Immediately I will clarify that I came across it (the article) a couple of days ago quite by accident. This is to avoid stupid questions in the spirit, they say, what have you been waiting for two years.
In general, I liked the work of Gordeeva, but one inaccuracy caught my eye. And, unfortunately, the inaccuracy is blatant. Here she is:
- In the 1920 year after the occupation of the Red Army units of Vladivostok, his former allies, the anarchists Nina Lebedeva and Jacob Tryapitsyn, actively intervene in the affairs of Lazo. These figures are very vividly described by contemporaries. Nina Lebedeva differed bad temper, rude habits with a criminal bias, as well as rudeness and pronounced stupidity. Contrary to the opinion of the young commander, they declare Vladivostok a Soviet Republic and begin to terrorize the local population. The criminalization of the decayed parts of the Trans-Baikal Army reaches its apogee. Most of the Red Army men are gangsters who are openly engaged in robbery, murder and violence, Gorelova writes.
- Sergey Georgievich made the main mistake - he allowed the anarchists to lead the frantic crowd, which the once valiant soldiers of the Red Army had become. In addition, his short-sighted behavior on the eve of his arrest played a role. An entire regiment of Japanese soldiers was massacred in Nikolayevsk. Lazo, most likely, understood that in the near future, the local population, or interventionists based in the city, which were significantly superior to the Bolsheviks in number, would be forced to take retaliatory actions. However, he did not take care of his elementary security, and this determined the course of further events.
Meanwhile, it is necessary to clearly understand that Lazo at that moment was in Vladivostok, and Tryapitsyn with his faithful fighting friend Nina Lebedeva-Kiyashko in Nikolaevsk-on-Amur. In other words, “the former anarchist allies”, as the author calls them, could not annoy Lazo, if only because they were located 1732 km away from him.
However, I'm sorry, I'm running ahead. My goal in no way is to brand Elena Gordeeva, therefore I will not touch her article anymore. But, since she was talking about such a person as Jacob Tryapitsyn, and he was, frankly speaking, not in the best shape, he considered it his duty to write about his true role in the partisan movement in the Far East.
What for? First, so that readers do not have a distorted understanding of our great stories. Secondly, in order to simply remove the bright name of the glorious partisan from slander.
It is very important to note here that they have watered the mud of Tryapitsyna for several decades. In Soviet times, the label "trypitsynets" in the Far East meant about the same as "Makhnovist".
About the early years (strictly speaking, before the “late” Tryapitsyn did not live, on the day of the execution he was only 23 year) the formation of our hero is known very little. Moreover, the information contained in different sources is often contradictory.
Here is what, for example, the well-known and, unfortunately, already deceased (died in 2008) historian and writer Viktor G. Smolyak writes in his book “Civil strife. In the footsteps of the Lower Amur tragedy ":
- Yakov Ivanovich Tryapitsyn. Born in April 1897, in the family of a prosperous peasant in the village of Seveostevka, Murom district of the Vladimir region. He graduated from the four-year rural school with a meritorious certificate. Until 1915, he was engaged in peasant labor. In the same year, he joined the Mordovshchik shipyard as an assistant driver in the locomotive depot of in-plant transport.
In 1916, he volunteered for military service. He served in the lifeguard of the Kexholm regiment in St. Petersburg. He took part in the hostilities of the First World War. For personal bravery rewarded with St. George's Cross. As part of the regiment took part in the storming of the Winter Palace.
In the spring of 1918, after demobilization, he left for the Far East in Vladivostok, where his sister lived. He worked as a loader in the port. Participated in the seizure of the Japanese car with weaponsafter which he fell to the partisans of Suchan (the name of the river). Because of the conflict with S. Lazo went into a partisan detachment under Grodekovo. In one of the battles, the detachment was defeated by Japanese punishers, and Tryapitsyn, with several partisans, departed 1919 in July under Khabarovsk. He commanded a small partisan detachment near the station Korfovskaya.
What is somewhat different is that in the early years of the partisan he wrote in A.N. Fufigin in the article "Jacob Tryapitsyn and Ivan Andreev - the victim and the executioner?":
- Yakov Ivanovich Tryapitsyn was born in April 1897 of the year in the village of Sevostyevka of the Murom district of the Vladimir province in the family of a peasant Ivan Stepanovich Sidorov-Tryapitsyn. Besides him in the village were two sisters, he was the third child. He studied at the 4-year rural school, graduated from it with a meritorious certificate. In 1915, he joined the Mordovshchik shipyard, located in the 12 version from the village. He worked as an assistant driver on a train in the locomotive depot of in-plant transport. LAT 1916 of the year was called up for military service and enlisted in the Life Guard in the capital Kexholm regiment. Jacob corresponded with his older sister, who moved to Moscow. Her brother informed her that the regiment had gone over to the side of the revolutionary workers. Soon he wrote from the army in the spring, and in the spring of 1918, he drove by to visit his sister in Moscow, and then in the village to his parents. He was awarded the St. George's Cross, but did not boast about his merits. He left the cross and the ribbon to his sister, who kept the ribbon for a long time, and gave the cross to someone. He spent all summer in Sevevoivka, helping his father at the hay, Rural life did not satisfy him, he once told his father: "No, you, father, traveled, and you have a family, now I will go ..." Siberia. In winter, 1918 of the year went to Omsk to a fellow villager and, on leaving, said: “I will go to fight for Soviet power” (as a fellow villager wrote in a letter to his sister).
He was arrested in Irkutsk by whites, escaped from prison. He arrived in Primorye and for a short time was a simple fighter in the detachment G.M. Shevchenko. Due to disagreements over the partisan movement at the head of a small detachment, he first moved to the Iman area, and then to the Khabarovsk district.
So here is not much. At the same time, I must say that Smolyak and Fufygin still write in sufficient detail about the early years of the life of Tryapitsyn. The rest - and even less.
It is noteworthy that in the Khabarovsk Express newspaper and on the website of the city of Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinsky, the year of the birth of our hero is called 1898. For some reason, from the son of a peasant in the Vladimir province, he became the son of a “artisan-tanner from the Great Ustyug”, i.e. city, located in a completely different province - Vologda.
In contrast to Fufygin, periodicals tend to agree with Smolyak, emphasizing that Tryapitsyn entered the service voluntarily, and not “was called up.” In addition, they write not about one thing, but about two crosses of St. George and that the future red partisan was promoted to ensign. Ie, I received the first officer rank corresponding to the rank of junior lieutenant in the modern Russian army (here I will continue to call our army specifically RUSSIAN, and not “Russian”).
There is a mention that already joining the ranks of the Red Guard (then not yet the army) after the October Revolution, Tryapitsyn took part in the suppression of the counter-revolutionary revolt in Samara.
Frankly, such a paucity of information about him should not be surprised who might be interested in the modest son of a peasant from the Vladimir province? And if we take into account the fact that later our hero will be slandered and never recognized by the Soviet government, for which he shed blood, then everything falls into place.
But even judging by these scanty data, it can be concluded that we are a man of courageous, resolute, not afraid of responsibility and not without organizational skills, which confirms his further life path.
Hike to Nikolaevsk
Fortunately, more is known about Tryapitsyn’s activity as a partisan commander.
Fufygin describes this short, but glorious period of his life:
- In November, at a meeting of representatives of partisan detachments in the village of Anastasyevka, Khabarovsk district, it was decided to strengthen the partisan movement in the Lower Amur. On November 1919, from the village of Vyatka, the famous trip of the Tryapitsyn detachment in the number of 10 people to Nikolayevsk began. During this raid, the detachment grew into a partisan army as part of the 35 regiments. They occupied Nikolaevsk. On January 5 (now 19) in the village of Lychee, at the council of commanders, it was decided to convert the partisan rebel army into the regular Red Army.
In general, this coincides with other sources. Here it will not be out of place to dwell on some of the details of the trip of the Tryapitsyn detachment to Nikolayevsk, which, it seems to me, are quite remarkable.
So, in the summer of 1919, about thirty people under the command of Tryapitsyn participated in the battles near the railway stations Kruglikovo and Verino.
In the 2 hours of the night of November 10, 1919, a detachment of Tryapitsyn left the village of Vyatka. So began the campaign down the Amur, with the ultimate goal - the liberation of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur. In the village of Malmyzh, a meeting took place with a detachment of Mizin. Although the detachment was called “Mizinsky”, at that time, it was commanded by Oceeville-Pavlutsky. After the punishers burned the village of Sind, the guerrillas re-elected Mizin, and, nevertheless, after the unification of the detachments, he became Deputy Tryapitsyna.
When the guerrillas approached settlements, the Kolchak police usually ran away. Here in the village of Kiselevka there were about a hundred Cossacks and to avoid bloodshed (you see, it is somewhat strange for a “bloody dictator”), Tryapitsyn personally went to negotiate with the ataman, inviting him to surrender the village without a fight, guaranteeing the life and safety of all those who surrendered their weapons. But the Cossacks preferred to flee. Following them was sent a detachment of skiers, which caught up the retreating Cossacks.
23 November 1919, the partisans occupied Sukhanovka and Zimmermanovka. But on November 26, an equestrian group of partisans in the area of the Puls mail machine was ambushed. By intelligence it was established that a detachment of whites reaches 120 bayonets, while the guerrillas already had about 160 people by that time. They began to prepare the defense of Zimmerman: they dug snow trenches, and loopholes in the walls of barns and sheds. Luck was on the red side. With a well-aimed fire, the arrows knocked out the machine-gun calculations of the whites.
Now the partisans advanced to Kalinovka. Having learned about the defeat of the whites, Medvedev, the head of the Nikolaev garrison, mobilized supplies from the population, put soldiers and volunteers from among the local bourgeoisie into them, sent a detachment led by Colonel Vitz to help the white. Vic decided to gain a foothold in the village of Mariinsky, choosing him as the center for the concentration of all the White Guard forces.
Again, in order to avoid bloodshed, Tryapitsyn went to the disposal of the whites for negotiations. The appearance of the commander of the partisan movement had a strong psychological impact on the soldiers. Tryapitsyn gave them letters and Christmas gifts from relatives. On the offer to surrender, the Vic refused, but, realizing that he had fewer forces, he gave the order to retreat to DeKastri Bay, since the way to Nikolayevsk was cut off. However, the order was fulfilled only by a few, the majority rose up and went over to the side of the partisans (!).
Thus, the guerrilla forces reached nearly one and a half thousand fighters. Separate detachments even reduced in two regiments. One began to command Buzin Beach, the other Naumov-Bear. In addition, auxiliary parts were created: communications, supplies, health and transport. The units introduced tough military discipline (I ask you to pay special attention to these words to all those who are trying to portray Tryapitsyn as a kind of "uncontrollable anarchist"). Everywhere where the partisans passed, Soviet power was restored.
In Nikolaevsk, confusion and panic reigned among the White Guards. The head of the garrison Medvedev managed to make a detachment only in 250 people. All the hope of the local bourgeoisie was on the Japanese. Major Ishikawa, who commanded the Japanese troops in the city, decided to meet the partisans on the approaches, but miscalculated. Already by January 20 1920, partisans surrounded Nikolayevsk. In an effort to avoid a vain battle, the command decided to send parliamentarians to the city ... They did not return (I ask you once again to pay special attention to all those who attribute “atrocities and dishonesty” in red), with this the Japanese and the White Guards put themselves outside the law.
This ashes was the Russian city of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur
Having made sure that the city would not be surrendered without a fight, the partisans, for the beginning, captured the Chnyrrakh fortress, covering Nikolaevsk from the sea, and 29 in February 1920 entered the city. Under pressure from representatives of various consulates, the Japanese remembered the declaration of Lieutenant General Siramizu about the neutrality of the Japanese army (in other words, after the killing of parliamentarians, they managed to declare themselves "neutral", and the bloody red partisans did not touch the scum). Power passed to the Soviets.
What else can you say? - A brilliant military operation with the overgrowth of a small detachment the size of one platoon in this connection. Do not be Tryapitsyn slandered, and therefore - consigned to oblivion, could take a worthy place among the red warlords of the Civil War. And if we talk about the ability to win with "little blood", so most of them he is completely superior. Moreover, from the above, we see that at the slightest opportunity, Tryapitsyn made sure that the Russian did not kill the Russian.
"The massacre", perpetrated by Trypitsyna's partisans in Nikolaevsk
And now we come to the most exciting question about the so-called "massacre." So where did it start? But from what:
On the night of 11 on 12 in March of 1920, the Japanese attacked treacherously (these are the ones who had previously declared themselves "neutral") on the Red Army units. Having surrounded the headquarters, they set fire to the building with rockets and opened rifle and machine-gun fire at it. Across the city fired on the barracks. Tryapitsyn was twice wounded (!) And asked his comrades to shoot himself, but they saved him.
The fighting in the city continued for three days and ended when a group of Japanese and Major Ishikawa burned down in one of the houses of the Japanese millionaire Shimada quarter.
After the victory over the Japanese, life in Nikolaevsk took its course. Tryapitsyn was appointed commander of the Okhotsk front ... The order of appointment (66 No. 22 of April 1920) for such a high position was signed by the Commander-in-Chief of the People’s Revolutionary Army (NRA) Eyhe (Heinrich Christoforovich Eiche - from March 1920 to April, 1921 was the Chief Commander-in-Chief Far Eastern Republic).
In order to restore order in the city, executions began ... of the Japanese and their henchmen (the latter are called by many “the peaceful population”)! And what else would you do with them after a treacherous attack, equivalent to a shot in the back ?! Maybe even pat them on the head? And what right do we have to blame for this Tryapitsyna ?! He already had the full right to destroy them only by entering the city. So there is no, sorry ... As it turned out, to his grief.
Again, it should be noted that, unlike Lazo, whose parts of Vladivostok could not keep, the soldiers of Tryapitsyna, having overcome the confusion, were able to keep Nikolaevsk. And this, in spite of the unexpected attack of the perfidious enemy (I remind you that professional military men consider an unexpected strike as a half of the victory)! Yes honor them (and their commander) and praise !!!
Let me move away a bit from the topic of the article in order to bring some clarity. We are talking about 1920 events of the year. At the end of that year, the Civil War in the European part of Russia is already over, after which, as is known, blood will flow in the Far East for another two years. But, strictly speaking, the war there will not be civil. After all, the main enemies there are the Japanese, who in the history are usually called “interventionists”.
However, on January 16, 1920, the Supreme Council of the Entente decided to lift the blockade from Soviet Russia and withdraw troops from Siberia (and the troops of European countries left this place!). 24 February 1920, the Soviet government proposes to the Japanese side to begin peace negotiations. But the Japanese did not want to leave the Russian lands. Moreover, the most resolute officers dreamed of Baikal, Angara and Irkutsk. Tokyo refused to Moscow under a very ridiculous pretext: the Japanese stated that they "fear for the lives and property of their subjects."
Those. after February 1920, the Japanese, refusing to leave the Far East, moved from the category of “interventionists” to the category of the most genuine foreign invaders! In addition, unlike their Western "colleagues", the subjects of the Land of the Rising Sun were initially ready to fight not only with the bayonets and sabers of Kolchak and Semenov, who were supported, but also themselves, feeling a clear benefit.
Writer Nikolai Starikov, who calls himself a "historian", in his books on the October Revolution, frankly praises the Japanese for such readiness. Like, they performed the "allied duty" to the whites and fought with the Soviets for real.
Great delusions and hard to imagine! First, they didn’t care about “allied duty”, they fought for their interests (in other words, for seizing new lands). Secondly, the same Semyonov was not an “ally”, but a real weep of the Japanese, kissing their butt!
That way you can again agree to the point that the vile traitor and the most insignificant slug General Vlasov wanted to “liberate Russia from Stalinism”, and an honest Russian officer, Colonel Yury Budanov, who saved hundreds of soldiers' lives, killed the “innocent” such girl Elsa Kungaeva (sniper, only God knows how many Russian guys put this thing!).
I am silent about the atrocities of the Japanese and Semenov Cossacks. Compared to them, the usual executions (without torture!) In Nikolaevsk - a childish prank. In general, I'm sorry for such a vast retreat, but it was necessary to understand that Tryapitsyn did the right thing. He could not do otherwise!
Alas, the red “island” in Nikolaevsk could not survive for a long time when it was opposed by the regular Japanese army and navy. The Japanese, having defeated the revolutionary armed forces in Primorye and Khabarovsk, were preparing to send gunboats and cruisers to Nikolayevsk with the start of navigation. In addition, the landing force was landed on Sakhalin and in De-Kastri. The city began to prepare for defense.
On the northern fairway of the estuary, the red flooded barges, loaded with stones, about with. Sophia put underwater mines, and in the mouth of Amgun near the Tyrsky cliff - batteries. But, realizing that the city could not be held, on April 10 of the year 1920 decided to evacuate to the settlement of Kirby (now the settlement named after Polina Osipenko) five hundred kilometers from Nikolaevsk, deep into the taiga. 30 May 1920 The evacuation of the city was completed and Nikolaevsk flamed on the night of 1 June.
And here again begin the accusations Tryapitsyna. Like, why did the city burn? And what, it was better to leave the enemy ?! They also accuse the red military leader of the fact that all those arrested who were in Nikolayevsk prisons were put to death. I will clarify that those arrested for writing a petition addressed to the emperor of Japan with a request to send troops to the Lower Amur in order to “liberate” it from Soviet power (and, accordingly, the tradition of Japanese power). Those. it was necessary to leave them alone, so that the Japanese would free their lackeys, and they would replenish the already numerous forces of counter-revolution, so what ?!
The civilian population and the wounded were brought to Kirby by steamboats. The Red Army fighters walked all the way. Exhausted to the limit, only on 21 day did the people reach the Amguni River near Krasny Yar, at the Herpuchinsky mines. Tryapitsyn with cavalrymen went to Blagoveshchensk for food, having preliminarily organized defense, having deployed troops with barrage detachments.
In general, the organization of the retreat Tryapitsyn also coped. I think the military people will not let me lie, to retreat, while maintaining discipline, so that it does not turn into a random flight, is not an easy task. A heavier offensive will be! Our hero did not leave peaceful people to the brutal Japanese.
Alas, this retreat was his last operation. In the army Tryapitsyna matured insurgency.