Military Review

Nuclear tug development continues

92
In the course of MAKS –2013, cooperation of domestic firms from Roscosmos and Rosatom structures presented an updated transport and energy module (TEM) model with a space-based nuclear power propulsion unit (NPP) of megawatt class (NK 10, 2013, p. 4). This project was presented publicly exactly four years ago, in October 2009 (NK 12, 2009, p. 40). What has changed during this time?
Nuclear tug development continues



Project Chronicle


Recall that the goal of the project is to create an energy-based base and, on its basis, new high-energy-equipped space assets for the implementation of ambitious programs for the study and exploration of outer space. These funds make it possible to realize expeditions to deep space, more than 20-fold increase in the economic efficiency of space transportation operations and more than 10-fold increase in electrical power on board the spacecraft.

The nuclear power plant is based on a nuclear reactor with a turbomachine converter of high durability. The development of TEM is carried out by order of the President of Russia from 22 June 2010, No. 419-rp. Its creation is envisaged by the state program "The space activity of Russia on 2013 - 2020 years", and the Presidential program on the modernization of the economy. Works under the contract are financed from the federal budget in the framework of the special program “Implementation of the Commission’s projects under the President of the Russian Federation on modernization and technological development of the Russian economy” *.

For the implementation of this advanced project in the period from 2010 to 2018, more than 17 billion rubles are allocated for the year. The exact distribution of funds is as follows: 7.245 billion rubles are intended for Rosatom State Corporation to develop the reactor, 3.955 billion rubles to the M. Keldysh Research Center for the creation of a nuclear power unit, and about 5.8 billion rubles to RSC Energia for the production of a TEM. The head organization responsible for the development of the nuclear reactor itself is the Research and Design Institute of Energy Technologies (NIKIET), which is part of the Rosatom system. The cooperation also included the Podolsk Scientific-Research Technological Institute, the RRC Kurchatov Institute, the Physics and Power Institute in Obninsk, the Scientific-Research Institute of Scientific-Production Association Luch, the Scientific-Research Institute of Atomic Reactors and a number of other enterprises and organizations. The Keldysh Center, the chemical engineering design bureau and the chemical automation design bureau have done a lot along the working medium circulation contour. The Institute of Electromechanics is connected to the development of the generator.

The project implements innovative technologies for the first time, in many respects not having world analogues:
highly efficient conversion scheme;
high-temperature compact fast-neutron reactor with gas cooling systems, ensuring nuclear and radiation safety at all stages of operation;
fuel elements based on high-density fuel;
propulsion unit based on a block of powerful high-performance electric propulsion engines (ERE);
high-temperature turbines and compact heat exchangers with a ten-year estimated resource;
high-speed high-power electric generator converters;
deployment of large structures in space, etc.

In the proposed scheme, a nuclear reactor generates electricity: the gas coolant, driven through the core, turns the turbine, it rotates the generator and the compressor, which circulates the working fluid in a closed loop. The substance from the reactor does not go into the environment, that is, radioactive contamination is excluded. Electricity is expended on the work of electric propulsion, which is more economical than chemical analogues in terms of the working fluid consumption in 20. The mass and dimensions of the basic elements of a nuclear power unit should be provided for their placement in the space head parts of the existing and prospective Russian Proton and Angara launch vehicles.

The project chronicle shows its rapid development in modern times. 30 on April 2010, Deputy Director General of the State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom, Director of the Directorate for Nuclear Weapons Complex, I. I. Kamenskikh approved the terms of reference for the development of the reactor facility and TEM in the framework of the project “Creating a megawatt class nuclear power unit”. The document was agreed and approved by Roskosmos. 22 June 2010, the Russian President D. A. Medvedev signed an Order on the determination of the sole implementers of the project.

9 February 2011 was held in Moscow on the basis of the Keldysh Center a video conference of enterprises - developers of TEM. It was attended by the head of Roscosmos A. N. Perminov, president and general designer (RSC) “Energy” V. A. Lopota, director of the Keldysh Center A. S. Koroteev, director - general designer of NIKIET ** Yu. G. Dragunov and chief designer of space power plants NIKIET V.P. Smetannikov. Special attention was paid to the need to create a “Resource” stand for testing a reactor installation with an energy conversion unit.

25 April 2011. Roscosmos announced an open competition for the implementation of experimental and design work within the framework of the creation of a nuclear power plant, a multi-functional platform in geostationary orbit and interplanetary spacecraft. According to the results of the competition (the winner of which 25 in May of the same year was NIKIET), a state contract was concluded with a validity period of up to 2015 worth 805 million rubles for the creation of a bench sample installation.

The contract provides for the development of: a technical proposal for the creation of a bench (with a nuclear reactor thermal simulator) sample of a nuclear power unit; his draft design; design and technological documentation for prototypes of the components of the bench and the basic elements of the nuclear power plant; technological processes, as well as pre-production for the manufacture of prototypes of components of the bench and the basic elements of the installation; manufacture of the bench sample and its experimental testing.

The composition of the bench model of the NPSA should include basic elements of the standard installation, designed to ensure the subsequent creation of installations of different capacities based on the modular principle. The bench sample must generate a predetermined power - thermal and electrical, as well as create thrust impulses characteristic of all stages of the functioning of a nuclear power plant as part of a spacecraft. A high-temperature, gas-cooled fast neutron reactor with a thermal capacity of up to 4 MW was selected for the project.

23 August 2012 a meeting of representatives of Rosatom and Roskosmos was held, dedicated to the organization of work on the creation of a test complex for life tests required for the implementation of the TEM project. It was held at the AP Aleksandrov Scientific-Research Technological Institute in Sosnovy Bor near St. Petersburg, where it is planned to create the specified complex.

Sketch design TEM completed in March this year. The results obtained allowed to go to 2013 in the stage of the detailed design and manufacture of equipment and samples for autonomous testing. Testing and development of coolant technologies began this year at the MIR research reactor at NIIAR (Dimitrovgrad), where a loop was installed to test the helium-xenon coolant at temperatures above 1000 ° С.

The ground-based prototype of the reactor facility is planned to be created by 2015, and by 2018, a reactor installation should be made to complete the NEDD and its tests began in Sosnovy Bor. The first TEM for flight tests may appear by 2020.

The next project meeting was held on 10 on September 2013 in the state corporation Rosatom. Information on the status of work and the main problems during the implementation of the program was presented by NIKIET Head Yu. G. Dragunov. He stressed that at present, the institute's experts have developed the documentation of the technical design of the nuclear power plant, determined the main design solutions and carried out the work in accordance with the project’s roadmap. Following the meeting, the head of Rosatom Corporation S.V. Kiriyenko instructed NIKIET to prepare proposals for optimizing the “road map”.

Some details of the design and features of the project YaEDU were found out during a conversation with representatives of the Keldysh Center at the MAKS - 2013 air show. In particular, the developers reported that the installation will be done immediately in a full-sized version, without making a reduced prototype.

The NRADU has extremely high (for its type) characteristics: with the thermal power of the 4 MW reactor, the electrical power at the generator will be 1 MW, that is, the efficiency will reach 25%, which is considered a very good indicator.

Turbomachine converter - dual circuit. In the first circuit, a plate heat exchanger - a heat exchanger and a tubular heat exchanger-cooler are used. The latter separates the main (first) contour of heat removal and the second contour of heat release.

Regarding one of the most interesting decisions being developed within the project (selection of the type of refrigerant emitters of the second circuit), it was answered that both drop and panel heat exchangers are being considered, and so far no choice has been made. On the displayed mockup and posters, a variant with a preferred cooler-emitter was presented. In parallel, work is underway on the panel heat exchanger. Note that the entire TEM design is transformable: at start-up, the module fits under the head fairing PH, and in orbit “spreads its wings” —the rods are moved apart, which carry the reactor, engines and payload over long distances.

The TEM will use a whole bunch of advanced extremely powerful electric propulsion - four “petals” of six sustainer engines with a diameter of 500 mm, plus eight more smaller engines - for roll control and course adjustment. At the MAKS - 2013 salon, a working engine was shown, which is already undergoing testing (while on incomplete thrust, with electric power up to 5 kW). ERE work on xenon. This is the best, but also the most expensive working body. Other options were considered: in particular, metals - lithium and sodium. However, the engines on such a working body are less economical, and it is very difficult to carry out ground tests on such electric propulsion.

The estimated life of a nuclear power plant incorporated in the project is ten years. The resource tests are supposed to be performed directly on the complete installation, and the units are to work autonomously on the bench base of the enterprises of cooperation. In particular, the turbocharger developed at KBHM has already been manufactured and tested in the vacuum chamber of the Keldysh Center. A thermal simulator of the reactor for 1 MW of electrical power was also made.
Originator:
http://novosti-kosmonavtiki.ru/mag/2013/1099/14567/
92 comments
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  1. Volkhov
    Volkhov 18 January 2014 08: 36 New
    +5
    Does it seem to me alone that the layout is similar to a nuclear-pumped X-ray laser?
    1. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 18 January 2014 08: 54 New
      10
      Dear colleague Vasily, this engine is yet to be constructed. Now there are laboratory tests. Laboratory mock-ups are designed on the basis of previous experience, including the nuclear part of the X-ray laser. In principle, the difference is small. In a laser, the velocity of the outflow of the stream is converted into a damaging force during the impact on the object. And in this engine, this force is used to accelerate / move the object.
      1. Volkhov
        Volkhov 18 January 2014 09: 13 New
        11
        Research Institute of NPO "Luch", Research Institute of Atomic Reactors

        Well, since the leading developer of high-power lasers was included in the cooperation, then of course it is a power plant, and a gamma ray will deliver energy to consumers so as not to pay 50% of the network company ... and take into account consumption through the meter ... Geiger, and it’s self-propelled to get to all - this is where the end of monopoly!
      2. zart_arn
        zart_arn 18 January 2014 10: 32 New
        +4
        Not a word has been said about the disposal of the device after the design life. Usually satellites burn up in dense layers of the atmosphere - I would not want to experience a radioactive rain falling on the bald patch. belay
        Electric propulsion engines, which are given a lot of attention in the article, still have extremely low thrust, so the main task of nuclear power plants is, most likely, a power plant to power a combat laser.
        1. Moga
          Moga 18 January 2014 12: 29 New
          +9
          Satellites can be powered with solar energy, which is more than enough in the orbit of our planet, but as I understand it, we are talking about moving into deep space, where the sun's rays no longer reach and you need power from your own developments. More energy on board - more options.

          For a long time, a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RITEG) has been used for distant planets, which is simpler and smaller than a nuclear reactor and emits only a few hundred watts. But this is enough to feed very long and safe. Used on Voyager 2 (the most distant object created by man, it seems to have gone beyond the limits of the solar system).
        2. Voronbit
          Voronbit 18 January 2014 13: 14 New
          +4
          spacecraft with nuclear power plants have repeatedly entered the dense layers of the atmosphere
          1. Pilat2009
            Pilat2009 18 January 2014 13: 58 New
            +3
            Quote: Voronbit
            spacecraft with nuclear power plants have repeatedly entered the dense layers of the atmosphere

            And more than once fell to the ground
        3. Ascetic
          Ascetic 18 January 2014 16: 25 New
          +6
          Quote: zart_arn
          Not a word has been said about the disposal of the device after the design life. Usually satellites burn in dense layers of the atmosphere - I would not want to experience a radioactive rain falling on a bald patch


          There is a special for satellites with nuclear power burial orbitIt is located 200 km above the GSO (approximately 35 km above sea level). Low orbital (from 786 km to 160 km above the Earth) military satellites with nuclear reactors on board have the height of the burial orbit is about 1000 km, where the core of the nuclear reactor is transferred after the end of its operation. The life span in these orbits is about 2 thousand years.
          1. Jurkovs
            Jurkovs 19 January 2014 07: 37 New
            +2
            Due to the increasing amount of garbage, this device can be disposed of ahead of schedule on our heads. Something must be decided with the garbage. At the first stage, it is agreed to at least not increase its number by compulsory arching of satellites from orbit and non-placement of the last stages and upper stages in orbit. Of course, the number of countries will decrease sharply, but it can be for the better.
        4. Volkhov
          Volkhov 18 January 2014 17: 40 New
          +2
          Quote: zart_arn
          power station to power a combat laser.

          The combat laser does not need electricity, the pump comes from short powerful pulses of the reactor, electricity for equipment and engines when the reactor is in constant mode or cooling after firing.
          Another thing is that the idea is unrealistic and looks like a demonstration - we are about to get the Death Star ... real things have not been advertised for years for the electorate - the American counterpart turned green only when Columbia fell after successful trials.
          1. Akuzenka
            Akuzenka 21 January 2014 15: 37 New
            0
            Short pulse reactor? Colleague, do you have any idea of ​​the principle of its work?
        5. zennon
          zennon 18 January 2014 19: 16 New
          +2
          Usually satellites burn up in dense layers of the atmosphere - I would not want to experience a radioactive rain falling on the bald patch.

          Not at all necessary. It is not uncommon for spacecraft to be transferred to higher orbits, where they have been for many thousands of years. hi
        6. The comment was deleted.
        7. dustycat
          dustycat 18 January 2014 19: 54 New
          0
          Disposal is determined by purpose.
          It is utilized by storage in deep space.
          Elementary.

          This is much better than storing a heap of Cosmos in an ultrahigh elliptical orbit of the earth.
        8. kori
          kori 20 January 2014 12: 02 New
          +1
          Actually passed stage, comrade. We already had satellites with a nuclear power plant and somehow lowered them, at the end of their operational life. So I think they will find a way out.
        9. for
          for 1 January 2015 15: 14 New
          0
          Disposal - there is nothing easier: sent under its own power on, the sun and forgot.
      3. dustycat
        dustycat 18 January 2014 20: 05 New
        +1
        Quote: Gamdlislyam
        this engine is yet to be constructed.

        Ion engines are already operating in orbit and on spacecraft chasing asteroids and comets.
        A nuclear reactor is simply a logical replacement for solar panels, which are becoming the size of a solar sail with the required power.
    2. SHILO
      SHILO 18 January 2014 14: 57 New
      18
      I watched a video on the topic. AND! On you. Met, short, but intelligible from our mutual friend Vadim Smirnov.
      1. Chertkov Oleg
        18 January 2014 18: 45 New
        +3
        Great addition to the article, thanks.
    3. dustycat
      dustycat 18 January 2014 20: 01 New
      +2
      Quote: Volkhov
      Does it seem to me alone that the layout is similar to a nuclear-pumped X-ray laser?


      Not a single bolt.
      With nuclear pumping, the core is pumped by a flash of a nuclear explosion.
      Then it evaporates safely.
      Too dirty even for high orbits.
      It is much easier and cheaper to use a pyrotechnic pumped maser.
      1. Volkhov
        Volkhov 19 January 2014 00: 26 New
        -2
        The Americans flew samples on Columbia in 2003 and the X-37 recently, did not evaporate ...
        Than a pulse reactor is worse than an explosion, and heat - to a turbine. Dirt is harmful to the shuttles, but Colombia was planned to suck, and the X-37 is deactivated.
        They do not plan to return this one at all (and they will not launch it in reality).
  2. makarov
    makarov 18 January 2014 08: 47 New
    +3
    It is necessary to remove the formula "hurry slowly" so that enemies would not step on the heels
  3. tronin.maxim
    tronin.maxim 18 January 2014 08: 51 New
    +2
    Well, we’ll soon fly into space! The main thing is not to cling to any democracy, and that's for sure ....
  4. vostok68
    vostok68 18 January 2014 09: 13 New
    21
    Have we really moved forward and gone ahead? Good luck to the developers, let all the plans come true!
  5. Ascetic
    Ascetic 18 January 2014 10: 29 New
    26
    Graduates of the 2nd faculty of the Moscow Aviation Institute worked on this topic in the Union. Then this topic was closed. and only in 2010, Rosatom issued TK for the project and financing, respectively.
    Development of a large power nuclear propulsion system for an interorbital tug, a multifunctional platform in geostationary orbit, and interplanetary spacecraft.
    Cipher: OKR "YaERDU".
    Initial (maximum) contract price: 805 rubles.
    Duration of the contract: 2011 - 2015
    Place of work: at the address of the Contractor.
    link Scope of such engines
    1. towing cargo delivered by kerosene launchers to a low orbit in high operating orbits. Now they use small booster blocks that need to be constantly put into orbit, and with Poison it can be constantly kept in orbit and used as necessary. There is no need for a booster block, respectively reduced costs and increased payload kerosene pH.
    2. For interplanetary expeditions. He tows landing modules to the planet and back.
    3. For diversion, towing asteroids threatening the Earth.

    Both drip and panel heat exchangers are considered, and so far the choice has not been made. On the mock-up and posters on display, an option with a drip refrigerator-emitter was presented, which is preferred.


    1. ZU-23
      ZU-23 18 January 2014 11: 57 New
      +5
      Thanks to Ascetic for the information, and from the article I really didn’t understand what exactly these capacities are for. Well, so to the developers and designers, I respect the same power as these engines. Fuel, a simple substance xenon-noble monatomic gas without color, taste and smell, generally great.
      1. velikoros-xnumx
        velikoros-xnumx 18 January 2014 14: 57 New
        +4
        Quote: ZU-23
        Thanks Ascetic for the information

        I join, Ascetic’s comment turned out to be more informative than the article, for which special thanks to him +++
        1. ZU-23
          ZU-23 18 January 2014 18: 50 New
          +4
          Looks like the author didn’t take into account that there are a lot of astronauts here. laughing
        2. The comment was deleted.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. for
      for 1 January 2015 15: 26 New
      0
      You forgot about another scheme: -NRE with a gas-phase core on uranium hexafluoride (UF6). I made and defended my diploma according to this scheme in 78th, this is an engine, its creation would put the entire Solar system under our feet, right up to the orbit of Pluto. It is a pity of course that this program was curtailed.
      Well, what they are trying to do now, the maximum that will give us is the asteroid belt.
      By the way, there is still no General Designer for this complex, which means everyone is only responsible for their own site. It will be funny if they cannot be joined together.
      And yet, I heard out of my ear that there was an undercover brawler, through whom everything would be financed in the future, some kind of Petersburg company got out ...
  6. Justme
    Justme 18 January 2014 10: 35 New
    +2
    As far as I understand, an electric jet engine will be one of these
    http://www.fakel-russia.com/products.html
    - really working, rather - SPD-290 - this engine was “sharpened" for a similar project back in the 1980s (curiously, the Fakel Design Bureau solved there the problems of overheating of the magnetic system in this engine since then ..)
    The discharge of heat from the second circuit was the main hemorrhoids in all similar projects ...
    In mechanics, there are also questions - it must be very balanced - so that there are no twists of the spacecraft from the increase in "gas".
    1. dustycat
      dustycat 18 January 2014 20: 15 New
      0
      Having a megawatt of power and a compact design, this is solved much easier.
      In addition, in solving the issue of radiative coolers, thermoelectric converters will most likely be attached to them (this will simply allow at least halving the area) and will receive another 0,25-0,5 MW of electricity.
      1. alex86
        alex86 19 January 2014 09: 53 New
        0
        Quote: dustycat
        attach thermoelectric converters to them

        This is unlikely, in which case the emitter mode will deteriorate, since an intermediate element appears, and you need to reset the heat faster ...
  7. saag
    saag 18 January 2014 11: 22 New
    +2
    SPD is good in terms of specific impulse, but it will not be enough with traction, and as a result, acceleration will last for months only to leave orbit, considering that this unit will still have weak dimensions, can refrigerators cost the same thing for comparison?
    1. mountain
      mountain 18 January 2014 11: 52 New
      0
      I've also thought about cooling, maybe here, something fundamentally new will be.
      1. shinobi
        shinobi 18 January 2014 14: 14 New
        0
        Already. Yankees are testing a new plasma dvigun, just on xenon. Something was said there about cooperation with Russian colleagues. And it was also said about power consumption of 1 mW. The source is not remembered unfortunately but is easily searched on wikis and YouTube.
        1. dustycat
          dustycat 18 January 2014 20: 23 New
          0
          What is new?
          Actually, a similar one was already tested on our spacecraft back in the 1980s.
          And xenon is simply because it is the heaviest of neutral gases (excluding radioactive radon).

          Actually there is still a proton.
          He was at the very beginning.
          Because protons can simply be collected in a magnetic field in space.
  8. 1c-inform-city
    1c-inform-city 18 January 2014 12: 16 New
    0
    Quote: saag
    SPD is good in terms of specific impulse, but it will not be enough with traction, and as a result, acceleration will last for months only to leave orbit, considering that this unit will still have weak dimensions, can refrigerators cost the same thing for comparison?

    To get such power you need batteries of such a size that managing the complex will be very problematic. 1Q A meter of battery of about 200 watts means at least 5000 square meters will be needed and where to put them on the carrier, there are still flexible ones, but they have an efficiency of two times lower. And there is also the problem of shading in some cases.
    1. Chertkov Oleg
      18 January 2014 18: 50 New
      +1
      maybe it was worth the same thing on a solar panel for comparison to show?
      Yeah, they would have suggested a solar sail. laughing
  9. JIaIIoTb
    JIaIIoTb 18 January 2014 12: 40 New
    +8
    If everything goes together, then we will fly to neighboring planets as now to other continents.
    I do not hear the cries of liberalized all-fingers.
    Maybe even now, in their brain inflamed with Western values, a spark of pride for their Country will appear?
    1. Evgenij.
      Evgenij. 3 February 2014 15: 43 New
      0
      Maybe even now, in their brain inflamed with Western values, a spark of pride for their Country will appear?
      I'm afraid they do not read such articles
  10. saag
    saag 18 January 2014 12: 44 New
    0
    Quote: JIaIIoTb
    If everything goes together, then we will fly to neighboring planets as now to other continents.

    Just not on this, to fly to neighboring planets it is necessary that the shoulder to Mars is overcome in a minimum distance in a month, this is about 40 million km.
    1. max702
      max702 19 January 2014 13: 59 New
      0
      At a speed of 50km / s, 40kkm km takes 10 days ..
      1. saag
        saag 19 January 2014 17: 30 New
        0
        Well, for how long does a 500-ton station accelerate to the mentioned speed? We also need to take into account the time for braking, and the fact that Mars will not wait :-)
  11. saag
    saag 18 January 2014 12: 50 New
    0
    Quote: 1c-inform-city
    To get such power you need batteries of such a size that managing the complex will be very problematic. 1Q A meter of battery of about 200 watts means at least 5000 square meters will be needed and where to put them on the carrier, there are still flexible ones, but they have an efficiency of two times lower. And there is also the problem of shading in some cases.

    5000 m2 is a square with a side of 70 meters, if you make two of them even smaller, the fact is that there will not be silicon ones. and gallium arsenide. whose disadvantage is the price
    1. dustycat
      dustycat 18 January 2014 20: 28 New
      +1
      Can you imagine the inertia of a square 70? 70?
      Or at least count.
      A school textbook of physics is enough.
      A good trap for collecting cosmic dust is obtained.
  12. 1c-inform-city
    1c-inform-city 18 January 2014 13: 11 New
    0
    Quote: saag
    Quote: 1c-inform-city
    To get such power you need batteries of such a size that managing the complex will be very problematic. 1Q A meter of battery of about 200 watts means at least 5000 square meters will be needed and where to put them on the carrier, there are still flexible ones, but they have an efficiency of two times lower. And there is also the problem of shading in some cases.

    5000 m2 is a square with a side of 70 meters, if you make two of them even smaller, the fact is that there will not be silicon ones. and gallium arsenide. whose disadvantage is the price

    Everything is correct, but try to control the device with such dimensions and such inertia. In addition, the question arises of the weight of the batteries for working in the shadow of the planet, and in addition, the question arises of the strength and complexity of deployment. A very large part of the problem occurs when the batteries are deployed.
  13. samoletil18
    samoletil18 18 January 2014 13: 13 New
    +2
    And I thought that the topic of the crisis would die out. And here is the positivist good. Although the topic is still Soviet, but in order to develop further towards Russian technologies it is necessary to use the Soviet backlog: new personnel will grow, understanding of the value of great science for a great power, as an ideology, will be restored.
    At NPO PM in Krasnoyarsk-26, they planned to make a space telephone exchange. That's what would give her a long service life and reduce the cost of one connection. And it would be cool: each apartment has a satellite phone.
    1. dustycat
      dustycat 18 January 2014 20: 29 New
      0
      Uh-huh.
      And to build a new socialist economy in Russia.
      1. dmit-xnumx
        dmit-xnumx 19 January 2014 04: 44 New
        +6
        And what do you dislike about the "socialist economy"? The fact that it’s very difficult to steal in your pocket with her? (Under Comrade Stalin, she showed such growth rates that the capitalist economy never dreamed of).
      2. samoletil18
        samoletil18 19 January 2014 18: 09 New
        +4
        Uh-huh.
        And to build a new socialist economy in Russia
        Before Khrushchev, the USSR became a nuclear and, in fact, space power. In this case, subsidiary farms reached 1 ha, and the first radios made artels. I will even say more about the artisans awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor. What is “socialist economy” in your understanding? For me personally, there are 2 types of economies: “effective” and “inefficient”.
    2. ansons
      ansons 18 January 2014 22: 27 New
      +9
      an understanding of the value of big science for a great power, as an ideology, will be restored.

      So I am inclined to this. Everyone is looking for some kind of abstract "National Idea of ​​Russia", but in my opinion it lies in a prominent place, this is the science of Russia (naturally with a backlog from Soviet Russia). But there is a feeling that they do not see her, but on the contrary try to push her into the farthest corner so that, God forbid, someone digs out and pulls out the light of day.
      1. saag
        saag 19 January 2014 19: 23 New
        +1
        The national idea is not something abstract, but a very concrete course in the development of society, where it should move and how to develop. For example, the goal was to build communism, the guideline for what a person should be like - the “Moral Code of the Builder of Communism”, the general should prevail over personal, i.e. with their personal work, everyone should contribute to the achievement of a common goal, and so on and so on, and science is just one of the tools in this movement
  14. saag
    saag 18 January 2014 13: 17 New
    0
    In terms of strength - the frame is mounted in orbit (Sophora, the mast was assembled quite quickly), what concerns you about the handling, these batteries are not for orbit systems, but for interplanetary flight, there’s nothing to shade for, there are ordinary hydrazine engines for maneuver, SPD for acceleration and braking
    1. dustycat
      dustycat 18 January 2014 20: 36 New
      +2
      One of the stages of acceleration of a spacecraft with an ion engine is the orbital booster maneuver.
      On the upper border of the atmosphere or slightly higher.
      Blow off your SB and that's it.
      If it doesn’t fall apart at the first turn.
  15. Platov
    Platov 18 January 2014 14: 17 New
    +2
    A lot of energy in orbit does not happen. Especially on the moon and on Mars. And if, for example, you correct the orbit of some kind of asteroid. Also, from the moon, deliver goods to the earth.
  16. shinobi
    shinobi 18 January 2014 14: 24 New
    +3
    The Martian project is going on, it’s quietly gliding. The orbital tractor is a very interesting unit. With such a power plant, it will be limited in range and maneuvering only by the supply of the working fluid for the dviguns. The moon will become accessible at the same time.
    1. dustycat
      dustycat 18 January 2014 20: 40 New
      +3
      Actually, this is still an ongoing project of the USSR from 1956 to divert catastrophic asteroids and meteoids into safe orbits.
  17. saag
    saag 18 January 2014 14: 44 New
    +1
    Quote: PLATOV
    Also from the Moon deliver cargoes to the earth

    This opinion can often be found, and in my opinion it is erroneous, because in the first it is unprofitable, and in the second it closes again on Earth, lunar production should mainly focus on extra-terrestrial
  18. Power
    Power 18 January 2014 17: 15 New
    -13
    I know why this tug is needed. To "transport" 17 billion from the budget belay
    1. Volkhov
      Volkhov 18 January 2014 17: 27 New
      -11
      Yes, the idea is demonstratively unrealistic technically and politically, but it’s gotten rich.
  19. Max_Damage
    Max_Damage 18 January 2014 17: 59 New
    +2
    The scope is a satellite with a radar, or a flight to Mars.

    The thinnest place is the cooling device, and this part is the most risky part of the project at this stage and is almost impossible.
    1. dustycat
      dustycat 18 January 2014 20: 48 New
      +2
      In fact, back in the 1960s, thermoelectric radiative coolers were tested on one of the Cosmos.
      It’s just that the patent for them has already gone over the hill.
      1. Kir
        Kir 18 January 2014 22: 35 New
        +2
        It would be extremely strange if they hadn’t been "stolen", the main thing here is that since the secret for Us (citizens of the former USSR) is already someone else's "secret", it is necessary to cover this as much as possible and everywhere in the USSR !!!, and now let the proponents of the "idea" of the advantages of Western thought say something intelligible to this fact - who is "stealing" and "stealing" from whom.
        And for the information as an addition to the topic Thank you!
      2. Max_Damage
        Max_Damage 19 January 2014 05: 32 New
        +1
        In the USSR, satellites with a nuclear installation really worked in space. The trouble is that they had a resource of 3 years, and now it takes 10. As far as I know, the current varant of the cooling unit is unpromising from this point of view. It is being done on the principle of "so what doesn’t work, but we will do it."
      3. badger1974
        badger1974 25 January 2014 01: 03 New
        0
        Do you remember the voyager? - without the Soviet Institute of Nuclear Physics (isotope propulsion) wouldn’t be
  20. Victor-M
    Victor-M 18 January 2014 18: 50 New
    +2
    A good base for creating a new generation military space station, with a permanent location, namely over the Atlantic, with a full range of missile defense, to protect our Western partners from missiles of the DPRK and Iran.
    1. dustycat
      dustycat 18 January 2014 20: 42 New
      +2
      Rather, the Russian Federation, China, North Korea, Iran from our probable allies.
  21. Chertkov Oleg
    18 January 2014 19: 05 New
    +5
    And who ever thought - how much earthlings spent gold, copper, silver, "green", tugriks on WAR? And where would Earthlings jump if these “MEANS” were spent on science, healthcare, space? It is a pity that this is not so. We would not have dreamed of flying to Mars now, but would have guided tours of it.
    1. dustycat
      dustycat 18 January 2014 20: 45 New
      +6
      Yes, even if just in January 1953 they would have spent without amusement one cartridge for a shot at the temple for Khrushchev without dangerous delay before the April session of the Central Committee.
  22. scientist
    scientist 18 January 2014 20: 02 New
    +5
    A very good project, despite the fact that it is more than 50 years old, and its development must be forced. But you also need to think about the future. After all, the reserves of xenon, which is a working fluid, are obviously limited. We need to think about how to make a magnetic vacuum cleaner that will capture stardust for use as a working fluid, and in the future as a fuel. And since hydrogen is the most common element in outer space, the engine also needs to be thermonuclear.
  23. Santa Fe
    Santa Fe 18 January 2014 20: 53 New
    -2
    The project is dead

    Electricity is consumed in the operation of the electric propulsion, which is more economical than the chemical counterparts in the consumption of the working fluid in 20.

    10 specific impulse is good. But it’s worth considering the specific gravity!

    ERD is a dead end. Let it work for thousands of hours, but the value of traction in the best modern electric propulsion engines is read Newton’s fractions. Even if it is possible to develop the 10 N thrust with the help of a megawatt class reactor, with a tug weight of a couple of tens of tons, nothing will work. The journey will again stretch for decades - no noticeable advantages compared to a chemical rocket engine
    1. Metlik
      Metlik 18 January 2014 21: 28 New
      +3
      Great traction is needed only for lifting from the surface of the planet. In space, microprobe can give tremendous speed.
      .
      1. Santa Fe
        Santa Fe 18 January 2014 21: 59 New
        +2
        Quote: Metlik
        Great traction is needed only for lifting from the surface of the planet. In space, microprobe can give tremendous speed.

        Briefcase - school - physics lesson 7 class

        Newton's second law F = ma.
        The basic kinematics formula V = at
        1. Metlik
          Metlik 18 January 2014 23: 00 New
          0
          The tugboat accelerates in orbit and it takes a lot of time, then a payload is docked to it and it leaves for another planet at a very decent speed. I read about this in the journal Seeker I don’t remember which year. The article was called Cosmonautics of small traction.
          1. Santa Fe
            Santa Fe 19 January 2014 01: 35 New
            +2
            Guys, well, you can’t do that. Write complete crap
            Quote: Metlik
            The tugboat accelerates in orbit and it takes a lot of time

            Where to disperse it in orbit ?? The second space - 11 km / s - exceeded - everything, goodbye Earth, along a parabolic trajectory into the depths of the solar system

            F = ma a = F / m. Thrust 20 N. Weight 20 000 kg. The flow of the working fluid (xenon / argon) is several hundred kg, the mass of the space-rocket system can be considered unchanged. Substitute, we get 0,001 m / s2. WHAT AND WHERE ARE YOU GOING TO TOW with such acceleration ???

            to dial 1 km / s you will need as much as 11 day. And this is to disperse all 20 tons (tug, engine, payload)

            Additional 10 km / s - an insignificant speed by the standards of the Solar System - you will gain for months (and do not forget that you will have to slow down slowly the whole second half of the way. You won’t be able to stop for a moment - traction is too low).

            EVENTUALLY:
            For flights around the Earth (to the moon, t. Lagrange) - excessively expensive and slow. For a manned flight to Mars, it is out of favor, too slowly (the flight stretches for many months). No benefits compared to classic rocket engines. To the outskirts of the solar system - for the same reason - Dozens of years of flight and specific impulse is only a few thousand seconds. Weak and slow

            Moreover, you and 20Н will not provide traction - according to calculations for electric propulsion with 20 N traction, you need to have a minimum of 1,25-1,5 MW.

            Deep Space 1. Power 2,1 kW. Thrust of the 0,092 N. ion engine. With an 483 weight of kg

            1. Metlik
              Metlik 19 January 2014 03: 01 New
              +3
              Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
              No benefits compared to classic rocket engines.

              The benefit is that a ship with such an engine turns out to be reusable, you don’t need to lift tons of fuel into orbit to fly off again.
              1. Santa Fe
                Santa Fe 19 January 2014 03: 25 New
                +3
                Quote: Metlik
                The benefit is that a ship with such an engine turns out to be reusable, you don’t need to lift tons of fuel into orbit to fly off again.

                Explain the thought
                What kind of reusability is it

                The reactor core has the property to be generated, the steam generator will die in a few years ... and?
                about any replacement in outer space is out of the question
                1. Metlik
                  Metlik 19 January 2014 03: 42 New
                  0
                  Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                  the steam generator will die in a few years

                  A few years is great. 5-6 flights to Mars - no one has such spacecraft yet.
                  1. Santa Fe
                    Santa Fe 19 January 2014 14: 26 New
                    +2
                    Quote: Metlik
                    5-6 flights to Mars - no one has such spacecraft yet.

                    And what are you going to carry there with such a meager speed ??
                    1. Metlik
                      Metlik 19 January 2014 15: 09 New
                      +1
                      Let's count. The distance between Earth and Mars is 55-100 million km. At a speed of 10 km / s, the ship will spend about 3 months on a flight. This is a very good speed.
                      What to carry? For example, nuclear charges, in case of meteorite danger, well, or so that would be :)
                      1. Santa Fe
                        Santa Fe 19 January 2014 16: 58 New
                        +4
                        Quote: Metlik
                        The distance between Earth and Mars 55-100 million km. At a speed of 10 km / s, the ship will spend about 3 months flying

                        And here is the cookie

                        The tug will have to fly in a semi-ellipsoid (otherwise modern technology does not know how - we cannot develop speeds of hundreds of km / s). The path to Mars for modern spacecraft is 260 million km. The minimum speed for reaching the departure trajectory to the Red Planet is 11,6 km / s, travel time is 259 days.



                        Modern spacecraft, having received an accelerating impulse, calmly fly by inertia. The use of a "nuclear tug" will not do anything - even if you manage to dial additional 100 km / s in 10 days, nothing will come of it. And that's why -

                        The LRE has a small specific impulse - a few hundred seconds - but a thrust of several tons !! An hour before approaching Mars, it will simply give out an 300-second braking impulse and put the device into orbit. In the case of a "nuclear tug" - you have to slow down the rest of the way, and the last months in general drag along at a minimum speed - so that by the time of entry into the orbit of Mars, V = the first cosmic V for Mars.

                        And then there will be a problem with the return - you have to sit in the orbit of Mars for 450 days, wait for a new "window" to start to Earth. And if compact RTGs without moving parts and solar panels can be used for years - then your "nuclear tug" with a steam turbine nuclear power plant ... by then probably will have broken (turbine and 3 generator of the year under load, without stopping, repair and maintenance)

                        A black joke on the side is the RTG of the New Horizon probe. Estimated runtime is 20 years. Electric power at the time of launch - 228 watts (now, after 8 years, only 180 watts) - but it has enough, purely communication and scientific instruments, it does not have a marching engine
                      2. Metlik
                        Metlik 19 January 2014 18: 18 New
                        +1
                        But what is the whole point of space flights? Do we need to spend billions on repeating what the Americans have already done on the moon, or investing in the development of new technologies that can open up new opportunities?
                      3. Santa Fe
                        Santa Fe 19 January 2014 19: 14 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Metlik
                        But what is the whole point of space flights?

                        Perhaps this is the purpose of man
                        Quote: Metlik
                        Do we need to spend billions repeating what the Americans have already done on the moon,

                        And it is also necessary
                        Quote: Metlik
                        to develop new technologies that can open up new opportunities?

                        And it is necessary

                        The main problem remains long distances. A man’s flight to Mars (with a mandatory return) with existing technologies will take three years - what amount of food / water / air will you have to carry with you !!! even if you make a closed loop life support system, the dimensions and mass of such a ship will be hundreds of tons.

                        The only way to avoid all the difficulties of a long flight is to increase speed. But nobody knows how to do this in practice.

                        booster blocks with rocket engines - thrust of tens / hundreds of tons, but the specific impulse is a couple of hundreds of seconds. The greatest value ever demonstrated in practice was obtained using a three-component lithium / hydrogen / fluorine circuit - for a total of 542 seconds (the rate of gas outflow from the combustion chamber is 5,3 km / s)

                        ERE - specific impulse up to 10 000 s (ion flow rate up to 100 km / s). But the dimensions of the "gas stream" are very small, the engine is very demanding in terms of energy consumption. Total - thrust a few Newtons (even fractions of a Newton). Insignificance. No distinct advantages over LRE

                        To study the nearest planets, you need an engine with a thrust of at least a ton and a specific impulse of 1000 or more seconds. For FAST acceleration to speeds of 50-100 km / s and equally FAST braking. But here's how to build it ... request

                        I am more inclined to the idea of ​​a nuclear rocket engine (our RD-0410 project or the American NERVA) - oh and tin was in the 60 years
                      4. Kars
                        Kars 19 January 2014 19: 19 New
                        +2
                        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                        man to Mars (with a mandatory return) with existing technologies will take three years

                        What for?
                        It is necessary to master the moon to begin with. Build a base, industrial objects.
                      5. Santa Fe
                        Santa Fe 19 January 2014 20: 58 New
                        0
                        Quote: Kars
                        You need to master the moon for a start

                        First you need the above engine. All the rest of the fuss will lead to nothing.

                        There is a “Flexible Way” concept (NASA's adopted strategy): NOU - nearby asteroids - moon - manned flyby of Venus / Mars - landing on Mars. But even she is using all of those. new products and the new Orion spacecraft seem to give nothing. But one can’t even dream of landing a manned spacecraft on Mars.
                        Quote: Kars
                        Prom objects.

                        With a payload weight of 1% of the starting mass of the space rocket system. You will become a great industrialist))) lunar Rockefeller)))
                        There are also problems with putting into orbit - all hope for Elon Mask and his SpaceX - the immediate goal is to bring the cost of launching cargo at the DOE to $ 1000 per kg

                        you probably have your own interest in this matter - quickly cash out the certificate)))
                      6. Kars
                        Kars 19 January 2014 21: 01 New
                        +2
                        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                        cash the certificate as soon as possible)))

                        Remember)))

                        Let the three de printer to the moon send and build.
                      7. Santa Fe
                        Santa Fe 19 January 2014 21: 11 New
                        0
                        Quote: Kars
                        Remember)))

                        it seems to me the most cost-effective heavenly stones

                        a fragment of the Chelyabinsk meteorite weighing 27,1 grams was sold at auction in Scotland for 700 pounds (about 36 thousand rubles.
                        Quote: Kars
                        Let the three de printer to the moon send and build.

                        what? Of what?
                        where then to fuse these crafts?
                      8. Kars
                        Kars 19 January 2014 22: 13 New
                        +1
                        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                        it seems to me the most cost-effective heavenly stones

                        Be sure to hint before my birthday.
                        Only the problem with fakes is probably a big one.
                        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                        then? Of what?
                        where then to fuse these crafts?

                        Everything that would build industry and settlement, and not everything from the Earth to raise.
                        From lunar materials.
                        And sales will catch up.
                      9. Santa Fe
                        Santa Fe 20 January 2014 03: 55 New
                        0
                        Quote: Kars
                        Be sure to hint before my birthday.

                        Gilded Parker will send you))
                        Quote: Kars
                        All in order to build industry and settlement, and not to lift everything from the Earth.

                        These are such distant plans, before that there is such a bunch of unresolved problems - it’s too early to talk about this. Luchsheb soon built Orion and flew to the nearest asteroid

                        There are such cozy caves on the moon - there is no solar radiation inside and a constant temperature
                      10. Kars
                        Kars 20 January 2014 04: 06 New
                        +1
                        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                        Gilded Parker will send you))

                        C'mon, I have an Inoxochrome, I can’t stand the ink. The best gift is easy for me.

                        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                        Luchsheb soon built Orion and flew to the nearest asteroid

                        But what's the point? I don’t have much sense.
                      11. Santa Fe
                        Santa Fe 20 January 2014 15: 06 New
                        0
                        Quote: Kars
                        C'mon, I have inoxochrome, I can’t stand the ink.

                        what am I talking about
                        Quote: Kars
                        The best gift is easy for me.

                        Sculptural group: "R. Reagan and M. Thatcher decide the fate of Ukraine" (gypsum)
                        Quote: Kars
                        But what's the point? I don’t have much sense.

                        In fact, there’s not much point

                        Just yesterday, Firefly revised
                      12. Kars
                        Kars 20 January 2014 16: 12 New
                        +1
                        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                        Sculptural group: "R. Reagan and M. Thatcher decide the fate of Ukraine" (gypsum)

                        Send
        2. Kir
          Kir 19 January 2014 21: 06 New
          +2
          Sorry, but what prevents you from making the base of the jump from the moon. all the more, it’s a practice that has proved itself quite well under Earth conditions, and that, in fact, apart from of course purely technical aspects (the creation of spacecraft with speeds no less than the second space one and not in a single copy), it also makes it difficult to extend to Cosmos why the Moon should immediately erect industrial objects.
          And who can clarify which engine for the spacecraft is associated with the name of Academician Aleksandrov.
          As for what is the point of flights, at least in the development of the same technologies, and not all studies and experiments under Earth conditions can give the same results.
        3. Santa Fe
          Santa Fe 19 January 2014 21: 19 New
          +1
          Quote: Kir
          So what is the point of flying, at least in developing the same technologies

          Of course!
          The main invention and discovery made at orbital stations - diapers
          Quote: Kir
          Sorry, but what prevents you from making the base of the jump from the moon

          And what prevents it from being made in low Earth orbit (like varinat - the Lagrange point in the Earth-Sun system)?

          You need to sit on the moon, fly up. Extra energy
        4. Kir
          Kir 19 January 2014 21: 53 New
          0
          Why immediately diapers then ?. and the simulators are now used for rehabilitation, and I said about the jump only for the purpose that there is not at all any connection between the industrial objects on the Moon and the flight to Mars, and then obviously then (long-term Lunar base + industrial objects) will require constant communication from the Earth - The moon, most likely the first time they will work on a rotational basis, and how quickly will this pay off?
        5. Santa Fe
          Santa Fe 20 January 2014 03: 47 New
          0
          Quote: Kir
          Why immediately diapers then?

          But what without them?
          Young parents will take a hold of you now
          Quote: Kir
          prom objects

          What other prom objects. Payload 1% of starting weight. And when you return from the moon - even less will be
        6. Kir
          Kir 20 January 2014 16: 29 New
          0
          By the way, as far as I have heard from diapers, the thing is far from safe, my parents somehow will grow me up without them, and even modern if they want, they can also grow up a healthy child without them, and for industrial facilities this is Kars:
          It is necessary to master the moon to begin to build a base, industrial facilities.
    2. Kars
      Kars 20 January 2014 03: 18 New
      +1
      I agree high add-ons.

      But I'm more worried about it now.
      http://karopka.ru/community/user/7158/?MODEL=354870
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. Santa Fe
      Santa Fe 20 January 2014 03: 42 New
      0
      Quote: Kars
      I agree high add-ons.

      how about an albany model ??
      the truth is not sure that it will look as cool as the original. There is a whole joke in dimensions
      Quote: Kars
      http://karopka.ru/community/user/7158/?MODEL=354870

      The one who designed it - thought about how to change the internal rollers and tracks
      ?

      xs how she did not tip over. estimate steering wheel at full speed or hurricane 30 m / s !!! - what is their windage
    5. Kars
      Kars 20 January 2014 04: 00 New
      +1
      Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
      how about an albany model ??

      I’m not a jerk. Until now I remember the quiet horror that I got during the construction of the Royal Soverin in the guise of Arkhangelsk.
      Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
      The one who designed it - thought about how to change the internal rollers and tracks

      tankers are scary people. In this case, as I understand it, the tank may not lose mobility when two ribbons fail (on different sides of course)

      But the very sight of how to be on the shelf will be.

      Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
      count the steering wheel at full speed or hurricane 30 m / s !!

      I can not even imagine.
    6. Santa Fe
      Santa Fe 20 January 2014 15: 03 New
      0
      Quote: Kars
      the tank may not lose mobility in case of failure of two tapes (on different sides of course)

      very good idea
      Quote: Kars
      But the very sight of how to be on the shelf will be.

      There will be something to dissect on the lunar ranch
  24. Blackmokona
    Blackmokona 20 January 2014 16: 31 New
    0
    These projects are still alive and successful. Americans in the early 90s, a whole new line released. Only again, politicians closed the way for scientists.
    Only there is an environmental and political problem.
    Ecological is clear, but political is similar, think of a ship with a full-fledged nuclear reactor in orbit, Chernobyl (Fokushima) in the upper atmosphere. Then, do not wash off.
    The Orion project also died, and the only Star Ship project is based specifically on the Orion project. There, the engine just can not. Powerful reflector, and nuclear warheads.
  25. badger1974
    badger1974 25 January 2014 01: 08 New
    0
    for degenerates, there are no opportunities at all, there is only consumption
  • Shur
    Shur 19 January 2014 23: 29 New
    0
    They will not slow down, they shut off the module with tetrafluorohydrazine and they slow down, a one-way ticket.
  • Shur
    Shur 19 January 2014 22: 33 New
    0
    Here it is possible to supplement Oleg Batishchev with such a plasma engine
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GnZ17ySaEIo
    But here something lazhanuli, there is already nasa ..
  • negeroi
    negeroi 18 January 2014 22: 29 New
    +7
    At a given moment, spacecraft with an ion engine plow the expanses of the Solar System, and have on board the stigma-maid in Yuesa.
    20 years ago, in terms of indemnity, Chernomyrdin (Yeltsin) transferred the technology of the ion engine, USA, developed in the USSR.

    Are we still paying or are we already competing?
    If we do not stop the operation of American navigation stations in Russia, or if we do not build GLONAS stations in the USA, ..... then most likely any of our Know-How and breakthrough technologies will be built at American plants, by American engineers, for the American economics and civilization. Including this technology.

    Something like that.:(
    1. Blackmokona
      Blackmokona 20 January 2014 16: 33 New
      0
      The prototype of the ion engine was created in 1917 by Robert Goddard, and in 1954 Ernst Stühlinger improved its performance [1].
      In 1960, the first functioning broad-beam ion-electrostatic engine was built (created in the USA at NASA Lewis Research Center). In 1964, the first successful suborbital demonstration of an ion engine (SERT I) [1] took place in a test for the feasibility of neutralizing an ion beam in space.

      In the USSR, and so it was before fig inventions, it is not necessary to turn it into the homeland of the White Elephants. Let the Georgians and others do it.
    2. badger1974
      badger1974 25 January 2014 01: 13 New
      0
      it’s in the air and space implementations, as well as the abduction of authorship by the technical device of any country, and the one who draws up the authorship must understand that he can also pay for his invention in big courts of the advanced west, this is a fact
  • AVV
    AVV 18 January 2014 22: 33 New
    +3
    Quote: scientist
    A very good project, despite the fact that it is more than 50 years old, and its development must be forced. But you also need to think about the future. After all, the reserves of xenon, which is a working fluid, are obviously limited. We need to think about how to make a magnetic vacuum cleaner that will capture stardust for use as a working fluid, and in the future as a fuel. And since hydrogen is the most common element in outer space, the engine also needs to be thermonuclear.

    I agree that bright heads should work for Russia in this direction, and not west, stop feeding them, our scientists and designers!
  • Power
    Power 18 January 2014 23: 09 New
    -3
    Game like "Torsion fields" or generators. But "cabbage" can be gloriously chopped. Interesting RUSNANO involved?
  • Krokodilych
    Krokodilych 19 January 2014 09: 26 New
    +2
    The project was originally from the USSR - there were no fools in this area - everything was thought out. It’s a pity that the power is only 1 MW. I came across an article saying that initially in the USSR it was planned to install at 50 (!) MW - this is already very solid.

    If it weren’t for the tagged reptile, the Oort cloud would have been explored for a long time ...
    1. Volkhov
      Volkhov 19 January 2014 17: 21 New
      0
      There are 2 capacities - constant in megawatts and pulsed (in milliseconds) in terawatts.
  • Power
    Power 19 January 2014 10: 13 New
    0
    You take a binder of old numbers of "youth technology" or "science and life" and here it is - "know how." The main thing is to share with anyone. And that does not work a trifle. The main loot to master. All the pseudo "Kulibins" in Stalin's sharashka.
  • saag
    saag 19 January 2014 10: 14 New
    0
    They would try to reanimate the project RD-0410, though it needs to be dragged to the Moon region and launched there, and the formed expedition there by conventional LRE
    Quote: dustycat
    One of the stages of acceleration of a spacecraft with an ion engine is the orbital booster maneuver.

    Acceleration will be lengthy, disperse for months by spacecraft with people on board through the van Allen belts to put it mildly inhumane

    The Keldysh Institute had the development of an SEDU (a solar energy propulsion system, that if you cross it with this device, instead of an SPD carbon camera with electric heaters and heat hydrogen up to 2000, you can screw a small turbo expander to cool hydrogen reserves
  • Ivanoff
    Ivanoff 19 January 2014 10: 25 New
    +2
    A nuclear rocket engine of the times of the USSR!
  • Svetlana
    Svetlana 19 January 2014 11: 31 New
    +1
    Quote: Metlik
    the steam generator will die in a few years

    It is not steam that is used, but the helium coolant of the first circuit in the nuclear reactor, and helium is not corrosive.
  • Svetlana
    Svetlana 19 January 2014 11: 41 New
    -1
    ERE work on xenon. This is the best, but also the most expensive working fluid. Other options were also considered: in particular, metals - lithium and sodium. But the ERE on lighter elements (hydrogen, lithium) have a larger specific impulse - their atoms fly faster at the same plasma temperature (mv ^ 2/2 = 3kT / 2). We should consider the ERE on lithium hydride
  • Svetlana
    Svetlana 19 January 2014 11: 54 New
    -1
    it is better to use such a NR on a thermal airship. There will be no problem with cooling the second circuit - overboard T = -40C
  • Svetlana
    Svetlana 19 January 2014 19: 18 New
    0
    In NIIAR (Dimitrovgrad) a loop has been installed for testing helium-xenon coolant at temperatures above 1000 ° C. Why is xenon there? Indeed, in a pure helium coolant, the thermal conductivity is higher than in a helium-xenon coolant.
    1. saag
      saag 19 January 2014 19: 26 New
      0
      really why, it captures thermal neutrons well
    2. badger1974
      badger1974 25 January 2014 01: 29 New
      0
      difference ----- you forgot at what pressure the process takes place, and also forgot to add what mass of protection you have to do with it, so that you don’t charge p ...
  • badger1974
    badger1974 25 January 2014 01: 17 New
    0
    Regarding one of the most interesting solutions developed within the framework of the project (the choice of the type of refrigerator-emitters of the second circuit), the answer was given that both drip and panel heat exchangers are considered, and so far the choice has not been made.
    THAT IS IT WILL NOT BE CHOSEN AS THE MASS OF PROTECTION OF THIS CIRCUIT, THIS IS THE MAIN SCATTER
  • silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 4 May 2014 17: 12 New
    +1
    Good news.
    In nuclear power plants, we remain ahead of the rest ... and as the article shows, we are not resting on our laurels.
    A very necessary project for interplanetary flights and deep space exploration.
  • pie
    pie 3 March 2016 01: 41 New
    +1
    At one time, the impudent and punchy Nicolas Tesla, having won a dispute with Faraday, directed the development of earth energy along the path of using multiphase AC networks. Now, a hundred years after this fateful decision, we seem to begin to experience the consequences of this decision. The fact is that AC systems, in particular, three-phase currents, have a large number of drawbacks, one of which is very important - the star of three-phase current vectors is never symmetrical in practice, physically existing zero sequence currents always appear in them. At the time of Tesla, the energy of the Earth was extremely small and currents of zero sequence could well be ignored. The Earth itself seemed to man as a huge magnificent BALL, rushing anywhere in the Cosmos and under what laws with inexhaustible possibilities for the accumulation of electrical energy.
    And what do we see now, when the power generated by terrestrial power plants at night makes the Earth shine so that soon all the nearby star system of star formations, the local inhabitants will be able to establish without any radio devices that the Earth is inhabited? Tesla’s electrical engineers took the center of the earth’s core for zero potential and stopped thinking about it, believing that the Earth is huge. Today, huge distribution networks of power supply to consumers of electric energy on the planet at the most running voltages - 220 and 380V through neutral deaf earthing systems transfer power to the center of the Earth Gigawatts thereby increasing the negative potential of the core. And now scientists are scratching their heads in amazement, it turns out that the earth’s core, which used to be solid, now turns out to be liquid, and even very hot. Man has become the cause of planetary disturbances

    Still would! If we are unaware that we are charging the Earth’s conducting ball with a negative potential, sooner or later this planet’s charge will begin to affect its magnetic field and the geomagnetic currents flowing inside it. Not only that, we were told at physics classes in the fifth grade if there is a negative charge somewhere in space - look for half of it next to it - POSITIVE CHARGE and understand that the electromagnetic interaction between these charges will necessarily begin or intensify - they will be attracted to each other to a friend or exchange streams of charged particles. I am very confused by the fact that recently observed more and more energetically powerful spiral cyclones, causing huge destruction, are tied to areas of the earth's surface with a large number of electric power generating stations - this is the eastern United States, the Chinese Plain, the European coast of the Atlantic Ocean. It is as if from somewhere outside, a stream of charged particles penetrates into the atmosphere with great energy, around which spiral cyclone clouds form. A similar picture can be observed on Jupiter - this is the famous Big Red Spot. Increasingly, auroras descending lower to the south apparently have the same nature, however, auroras are caused by relatively small flows of charged particles, while cyclonic vortices are caused by huge particles, heavy in charge, and it’s interesting to understand where such “shells” come from and how quickly they to study. The recharging of the Earth’s core with a negative potential and the direct currents arising in the Earth’s crust, mainly vertically directed upward from the core, cause stresses in the Earth’s crust (depending on its conductivity) and counter spiral static formations in the atmosphere, so we get atmospheric stable cyclonic or more often arid eddies, Moscow already experienced this some time ago
    I would like to raise the question of what is happening on the planet with this unfortunately large-volume note, because global warming is probably the work of our own hands, but everything in the world can still be fixed