanese ?? Dear, you were born too late. You should go there !!!
    HORROR !!!!
  4. Black
    Black 20 January 2014 15: 27
    In my opinion, the most truthful evidence of what happened back in 1920 can be found in
    Ech V. The disappeared city (The tragedy of Nikolaevsk on the Amur). Vladivostok, 1920.
  5. Black
    Black 20 January 2014 15: 32
    The inhabitants were overwhelmed by horror. Everyone had only one thought - to leave, by all means, the city.
    On May 24, Japanese prisoners were killed with bayonets and axes. Soldiers who were not afraid of death asked them to be shot, and not to stab, they were refused. Their corpses were thrown into Cupid.
    The same evening, the Russians imprisoned were also killed. The moans, the cries of the wounded, drowned out by shots, intertwined with the atrocious cries of partisans, intoxicated by blood came from the dungeon. People living nearby ran in horror from the prison yard.
    On May 28, general extermination of the remaining residents began. The arrested were brought to the investigating commission, their hands were tied there and they were left to wait for the "composition of the party." After the party reached 20-30 people, it was taken away on a boat, which delivered the people bound to the middle of the Amur, and here, having hit with a mallet on the head, they unconsciously dumped those arrested into the river. Partisan Silin invented this method of murder.
    On May 28, the Reds began to exterminate by fire the fishing villages opposite Niko-laevsk, and on May 29 the urban real estate.
    On May 31, the whole city was represented by a sea of ​​fire. The crackling of a burning tree was heard over 8 km, and smoke darkness hung in the area of ​​the city for 3 days.
    Residents who did not have time to escape, fleeing the fire, crowded on the marinas, not suspecting that they were mined with a large amount of explosives. The partisans invented this savagery to enjoy the result of the explosion.
    Now the executioners, not bound by any formalities, walked the streets, among fires, and killed everyone who was still alive.
    On June 1, partisans, laden with the loot, left what was left of the city.

    ..... so that....
    1. alicante11
      alicante11 21 January 2014 08: 23
      Dear, and you did not think that, judging by the output. Vladivostok 1920 - the book was written by the White Guards and what could be propaganda there? I have not yet made an opinion about this situation. To my shame, I do not know in detail the activities of this person, although he was born in Nikolaevsk.
      In addition, I have doubts that Nikolaevsk was completely burned. Because he saw with his own eyes the buildings built before the revolution. For example - a city hospital or, what was the first on the Web - an orphanage No. 25 (1 floor). Of course, they are brick, but for that matter, they could have been blown up.
      In general, I will wait to draw conclusions ...
      1. Malofeeva
        Malofeeva 8 August 2014 11: 51
        In addition to Eich, Matveyev-Amursky (a well-known Far Eastern publicist, grandfather of the Soviet poetess Novella Matveyeva), Kuprin, Gutman, Lovich wrote about this at the same time. Lowicz also published the testimony of a forensic investigator from Nikolaevsk Konstantin Yemelyanov under the title "People in Hell."

        And this is for a modern author:

        "Entering Nikolaevsk after the Japanese, representatives of the Russian Red Cross mission found over 6000 unburied corpses. \\\\\ D. Slavinsky Nikolaev days: ["Red Terror" in Nikolaevsk-on-Amur during the Civil War of 1917-1922. and Japanese intervention] / D. Slavinsky // New time. - 2003-№ 25. - S. 36-40.
        That is, the official organization officially recorded the number of unburied corpses (those that the river carried away did not fall into the calculation)

        The orphanage - the former building of a real school - is one of the few surviving buildings. Here's what it looked like after leaving the city of Tryapitsyn. And what the city looked like.
  6. Sergei 163
    Sergei 163 20 January 2014 18: 11
    Our Civil War in general represents atrocities from all sides. And to assess the psychology of the people of that time (red, white, green and invaders), we are not given. The social split was enormous and people dealt with their opponents with great ferocity. Read "Iron Stream" and try to evaluate the actions of red and white. Who is good and who is bad? There were no such people at that time!
  7. Black
    Black 20 January 2014 22: 41
    Quote: Sergey 163
    And to assess the psychology of the people of that time (red, white, green and interventionists), we have not been given.

    There was a lot of blood and meanness was unmeasured.
    But over the years, out of meanness and brutality, "revolutionary necessity", or, on the contrary - "anti-revolutionary" is not a trace.
  8. nightingale
    nightingale 23 January 2014 02: 20
    Of the entire detachment of Reds, there were at most 50 people, the rest of the former White Guards passing to one side or the other, depending on the circumstances. Rastrels were led by the Reds and the rabble performed with excessive zeal and "did not forget themselves" and with the same zeal took part in the punitive operations of the Whites. they would only have to plunder and they did not want to fight and forced their commander to retreat. In civilian life, the red and white reinforced used the declared element for their own purposes, but the Bolsheviks emerged victorious, who shot no less of their fighters than they died in battles.
  9. dudalma
    dudalma 5 July 2014 18: 53
    They began to glorify the bandits, well, come on, you think nobody remembers anything and doesn’t know anything, only rely on archives, well, well. But Lebedeva was not just a boorish woman, but, touched by the mind, she ordered her head to be chopped off by an innocent pregnant woman. You gentlemen do not know anything.
  10. Malofeeva
    Malofeeva 8 August 2014 12: 01
    Quote: alicante11
    To my shame, I do not know in detail the activities of this person, although he was born in Nikolaevsk.
    In addition, I have doubts that Nikolaevsk was completely burned. Because he saw with his own eyes the buildings built before the revolution. For example - a city hospital or, what was the first on the Web - an orphanage No. 25 (1 floor). Of course, they are brick, but for that matter, they could have been blown up.
    In general, I will wait to draw conclusions ...

    Just a list of what the city lost at the mouth of the Amur as a result of the Tryapitsyn action - the list was compiled and published by the director of the Nikolaev Museum of Local Lore, Yuzefov, in the book "Years and Friends of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur"
    This list does not include military installations that were also destroyed on May 30 - June 3, 1920, - Nikolaev Fortress, military port, military telephone and telegraph stations, headquarters of the fortress, quartermaster, barracks, officer meeting, and much more. In addition, this list did not include 35 buildings (according to some sources this figure was 22, according to others - 33) residential and office buildings burned down on both sides during the liquidation of the Japanese speech on March 12-17, 1920 (Nebel’s house, Shimadya quarter , Japanese consulate, etc.).

    It includes only those buildings and objects that survived until the destruction of the city - industrial, office and educational buildings, residential buildings, etc.
    The above list combines the destroyed buildings and objects according to their purpose, and not their accessories — for example, the port hospital is assigned to the section “Medical institutions”, and the port telephone station is assigned to the section “Communication”, etc. The same institutions that did not have of their buildings, and were rented or located in administrative or public buildings of the city (educational and medical institutions, various societies, committees, circles, presence, sections, agencies, bureaus, etc.) are not included in the list of destroyed buildings, although they themselves ty institutions and society as well have disappeared with the destruction of the city.
    Representatives and offices in Nikolaevsk of fish and gold miners and their companies are not included in this list, because they were located either in rented buildings or in the same houses where these industrialists lived.
    So here we go ...

    List of administrative, service, industrial and residential buildings of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur, burned and blown up by order of the Tryapitsynsky military headquarters May 30 — June 3, 1920

    I. Government, administrative, law enforcement, cooperative and other service buildings

    1. The residence and office of the Sakhalin governor are burned.

    2. City Council and city government (two-story wooden building) - burned.

    3. The district court and the prosecutor's office (two-story brick building) - blown up.

    4. City county police department - burned.

    5. County military presence - burned.

    6. Office of the Primorsky mountain district - burned.

    7. Office of the resettlement organization - burned.

    8. Office of the Union of Ust-Amur Cooperatives - burned.

    9. The office of the Central Union - burned.

    10. The office of Zakupsbyt was burned.

    11. Office of the Sakhalin Regional Zemstvo Administration - burned.

    12. Forestry - burned.

    13. Fish surveillance - burned.

    14. Customs - burned.

    15. Veterinary station - burned.

    16. The Chinese Consulate - burned.
  11. Malofeeva
    Malofeeva 8 August 2014 12: 04
    continuation of the list of destroyed buildings of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur:

    II. Credit and financial institutions

    1. The State Treasury (the first brick building in the city) - blown up.

    2. City Bank - burned.

    3. Management of the Mutual Credit Society - burned.

    4. Branch of the State Bank - burned.

    5. Branch of the Siberian Bank - burned.

    6. Branch of the Russian-Asian Bank - burned.

    7. Branch of the Moscow People's Bank - burned.

    State savings banks (2 units) - burned.

    9. State gold-smelting laboratory - burned.

    10. Gold-smelting laboratory of the Russian-Asian Bank - blown up.

    III. Public education institutions

    1. The real school is blown up.

    2. Women's gymnasium - burned.

    3. High school - burned.

    4. City Women's College - burned.

    5. Primary school named after N.V. Gogol - burned.

    6. Pyankov National School - burned.

    7. Parish school - burned.

    8. The orphanage is burned.

    IV. Cultural institutions

    1. Cinema "Modern" - burned.

    2. Cinema "Progress" - burned.

    Z. Kuznetsov bookstore - burned.

    4. The printing house and the editorial board of the newspaper "East Pomerania" - burned.

    5. The Shtykhman printing house was burned.

    6. Public meeting - burned.

    7. The people's house - burned.

    8. City public library - burned.

    9. A free reading library at the Society for the Promotion of Public Education is burned.

    10. Interest societies having their own separate buildings (6 units) are burned.

    11. Photos (XNUMX units) - burned.

    V. Medical facilities

    1. City hospital - burned.

    2. Civil (county) hospital - burned.

    Z. The tuberculosis league hospital is burned.

    4. City pharmacy - burned.

    5. Pharmacy "TD Kunst and Albers" - burned.

    6. Pharmacy Demyanenko - burned.

    7. Seaport hospital (two-story wooden building) - burned.

    8. City almshouse (nursing home) - burned.

    VI. Household service

    1. Hotel Kuznetsovs - burned.

    2. The "numbers" of the Kuznetsovs were burned.

    Z. Inns (XNUMX units) - burned.

    4. Baths (7 units) - burned

    5. Hairdressing salons (4 units) - burned.

    6. Laundries (16 units) - burned.

    VII. Catering

    1. Restaurant - burnt

    2. Cafe "Modern" - burned.

    Z. Cafe - burned.

    4. Restaurants (2 units) - burned.

    5. Beer shops (15 units) - burned.

    6. Dining room of the Society of sobriety - burned.

    Viii. Trade

    Universal, industrial and food stores (among them two-story department stores of the Kunst and Albers, P. Simada and others. 40 units in total) were burned.

    IX. Places of worship

    1. Unfinished City-Seaside Cathedral - blown up.

    2. The church at the cemetery - burned.

    Z. Jewish synagogue - burned.

    4. The house of worship of evangelical Christians - burned.

    5. Old Believer chapels (2 units) - burned.

    6. Buddhist idol - burned.
  12. Malofeeva
    Malofeeva 8 August 2014 12: 10
    continuation of the list of burned buildings of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur:

    H. Housing stock of Nikolaevsk

    As of January 1920, 2107, out of 1200 buildings in the city, 1179 buildings were residential (17 - wooden, 4 - stone and XNUMX half-stone), owned by separate government departments (seaport, gold alloy, radio station, etc.), trading and industrial firms and mainly to individuals.

    At the time of the destruction of the city (May 30, 1920), there were 1165 residential buildings in it. Of course, not all houses on this list were equivalent. It is enough to compare the two-story residential building of the fishery man Lurie with his boiler room, water heating and water supply with some dilapidated hut of a resident of the “Chinese settlement” to see the enormous difference between them. However, both houses were average units and were included in the general register of city housing stock. Although it should be noted that the vast majority of residential buildings in Nikolaevsk of those years consisted of solid one-story wooden chopped houses with stove heating, designed for a family of 5 to 10 people.

    Of 1165 residential buildings of various types, 21 buildings (stone and semi-stone) were blown up, 1109 wooden houses were burned, that is, 1130 residential buildings were destroyed, which is almost 97% of the total housing stock in Nikolaevsk.

    XI. Household facilities in Nikolaevsk

    A. Metal processing:

    1. Mechanical workshops of the seaport with workshops - mechanical, locksmith, turning, foundry, blacksmithing, etc. (a brick building with a total area of ​​911 m is blown up.

    2. A mechanical workshop (according to the documents it is listed as a mechanical plant) P.N. Simads with workshops - mechanical, turning, foundry, blacksmithing, etc. - were blown up.

    3. The mechanical workshop (factory) of Sukhodolsky and Fedulin, similar to the Simada plant, was blown up.

    4. Steam forge Ogienko - blown up.

    5. Handicraft and craft workshops (mechanical, blacksmithing, locksmith, weapons, tin, etc. 27 units in total) were burned.

    B. Wood processing:

    1. Rubinstein's sawmill, barrel and woodworking plant - blown up and burned.

    2. Filippov's steam sawmill - blown up and burned.

    3. Steam sawmill br. Bermant - blown up and burned.

    4. Cooper workshop Delnova - burned.

    5. Cooper workshop Shiryaeva - burned.

    6. Carpentry workshop seaport - burned.

    7. Carpentry workshop seaport - burned.

    8. Small cooperage workshops (13 units) - burned.

    9. Joiner-boat workshops (14 units) - burned.

    B. Brick making:

    1. Brick factory Grigorenko - blown up and burned.

    2. Vavilov brick factory - blown up and burned.

    3. Brick factory “Ilyina and K - blown up and burned.

    D. Breweries and soap factories (4 units) were burned.
  13. Malofeeva
    Malofeeva 8 August 2014 12: 15
    continuation of the list of destroyed buildings of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur:

    D. Transportation:

    1. Seaport:

    a) service buildings (among them 2 wooden two-story buildings of the port and port operations department. A total of 10 units) - were burned;

    b) hydraulic structures (3 units - a sea pier on a jetty, pile piers on a jetty and m. Koshka with a total area of ​​550 m2 - are blown up and burned;

    c) storage facilities (4 units) - burned

    d) watercraft (among them the Langr and Lazarev towing boats, 2 floating cranes of 35 and 80 tons, etc. A total of 30 units) are blown up and flooded

    e) the diving station with its premises, property and diving motor boat is blown up and burned;

    f) the pilot part with the weather station is blown up and burned.

    2. Amur Shipping Company:

    a) the office of the Amur Shipping Company was burned.

    3. River wharves and storage facilities owned by departments, trading companies and private individuals:

    a) 9 warehouses of private individuals - burned;

    b) the pier of the Amur Society of Shipping and Trade with 5 warehouses - blown up and burned;

    c) Alekseev’s marina with 2 warehouses blown up and burned;

    d) city pier - burned;

    e) Marina Churin with one warehouse - blown up;

    f) marina of the maritime department - blown up;

    g) the marina of TD Kunst and Albers was burned.

    4. Agencies and offices of the Far Eastern and foreign shipping companies having their own buildings (4 units) are burned.

    E. Energetics of Nikolaevsk:

    1. City power station (brick 1, 5-storey building) - blown up.

    2. Power plant seaport (brick building) - blown up.

    3. The power grid (several hundred pillars) - burned.

    G. Communication:

    1. The main post office (mail and telegraph) - burned.

    2. Telegraph station - burned.

    3. City telephone exchange - burned.

    4. Telephone station of the seaport - burned.

    5. Radio telegraph station (radio station) - blown up and burned.

    6. Telephone and telegraph lines (city and seaports) - burned.

    Z. Municipal economy:

    1. Sidewalks, bridges, level crossings, fences (several hundred kilometers) - burned

    2. Street lighting (approximately 300 poles) - burned.

    3. The city sewage cart (horses) is requisitioned: the summer and winter sewage carts are burnt.

    I. Fire Protection:

    1. The building of the city fire brigade with a hookah - burned.

    2. Fire convoy (horses) requisitioned; summer and winter fire trucks, fire boilers, pumps, hoses, etc. - burned

    3. Truck fire truck - burned.

    4. Fire building of the seaport - burned.

    5. Fire convoy of the seaport (horse) - requisitioned; Wagon train and property - burned.

    6. Seaport truck fire truck - burned.

    7. The motor boat of the seaport with fire accessories (motor pumps, hydraulic console, etc.) is blown up and flooded.
  14. Malofeeva
    Malofeeva 8 August 2014 12: 18
    continuation of the list destroyed in Nikolaevsk and its environs:

    List of villages, mines, fisheries, industrial facilities adjacent to Nikolaevsk and completely or partially destroyed by order of the Nikolaev military headquarters

    1. Villages: Sergeevskoye, Kamenskoye, Half, Red, Maly Amurchik, Vlasyevo, Zubarevskaya Pad, Konstantinovka, Sakharovka, Innokentyevka, Kakhtinsky Bay, Rozhdestvensky, Pokrovsky.

    2. Urban fishing and saline sites (about 50).

    H. Fisheries: Cape Maly Chkhil, Cape Bolshoi Chil, Chardbach, Tneivakh, Oremif, Ozerpakh, Petah, Puir, Vasse.

    4. Gold mines: Alexander, Grace, Pokrovsky, Sretensky.

    5. Residence Chlya. A power plant was burned and two dredges were blown up - steam and electric.

    So this mournful list of buildings and objects that were once in this city and area came to an end.

    After three months of the rule of the Red Partisans (since March 1920), only “a continuous pile of stone, iron, logs and wire” remained from the city.

    “I will leave a pool of blood and a pile of ash instead of the city,” the head of the red partisans operating on the Amur, proudly declared, “comrade Tryapitsyn, ”and fully realized his threat.

    In wooden houses, both residential and office, cans and cans of kerosene were imported. Moreover, under pain of execution, the residents had to keep them like the apple of an eye.
    On the same days (May 20–27, 1920) artillery gunpowder, shells and land mines were delivered to the stone buildings of the city, which were supposed to wait in the wings - a kind of “ICS hour”.

    By the time of leaving the city (May 29), the military headquarters had created a kind of "sonderkommandy" - a group of arsonists and bombers, who on May 30 started their dirty business. Tryapitsyn did not conceal the fact of the destruction of the old city, and before leaving for the taiga in his radiogram sent at noon on June 1, he informed the whole world about it:

    "We leave the city and the fortress, blow up the radio station and leave for the taiga. The entire population of the city and the district was evacuated. Villages along the coast of the sea and in the lower reaches of the Amur have been burned. The city and the fortress were destroyed to the ground, large buildings were blown up. Everything that could not be evacuated and that could be used by the Japanese, we destroyed and burned. In the place of the city and the fortress there were only smoking ruins, and our enemy, having come here, will find only piles of ash ..."
  15. Malofeeva
    Malofeeva 8 August 2014 12: 26
    Quote: alicante11

    In addition, I have doubts that Nikolaevsk was completely burned. Because he saw with his own eyes the buildings built before the revolution. For example - a city hospital or, what was the first on the Web - an orphanage No. 25 (1 floor). Of course, they are brick, but for that matter, they could have been blown up.
    In general, I will wait to draw conclusions ...

    photo of a real school (after its restoration, an orphanage No. 25 was located in this building) how it was preserved after leaving the city with rags:
  16. Malofeeva
    Malofeeva 8 August 2014 12: 52
    The author of the article writes:
    In order to restore order in the city, executions really began ... of the Japanese and their henchmen (the latter are called by many authors "civilians")! And what else do you want to do with them after a treacherous attack, equivalent to a shot in the back ?! Maybe pat them on the head ?! And what right do we have to blame Tryapitsyna for this ?! He already had every right to destroy them, only entering the city. So no, regretted ..

    What right did he have to destroy the population, if at the entrance to the city he promised ANYTHING (neither white, nor rich, nor Japanese, TOUCH - see negotiations) After all, it was a question of creating a buffer republic (i.e., a bourgeois) and, on this basis, the Japanese the rags were allowed into the city.
    And why was it necessary to destroy Japanese women, old people and children?

    In the collection of INFORMATION-ANALYTICAL BULLETIN No. 34 of the Deputy Group for Relations with the Parliament of Japan, there was an article by Dmitry Slavinsky "Nikolaev days: [" Red Terror "in Nikolaevsk-on-Amur during the Civil War of 1917-1922 and Japanese intervention]" / D. Slavinsky // New time. - 2003-№ 25. - S. 36-40.

    I want to quote her:
    "From the very first days of the partisans' stay in the city, robberies, mass arrests of White Guards, wealthy citizens and intellectuals began. The prison of the city turned out to be overcrowded. At the same time, there were a lot of ordinary inhabitants and small fishermen among those arrested. All white soldiers and officers were universally declared enemies of the people: Tryapitsyn began to take them out of prison and shoot them.As a result, many civilians, and not only the White Guards, were forced to take refuge under the protection of Japanese bayonets.

    Tryapitsyn understood that only the Japanese could prevent him from becoming the absolute master in the city. Therefore, on March 10, he presented them with an ultimatum, which ordered the Japanese garrison to voluntarily disarm and surrender weapons to the partisan headquarters. The reds gave the Japanese a two-day period for the execution of the ultimatum, ending at 12 a.m. on March 12.

    On March 11, several Japanese officers, led by Major Ishikawa, went to Tryapitsyn to try to resolve the conflict by peaceful means. However, Tryapitsyn repeated to the major his demand for the surrender of weapons. Ishikawa categorically stated that there could be no question of accepting the proposal for disarmament, for such a course of action was incompatible with the high rank of soldier and officer of the Japanese army. The Japanese command was left with one thing:
    make one last attempt to save his position, and if that fails, then die with honor. "

    It was only after this that the Japanese attacked.
  17. Malofeeva
    Malofeeva 8 August 2014 12: 55
    The author of the article writes:
    In order to restore order in the city, executions really began ... of the Japanese and their henchmen (the latter are called by many authors "civilians")! And what else do you want to do with them after a treacherous attack, equivalent to a shot in the back ?! Maybe pat them on the head ?! And what right do we have to blame Tryapitsyna for this ?! He already had every right to destroy them, only entering the city. So no, regretted ..

    And now about the executions among the "minions":
    On the night of March 13, Japanese women with children imprisoned on the morning of March 12 were taken ashore to the Amur and brutally killed there. As eyewitnesses to this tragedy later told, their corpses were thrown into a snow pit. Some children, especially young children under 3 years old, were thrown into the pit alive. After finishing the consulate, the partisans on March 15 switched to the barracks, where the remaining Japanese soldiers were. However, the next day, from the Japanese General Staff in Khabarovsk, a command came by radio to the local Japanese command: “Stop the fight you don't need. Between Japanese and Russian troops established peaceful relations.
    Signature: Commander of the Japanese Forces Yamada, Commander of the Russian Forces Bulgakov, Japanese Consul H. Sugino, Commissar for Foreign Affairs I. Geitsman
    Obeying the order of his command, the 110 Japanese disarmed survivors at 12 noon on March 16 with a white flag left the barracks, leading 17 more wounded Japanese.

    Tryapitsyn, reporting to the Khabarovsk headquarters on the destruction of the Japanese detachment and the Japanese consulate, hid from the Soviet military authorities about the ultimatum on the surrender of weapons that he put forward to the Japanese to hide his bloody traces.
    On the basis of Tryapitsyn's version, a note was drawn up from the People's Commissariat of the RSFSR to the Japanese government on March 22, 1920 "(from Dmitry Slavinsky's article" Nikolaev days: ["Red Terror" in Nikolayevsk-on-Amur during the Civil War of 1917-1922 and the Japanese intervention] "/ D. Slavinsky // New time. - 2003-№ 25. - P. 36-40.)