Military Review

360 years ago, Ukraine reunited with Russia. Battle for Little Russia

12

360 years ago, 18 January 1654, Ukraine reunited with the Russian kingdom. A meeting of representatives of the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks, led by hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky, which was held in Pereyaslav, unanimously declared its firm intention to reunite with the fraternal people of Russia and swore allegiance to the Russian Tsar. The Pereyaslav Agreement led to the reunification of the Russian kingdom with a part of the lands of Western Russia (including the city of Kiev) and made the war with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth inevitable. As a result of the war, which lasted from 1654 to 1667, a part of the Russian lands and the Orthodox population under the rule of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth were liberated from Polish rule.


Nowadays, the adherents of the Ukrainian “independence” of the Pereyaslav Rada are considered a bunch of traitors who brought the greatest evil to Ukraine. Allegedly, the Cossack elite, led by hetman Khmelnitsky, in their narrow-group mercenary interests, concluded an agreement with the government of Alexei Mikhailovich. Like, "Muscovites", obsessed with great-power ambitions, by hook or by crook, dragged Little Russia into the Russian "prison of nations", in which she suffered to the blessed 1991 year. The fact that without the help of the Russian kingdom Little Russia would not have survived in the fight against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Poles would have drowned the liberation war in the rivers of blood, they prefer to remain silent. They do not raise the question that there was no concept “Ukrainian people”: from ancient times, Rus, Rus, Rusyns lived on these lands, and this land was called Russia.

Battle for Little Russia

During the Liberation War, which began in 1648, with the uprising of the lower Zaporozhye Cossacks under the command of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, a complicated political and diplomatic knot was tied around Little Russia. Here are the interests of the Commonwealth, Russia, the Crimean Khanate, the Ottoman Empire, the Vatican, Hungary and Sweden.

The Turkish Sultan was ready to take Ukraine under his protectorate in order to stop the attacks of the Cossacks and weaken Poland and Russia. Little Russia could become a stronghold of Turkey in Eastern Europe. In the Crimea, they sent orders not to enter into allied relations with the Commonwealth. The Ottoman Sultan Mehmed IV (1648 — 1687) even sent one of his dignitaries, Vizier Chaush Osman-agu, to Chyhyryn as ambassador. Vizier handed Khmelnitsky expensive gifts. Sultan was ready without any preconditions to take Zaporizhzhya Cossacks into his citizenship, and Ukraine on both sides of the Dnieper to make one of the provinces of his empire, while maintaining its autonomy. Bogdan and his descendants offered to recognize the hereditary rulers of the "Ukrainian principality", the Cossack elite to confer the rights of Turkish feudal lords. The sultan was even ready to send help to the Cossacks for war with Poles and Russians, except for the Crimean horsemen, 100-thousand. Ottoman army. Bogdan himself, in 1650, sent plenipotentiary ambassadors to Porto, who expressed their readiness to the Zaporozhian troops to serve the Ottoman throne faithfully and faithfully. The “Turkish card” was needed for Khmelnitsky in a complex political game that he was playing at that time.

Crimean Khan Islam Giray III (1644-1654), outwardly expressing submission to the will of the Ports, led his game. For him and his feudal master was able to safely make raids on the war-torn Poland and Little Russia. Crimean troops “sucked dry” Ukraine, leading tens of thousands of people to slavery for sale. Crimean Khan and his generals received gifts of Poles, at critical moments, substituting the Cossack army under the Polish-kick. Khan had plans for a big campaign on Russia. Crimean top was advantageous to a constant war on the territory of Poland, Ukraine and Russia, it allows impunity to loot and to divert thousands of prisoners. Moreover, the Crimean Khan sent ambassadors to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden with a proposal for a joint campaign against Muscovy. Khan expected to attract the Cossacks. Islam Giray wanted to create from the Khmelnitsky Cossacks a kind of buffer hostile to Poland and Muscovy, which can exist only with the military support of the Crimean Khanate.

Poland and Rome did not want to lose Ukraine, which has long been considered their patrimony. Russian Western Russia planned to gradually detach from a single superethnos Russes, Orthodoxy uniatism replaced first, followed by Catholicism. After this, the process of "recoding" the population of Malaya (Western) Russia would become irreversible. The rapprochement of Ukraine and Russia could not be allowed. Rome and Poland were not going to give Ukraine and Turkey. The priest of Vimin was sent to Chigirin, who covered himself as the ambassador of Venice. He began to persuade the hetman Khmelnitsky to start a war with the Ottoman Empire, promising the support of the European powers. However, the hetman was not the fool, to fight for the interests of others disagreed, listened diplomat and shoved with nothing. On the other hand, Poland conducting intensive negotiations with the Crimean khan, throws it on the Russian realm, missed through their territory of the Crimean embassy in Sweden.

Khmelnitsky initially wanted to get autonomy, to create a state entity like Wallachia or Moldavia (they depended on the Ottomans, then on the Poles). However, more and more clearly Hetman knew to get in control of an autonomous state entity, only formally dependent on Poland, will not work. Therefore, he began to purposefully focus on autonomy under the rule of the Russian Tsar. Similar examples were in Khmelnitsky before my eyes - like Don, who preserved his self-government.

This position reflected the mood of society. A significant part of the elders and the clergy of the Kiev was ready to remain under the rule of Poland, if it is to equate the rights of the Polish top. In this respect they resemble the current Ukrainian "elite", ready to pluck sell West when Westerners will offer a good price and will guarantee capital and ownership intact. Ordinary peasants and townspeople, whom the lords during the suppression of the uprising slaughtered, burned and drowned thousands, and the Crimean Tatars drove into slavery, "freedom" did not deceive. They do not mind if, then "subcortex" understood that it is necessary to unite with the Russian realm and without "freedom". Guarantee their safety were Russian orders, without any autonomy, with a strong king power to limit the appetite and arbitrariness of local boyars superiors. In addition, as during any distemper, there was a layer of “anarchists,” a rampage of freemen, for which the main thing was to walk, “the will”. They opposed any strong government, Polish, Russian or Turkish, that would stop the turmoil.

And yet, despite all the throwings, the will of the people gradually pushed through the line of integration with Russia. Without reunification, Ukraine was awaited by even more calamity — Polish terror, famine, and death. Military ruin the peasant uprising that crowds went to war, the destruction of villages in the Crimean Tatars have created the threat of hunger. Rescued Moscow, allowing for cheap to buy food, or supplying it for free. Khmelnitsky expressed warm gratitude for the royal mercy. Deliveries also continued weapons and gunpowder: so Khmelnitsky troops were supported in the fight against the Poles. Khmelnitsky, back in January 1649, sent the first embassy to Moscow, which was secretly headed by the Orthodox patriarch of Jerusalem, Paisiy. Ukraine was secretly represented by Colonel of the Zaporozhian Army Konstantin Muzhilovsky. Paisiy was an ardent supporter of the unification of Ukraine with Russia and, when communicating with Khmelnitsky, reproached him for the anti-Christian alliance with the Crimean Tatars. The patriarch urged the hetman to seek help from Christian Moscow.

Russia also provided diplomatic support for Little Russia. In the spring of 1650, the ambassadors of the Pushkin brothers arrived in Warsaw. They declared that the Poles had violated the “eternal end”, that is, the 1634 peace treaty of the year. The Russian embassy frankly provoked Poland to war. Polyakov was accused of writing a royal title with mistakes and demanding the execution of those responsible, including such influential magnates as Vishnevetsky, Pototsky and Kalinovsky. They also demanded to burn the "dishonest" books, where there were mistakes, and to execute their writers, as well as the owners of printing houses, typesetters, printers and local administration, which allowed the release of such books. In Poland, they understood: Moscow is ready for war and is looking for an excuse for it.

The Poles zayulili, they did not want to fight with Russia at this time. They were responsible that the state is not responsible for the actions of private individuals, that it is impossible to execute such actions under Polish law. They persuaded Russian ambassadors to decide the matter in peace. However, the ambassadors stubbornly stood their ground. And then agreed to settle the case, but put forward new conditions - Poland had to return Smolensk and some other cities and pay 500 thousand zlotys. Having thoroughly ruffled the nerves of the people, the Russian embassy did not break the relations between the two powers. Warsaw received a "black mark", being on the verge of war with Moscow. The Poles ottyanuli part of the forces on the Russian border, this Moscow tore 1650 campaign of the year.

Russia did not enter the war, considering it premature. We must not forget that by 1649, Russia itself was in a difficult situation. She was not up to the war. The year was hard - crop failure, invasion of locusts. The Tsar experienced personal grief - the heir Dmitry Alekseevich died. In 1648-1649 a series of riots swept across Russia. In addition, the threat of war with Sweden. The Swedes clung to the "refugee problem" - peasants from Sweden fled to Russia. Moscow had to make great efforts to avoid conflict. To block the Swedish threat, Russia stepped up contacts with Denmark. At the same time, a Russian embassy led by Pushkin and Ivanov was sent to Stockholm. They were able to reach an agreement on refugees, using the weak point of Sweden - the lack of money in the treasury. Of the subjects of both parties who fled abroad for 32 of the year, only those who fled in the last 2 of the year were subject to extradition. Taking into account that more people fled to Russia than to Sweden, Moscow agreed to pay 190 thousand rubles, partly in cash, partly in grain.

The agreement with Sweden caused a new wave of riots in Russia. There were rumors that the boyars-traitors were deceiving the king and gave the Germans a lot of money and grain. At first, Pskov rebelled. Pskov sent walkers to Novgorod and Moscow, offering to support them and prevent the export of money and grain to Sweden. Novgorod rebelled for Pskov. Then the Danish (allied) embassy, ​​which was passing through the city, came under the distribution. Danes robbed and arrested. Metropolitan Nikon and Governor Khilkov tried to reassure people, sent unarmed archers to disperse the crowd and close the taverns. However, the archers were beaten. When the metropolitan with the clergy also went out to reassure the people, they were also beaten. Metropolitan generally wanted to execute. But he was beaten off by the children of the boyars, who were sided with the rebellion, but proved to be more prudent and saved the hierarch. The royal commissioners arrived in Pskov and Novgorod. But they did not listen to them and put them in prison.

Alexey Mikhailovich did not bring the matter to a collision that could cause riots in other cities. He convened the Zemsky Sobor, where he explained the situation. Representatives of all counties supported the king, Novgorod and Pskov were convicted. It so happened that the two cities opposed themselves to the entire Russian land, the rebellion was localized. Novgorod, and then Pskov surrendered. Several instigators were executed, hundreds were sent to exile. Thus, Russia itself was in a difficult situation and could not immediately get involved in a war with Poland.

There was a threat from the south. Crimean Khan was preparing a big trip and invited Khmelnitsky to join him. The army of Sergei Trubetskoy, which was preparing to storm Novgorod and Pskov, was urgently redeployed to Tula. Khmelnitsky, on the other hand, rejected the offer of the Khan, citing the danger from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. At that time, he planned to marry the son of Timothy (Timosha) to the daughter of the Moldavian ruler. So, Khmelnitsky wanted to exalt his kind, he still hoped to become an independent force. Khmelnitsky wrote a letter to Lord Vasily Lupu. Getman proposed to marry Timothy on the daughter of the Moldavian ruler, otherwise promising to destroy him. However, the Polish hetman Kalinowski was considered the fiancé of the daughter of the Moldavian principality Rozanda (Roxanne). Vishnevetsky and Pototsky also claimed her hand. In addition, Roxana was the sister of Princess Maria Radziwill (the oldest daughter of Lupu), the second wife of the great Hetman of Lithuania Janusz Radziwill. Lupu, not wanting to be related with the “peasant” and hoping for Polish help, refused to Bogdan. Khmelnitsky immediately organized a punitive expedition. The Crimean Tatars also took part in the campaign. They realized that there was no point in attacking Russia, the Russians were ready to repel the blow, and in Moldova they would face easy prey. Cossacks and Tatars invaded the principality and occupied Iasi. Lupu was forced to make peace with Khmelnitsky and seal him with his daughter's marriage to the son of a hetman.

The Poles are enraged. The Sejm decided to break the Zborovsky peace and immediately make a new punitive campaign against the rebels. Warsaw senators shouted furiously that "it is better for everyone to die than to give up their own flakes." Warsaw attempted to mend relations with Moscow in order to weaken the Khmelnytsky army. An embassy was sent to Moscow, which out of “friendship” announced Khmelnitsky’s readiness together with the Crimean Tatars to strike the Russian kingdom. However, in Moscow they knew about it and did not let themselves be deceived. The Poles did not calm down on this. The new embassy brought copies of Khmelnitsky's correspondence with the Crimean Khan and the Ottoman Sultan. Poland offered Moscow an alliance against Khmelnitsky. At the same time, the Don Cossacks were to strike the Crimea. The Poles also asked for permission to buy food in Russia for the army and allow Polish troops to enter Russian territory during the fighting. Thus, Warsaw tried to solve three problems at once: 1) to embroil Moscow with Khmelnytsky in order to defeat the rebels without interference; 2) push Russia with the Crimea and Turkey, distracting from the events in Ukraine; 3) solve the problem of supplying troops. It is clear that Moscow did not agree to such an agreement. The answer was no. Moreover, the king banned trade with the Poles during the war. With Ukraine confirmed the duty-free trade regime. Given the fact that Warsaw did not heed the diplomatic warning, the king ordered to prepare the convocation of the Zemsky Sobor.

In January-February 1651, the Poles began to collect troops. They planned to strike a sudden blow from several directions at once - from Poland, Moldova and Lithuania. However, due to the usual Polish lack of organization, things went badly. The nobility slowed down, did not rush to the service, taxes were collected slowly. Therefore, the first to go on the attack, before the collection of the main forces, detachments Kalinowski and Lyantskoronskogo. They moved to Bratslavshchina, then to Vinnitsa. In Red, they were able to destroy the regiment of Nechay, which was blithely feasting and was not ready for battle. Bohun in Vinnitsa could not take it on the run, he repelled the raid.

Moscow responded toughly to the new stage of the war. 19 February 1651 was opened Zemsky Sobor about the "Lithuanian business." At the cathedral, the king commanded "to declare the Lithuanian king and pans are pleased with the former and current lies that they are passing by the eternal end, as well as the Zaporozhye hetman Bohdan Khmelnitsky sending, that they beat their heads under the sovereign with a high hand in citizenship." Zemsky Sobor spoke in favor of breaking with the Commonwealth and taking Ukraine under the authority of the tsar. True, the final decision on the war with Poland has not yet been made. It was the preparation of public opinion in Russia for the war and the last warning to Warsaw.

Russia has become almost openly helping Khmelnitsky. Ukrainian troops were allowed to cross their territory. As a result, 6 thousand Cossacks crossed the Bryansk district and hit the rear of the Lithuanian troops, capturing Roslavl and Dorogobuzh. The Cossacks were also helped with the guides. The peasants were mobilized to build bridges to facilitate the attack on Poland. Lithuanian getman Janusz Radziwill reported that Moscow troops were concentrated on the border and asked for reinforcements. However, Russia has not yet entered the war. Two more years were spent on diplomatic maneuvers. Arrogant Poles did not want to find a compromise. War has become inevitable.

18 (28) On June 1651, the Berestetsk battle began. Both sides thoroughly prepared for the battle. The Poles collected 150-thousand. the army. The papal envoy Torres declared the Polish king Jan II Casimir "defender of the holy faith", girded with a sword, which the pope himself consecrated. Cossacks and Crimean Tatars put up an equal army. It was headed by Bogdan Khmelnitsky and Islam Giray Khan. Kazakov was blessed by the Metropolitan of Corinth, who traveled through Little Russia to Moscow. The battle ended sadly for the Cossacks. The Crimean Tatars once again betrayed the Cossacks. Islam Giray, having suffered unexpectedly heavy losses in the first battles, threw allies and led the troops, taking Khmelnitsky with it. The Cossacks, stunned by the departure of the allies and the loss of their leader, went over to the defensive. The Khmelnitsky army camp, headed by Bohun, was surrounded on three sides, and on the fourth there was a river and a swamp. During the attempt to escape through the hastily constructed crossing, a significant part of the army, consisting of inexperienced peasants, was destroyed by the Poles.

However, the Polish command could not take full advantage of success. Commonwealth destruction (the militia of the Polish and Lithuanian gentry) for the most part went home. The king also left the troops, went to celebrate the victory. The army remained only detachments of magnates and minor regular troops. Vishnevetsky and Pototsky moved deep into Ukraine, destroying everything and killing everyone in their path. From a different direction, the troops of Radzivill were advancing. Nebaby squad, which mainly consisted of peasants, could not resist the enemy. 26 July Poles captured Kiev. Terror and violence again swept Little Russia.

Khmelnitsky still in captivity asked for help from Moscow. The general clerk Vyhovsky delivered a ransom to the Crimean Tatars. Bogdan let go. He showed unprecedented energy and composure, from the defeated troops and individuals began to collect a new army. He called the people to arms. Resistance increased. Polish troops did not have enough to suppress the people's war. Kievans themselves burned the city to deprive the enemy of the operating base. It was difficult to find food in a country devastated by war. Everywhere there were so many uncleaned corpses that they poisoned the air and water. In the Polish army began an epidemic. 10 (20) August 1651, the most irreconcilable and terrible enemy of Little Russia, Jeremiah Vishnevetsky, died. Apparently, he was killed by the plague. There was no unity among the other lords; the gentry and the soldiers grumbled, demanding a truce. Negotiations began.

Khmelnitsky proposed to preserve the conditions of Zborovsky peace. The Polish delegation did not want to talk about it either. The Poles proposed to reduce the number of registered Cossacks to 12 thousand people, Khmelnytsky to deprive the hetman, from the previous three governors with the Orthodox-Russian administration to save only one - Kiev. The Cossack mass was worried, threatened to kill the Poles and its hetman if he accepted the terms of Warsaw. The Polish delegation had to make concessions. They removed the paragraph on the removal of Khmelnitsky, who could cope with the Cossack freemen, expanded the registry.

18 (28) September 1651 was signed Belotserkovsky peace. The number of registered Cossacks was 20 thousand people; self-government was retained only for the Kiev Voivodeship; in other provinces were located the Polish royal troops; Hetman lost the right to deal with foreign countries and had to break with the Crimean Tatars. In fact, the Cossacks were almost in the same position as they were before 1648. Moreover, the terms of the contract are constantly violated by both parties.

Both sides were preparing for a new war. The commander of the royal troops Kalinowski began to lead to the submissiveness of the Bratslav and Chernihiv voivodeships. The participants in the uprising were hung, burned and quartered. The soldiers robbed the village and mocked the peasants. Vengeance to the local population and the nobility returning to the estates. Polish lords punished the peasants with mass executions and corporal punishment. For all the years they pushed taxes, repaid losses. People fled en masse to Russia. That was the way Slobodskaya Ukraine appeared - it consisted of tax exemptions.



To be continued ...
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Articles from this series:
360 years ago, Ukraine reunited with Russia. Battle for Little Russia
360 years ago, Ukraine reunited with Russia. Battle for Little Russia. Part of 2
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  1. smel
    smel 18 January 2014 08: 33
    +15
    Thanks to the author. I look forward to continuing
    1. makarov
      makarov 18 January 2014 09: 07
      +11
      the continuation will probably be bitter, for the native son of Khmelnitsky betrayed his father's ideals, and in Ukraine began a confusion ..
      1. Gato
        Gato 18 January 2014 10: 27
        +6
        Quote: makarov
        and in Ukraine began a boil.

        Actually, it never ended right up to Catherine’s (or, better to say, Potemkin’s times). We have such traditions - at least two Ukrainians for three Ukrainians. Or three.
        1. Nicholas C.
          Nicholas C. 18 January 2014 10: 55
          +34
          Samsonov Alexander as an author has grown markedly since his appearance on the site. But there are a lot of inaccuracies in this article. Today, unfortunately, I can’t find the time to pay attention to everything or even many. Only the most significant.

          1. The anti-Russian formula "reunification of Ukraine with Russia" was not invented here. There is no mythical Ukraine either in the Grant of Grant, or in the Hetman's Petition, or in the documents about the Pereyaslav Rada. In this case, there would be a union, accession, etc. THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE RECOVERED. A quote from Khmelnitsky: "I will knock out the whole of the people of Ruz from the Lyatsk bondage" - I quoted earlier on the forum.

          2. The readiness to go under the Poles of the clergy or Cossack foreman is not entirely correct. On the one hand, the registered Cossacks already served Poland. But the clergy only under Vladislav received their Metropolitan Grave and some minimum official status after the ban since the Union of Brest. Under the Poles went gentry (in a sense, an analogue of the Russian nobility). After the Union of Lublin, Poles deprived Orthodox political rights and much more. Here the gentry began to abandon Orthodoxy and convert to Catholicism. All sorts of Radziwills, Sapieha, Vishnevets, Ostroh, Chartory, etc. It was the Cossacks who preserved Orthodoxy and for this reason threw the gentry to Poland. Naturally supported by the Orthodox clergy. Alexander mentioned this moment with the opposite sign. Not good. A modern analogy is even a direct one between the independent elite and that gentry.

          3. What thousands or tens of thousands of people driven into slavery by the Tatars are we talking about? After Vygovsky's betrayal, the kingdom simply did not have enough strength to annex and defend the right bank. But everything was not there as it was. Poles, Tatars, Turks jointly decided to leave the right bank "wasted". Those. there everything was burned out and killed, the entire population was driven into slavery. Naturally, many fled to the left bank. It was at this time that the tsar provided the refugees with the opportunity to settle in settlements on the still unallocated royal land between the Don Cossacks and the center - in Slobozhanshchina. After that, a minimum number of settlements with a minimum number of inhabitants remained on the right bank. So think, whether tens of thousands lived on the entire right bank, or, nevertheless, more.
          1. Gato
            Gato 18 January 2014 11: 13
            +1
            It’s a pity that I can’t put you more than one plus hi
            1. JIaIIoTb
              JIaIIoTb 18 January 2014 14: 11
              +2
              Quote: Gato
              It’s a pity that I can’t put you more than one plus hi


              I will put)))
              1. Gato
                Gato 18 January 2014 14: 28
                0
                Quote: JIaIIoTb
                I will put)))

                It’s nice to understand that there are people who are really interested in history, and do not read newspapers drinks
            2. The comment was deleted.
          2. I am a Russian
            I am a Russian 18 January 2014 12: 12
            +1
            Quote: Nikolai S.
            Here the gentry began to abandon Orthodoxy and convert to Catholicism.


            + Thanks for the comment! hi
            1. Horde
              Horde 18 January 2014 12: 53
              0
              Quote: I am a Russian
              I am a Russian (2) Today, 12:12 ↑
              Quote: Nikolai S.
              Here the gentry began to abandon Orthodoxy and convert to Catholicism.

              + Thanks for the comment!
              Reply Quote Report Abuse


              where, where are you from?
          3. Lapotnik
            Lapotnik 18 January 2014 23: 00
            0
            That is a good word.

            I remember the film Taras Bulba came out, I liked it, and very much took the words of the Cossacks for the soul - for Russia. Then I talked with my father about the film (he was a historian), I say - somehow strange - it seems we are different ... and then he said - the correct message, and it was spoken correctly. Then esche especially understood what was happening ... eeeh.

            And we ourselves are from the Voronezh region, there is an interesting talk)

            Sory oftop)
        2. ele1285
          ele1285 18 January 2014 15: 13
          +2
          Quote: Gato
          We have such traditions - at least two Ukrainians for three Ukrainians. Or three.

          No wonder they say: "one Ukrainian underground, two partisan detachment, three partisan detachment with a traitor."
        3. The comment was deleted.
    2. Horde
      Horde 18 January 2014 10: 55
      -1
      Alexander Samsonov took on the unknown 17th century? What can be understood using only ALLOWED (traditional) SOURCES of information? These are numerous "studies", when historians agreed that the most STRONG AND SUCCESSFUL in conducting military operations of Tsar Alexei1 was called the QUIEST - the height of hypocrisy.
      Traditions are trying to assure us that the type of gangster KAZATSKAYA army base, which was the Zaporizhzhya Sich-robber’s nest led by Bogdan Khmelnitsky, was able to defeat the MOST STRONGEST troops in Europe at that time in Poland - the POLISH LITHUANIAN army? An army that relied on the economic capabilities of a POWERFUL medieval state? For example, in the Polish army at that time there was already the famous winged armor cavalry. The blow was so strong that only troops equipped with a CANNON BATTLE could defend themselves, which the undeveloped economy of the Zaporizhzhya Sich never had or the same heavily armed LATNIKI, which again runs counter to the definition of Sich as the RELEVANT ECONOMIC BASIS of the army.
      In order to successfully resist, let alone smash a strong army, and even take fortress cities, and it is known that Bohdan Khmelnitsky took 28 Polish-Lithuanian fortress cities, the STRONGEST ARTILLERY was needed, the production of a large amount of gunpowder nuclei - where is all this ? The Zaporizhzhya Sich could not have all this power. And thousands of guns, and supplies for them for the Cossack army? but what can I say that could not be. Remember the movie "Taras Bulba" by Bortko, how historians advised the director to show us the Zaporozhye Sich? This is some kind of wooden fortress, but inside? Yes, there is nothing there, except for Jewish shinkov, and drunken gorlopanov-Cossacks. And such an "army" could count on some kind of victory? Rave.
      Bogdan Khmelnitsky it was the TSAR HETMAN-ATAMAN -
      tsar’s deputy on the outskirts of Ukraine.
      The war, which the traditions tell us, as "the war for the reunification of Russia with Ukraine" is a late ideological cliché. There was no RUSSIA there was Russia-MOSKOVIA, which fought its ancestral western provinces of the territory, which would later be called POLAND. Tsar Alexey, as a representative of the MAIN BRANCH of the imperial clan (Western term), decided to restore the subordination of the rebellious western provinces, the territories of Poland, Lithuania under the scepter of the rebellious sovereigns leading their clan again from the MAIN DYNASTIC IMPERIAL BRANCH of Tsar Ivan 4 - the Terrible. His son Dmitry did not die in childhood, but taking advantage of the dynastic confusion of those times, he headed the WEST PROVINCES OF THE EMPIRE. the rest of the states and sovereigns went to him. Then in all states they spoke naturally in Russian.
      1. Gato
        Gato 18 January 2014 11: 23
        +3
        Quote: Horde
        For example, in the Polish army at that time there was already the famous winged armor cavalry.

        It's just fucking scary. And the British and French during the Hundred Years War, the cavalry in "chlamyds and rags" dressed? So it is a hundred-year war - and we are talking about the XNUMXth century, in which the Zaporozhye infantry was armed to the teeth with a firearm. Look at least at the coat of arms of the Zaporozhye Army. What is the Cossack with? With a halberd?
        About the economic power of the Commonwealth is generally ridiculous.
        1. Horde
          Horde 18 January 2014 11: 37
          -2
          Quote: Gato
          And the British and French during the Hundred Years War, the cavalry in "chlamyds and rags" dressed?



          The so-called "Hundred Years War" is the latest FALSIFICATE in those days 14-15c there were no France and even more so England. England, as a state appeared the latest in the chain of European states, this 18-19th century.

          Quote: Gato
          in which the Zaporizhzhya infantry was heavily armed with a firearm. At least look at the coat of arms of the Zaporizhzhya Army.

          after the destruction of SECHI E2, she rewrote ALL ANCIENT ARMS OF RUSSIA-MOSCOW.
          The gun battle in the 17th century was very IMPROPER, inaccurate in the battle-used for short distances, long in reloading, and most importantly ROAD in production. Therefore, they fought on the battlefield mainly with COLD WEAPONS.
          1. Gato
            Gato 18 January 2014 13: 28
            0
            Quote: Horde
            after the destruction of SECHI E2, she rewrote ALL ANCIENT ARMS OF RUSSIA-MOSCOW.
            The gun battle in the 17th century was very IMPROPER, inaccurate in the battle-used for short distances, long in reloading, and most importantly ROAD in production. Therefore, they fought on the battlefield mainly with COLD WEAPONS.

            Dear Horde! I also love brandy, but not in the same amount.
            "GUNFIGHT in the 17th century was very UNDEVELOPED."
            Strong!
            1. Horde
              Horde 18 January 2014 21: 33
              0
              Quote: Gato
              GUNFIGHT in the 17th century was very UNDEVELOPED. "
              Strong!


              Is that all you can say on the forum?
          2. Gato
            Gato 18 January 2014 14: 08
            +4
            Quote: Horde
            the so-called "Hundred Years War" is the latest FALSIFICATE in those days 14-15c there were no France, and even more so England.

            I will not comment on this. Avoiding the ban.
        2. Horde
          Horde 18 January 2014 11: 50
          0
          Quote: Gato
          About the economic power of the Commonwealth is generally ridiculous.

          Poland - Lithuania at the time of the war of 1648 was a formation with more than 100 cities and 1500 villages.
          Historians write that by 1569, the Union of Lublin lived in these territories 7.5 mil. people naturally, that by the middle of the 17th century the population of Poland should increase by about 10 miles. Few European states of that time had SUCH RESOURCES.
    3. Hunghuz
      Hunghuz 18 January 2014 11: 21
      +1
      hi He personally personally recently read in comics on the stories of Nezalezhnaya) that the hetman Kapitelman gathered the Berdichev Rada and for ever and ever became part of the EU and the Commonwealth ..... ??? where else can you read about the story of Svidomitsva tell me ....... ???
      1. Curculum
        Curculum 18 January 2014 11: 27
        0
        Quote: Hunghouse
        where else can you read about the story of Svidomitsva tell me ....... ???

        "Ukro-d.u.r.a.k Bebik" - http://politiko.ua/blogpost86025
      2. KuzmichDP
        KuzmichDP 18 January 2014 21: 21
        -2
        hi I advise you to ask the maydauns in Kyuyev ... wink
        1. Uncle Vitya
          Uncle Vitya 19 January 2014 03: 04
          +1
          I apologize, to my great regret, I do not know and do not want to know which city you come from and where you live, but ... Hero City Hero KIEV, I will not allow you to offend the Great Russians either on the Internet or in reality! !!
          Whatever happens in my homeland, the Tatar-Mongolian name of my hometown "Kyyuv" for us, the indigenous KIEVLYAN from the mouth of the VELIKOROSS sounds offensive !!!
          Think about it !!!
          And before you think ... remember the attempt to Maydaun about a month ago in Moscow people, as you say in Great Russia, Caucasian nationality !!! Then maybe YOU PERSONALLY have something for yourself .. how to say it ... there is such an old folk saying "Don't go to a strange monastery with your charter" ... We ourselves, somehow, with a bang, squeal, on a cart or marsedez. but this is our home !!! And we ourselves are able to establish ORDER in it !!! But unfortunately not with the past and present government ...! But WE WILL DO IT !!! AND YOU STILL US Gentlemen Great Russians will envy us !!! And we will not need Europe or the Russian Federation !!!
          1. mark1
            mark1 19 January 2014 14: 22
            0
            Uncle Vitya, and you, the indigenous people of Kiev, are unlikely to have anything to do with Kiev, that Kiev died in 1242 and was reborn as a city only in the 16-17th centuries. So the indigenous people of Kiev and the indigenous Ukrainian people have nothing to do with those distant events. The dead field was throughout southern Russia, those who survived fled, including to the north-west.
            1. mark1
              mark1 19 January 2014 15: 15
              -1
              Well, yes, "-" correct, Kiev died in 1240, but otherwise everything is correct, the current population of Ukraine is newcomer, the descendants of the ancient ukrov only in the Hutsulia mountains survived, in single copies.
              1. mark1
                mark1 20 January 2014 06: 00
                0
                Anonymous minus signs are a little annoying. Negative - justify, and so it looks like a driveway cat method - to shit and rinse off.
            2. The comment was deleted.
          2. KuzmichDP
            KuzmichDP 20 January 2014 22: 20
            0
            PERSONALLY YOU, DEAR, can be seen overheated, or vice versa frozen, or you have such euphoria from being on the Maidan, or peremaidani in general. I want to notice that no one insulted your city, just as there was no "Tatar-Mongol yoke" .A Kyyuv, the old Russian or old Russian name of Kiev-grad. So that no one on your Maidan envies you, on the contrary, it is even a pity, purely as a neighbor and as a human being, this is a great tragedy when people come to assault and armed confrontation, this speaks of deep, first of all, the spiritual crisis of society and its citizens in Ukraine. And, at the expense of our "maydaunnyh", "swamp" and other "oppositionists", they, like your local, are also duped. And, at the expense of Moscow, then before it I have nothing to do, it has long been noticed that we have two countries, one is Muscovy, and the other is the rest of Russia. Well, and to the "minus" gentlemen - BIG HELLO, SORRY DOES NOT ENOUGH FOR MORE !!! wink
    4. nycsson
      nycsson 19 January 2014 20: 55
      0
      History has the property of repeating itself. I hope that Ukraine this time will be reunited with Russia.
    5. Litvin
      Litvin 21 January 2014 17: 04
      0
      And for that, thanks to the author? In the same article, one lie.
  2. Vitaly Anisimov
    Vitaly Anisimov 18 January 2014 08: 36
    +8
    360 years ago, on January 18, 1654, Ukraine reunited with the Russian kingdom.
    After the adoption of new anti-Basical laws in the Ukrainian parliament, we are actually reunited again ..! Happy Ukrainians! In unity, our strength! drinks
    1. Gato
      Gato 18 January 2014 10: 30
      0
      Quote: MIKHAN
      we are actually reuniting again ..!

      hi drinks
      Oh, your words would be - yes to God’s ears. But the ice has broken.
    2. Uncle Vitya
      Uncle Vitya 19 January 2014 03: 32
      -3
      Not when, not in the past, not in the present, I had nothing bad against Russia ... but ... If you are a healthy person, you should understand that the Reunification of Ukraine and the Russian Federation if it will be .. so in 100 years, and then 200 .. and maybe ... hell knows ... but not in the foreseeable future !!!
      To live together as neighbors ... so I myself was born (mother is Ukrainian, father is Russian ... it was written like that in the passports of the USSR), we can and must, we are simply obliged to help each other ... But we WILL NOT be one country WHEN!!! And it's not about Western Ukraine, as it seems to many Russians, like Western Ukraine makes "the weather all over Ukraine" ... Ukraine has a rich land, we have everything we need for a normal life of the people !!! We have the same gas, and the same oil, coal, uranium, different metals ... we have 40% of the world, as they say, the reserves of black earth, just sow ... There is only an intelligent person who would unite all this for the good of the people !!!
      PS Please do not think gentlemen Russians or Great Russians that UKRAINE cannot live without your gas ... Your GAS First of all, our orphan-oligarchs need !!! We ordinary people do not need him !!! In principle, you, ordinary people, from the supply of gas to UKRAINE do not increase or increase in your pocket !!!
      Happy All Orthodox !!! BAPTISM !!! ALL IN THE ICE SWIMMING !!!
      1. xan
        xan 19 January 2014 16: 55
        -1
        Quote: Uncle Vitya
        PS Please do not think gentlemen Russians or Great Russians that UKRAINE will not survive without your gas ..

        Clearly uneducated, and clearly a villager or employed in agriculture.
      2. nycsson
        nycsson 19 January 2014 20: 57
        0
        Quote: Uncle Vitya
        The reunification of Ukraine and the Russian Federation, if any, will happen through 100, or even 200 ... or maybe ... hell knows ... but not in the foreseeable future !!!

        You are fundamentally wrong. It will be in the near future. Since we have common enemies and they are not asleep .....
  3. Sanyht
    Sanyht 18 January 2014 08: 53
    +18
    geeks and kami I consider ALL who have erected borders between one united people! and now, for the sake of the United States, for United States candy wrappers - inciting hostility between peoples! it is naive to believe that the redneck women spent money in vain for the destruction of the Slavs, and Benderlogs of a new wave are working out the money.
    1. Curculum
      Curculum 18 January 2014 09: 40
      +11
      Quote: Sanyht
      geeks and kami I consider ALL who have erected borders between one united people!

      + To you. But the author of this article continues to do the same, most likely - unconsciously and unknowingly, supporting all sorts of bebiks and Hrushevsky in the idea of ​​"kill the Russian in yourself": B. Khmelnytsky and his co-comrades did not even suspect the existence of the state "Ukraine" and They did not call themselves "Ukrainians", for the same D. Yavornitsky in the "History of the Zaporozhye Cossacks" there are many quotes from the correspondence of the Cossacks: they called themselves "Little Russians". The same B. Khmelnitsky wrote "Russians", etc.
      Therefore, in order not to give ground for the "new wave Banderlog", it is worth calling a spade a spade. Otherwise, you can go so far as to call the inhabitants of Ancient Rome "Italians" ... It is no coincidence that now Ukrainian "scientists" are strenuously proving that there are no "Russians", there are "Russians" who have nothing to do with Russia during the times of the Kiev princes ... Even "Russian mova" appeared in them, not "Ruska". This is not just a play of letters and words. Behind this are today's great ideological games.
      By the way, non-Ukrainian Cossacks did not exist in nature, at least initially. Cossacks have always been (o) Ukrainian, such is the specificity of the Cossacks. They have always settled in (o) Ukraine and moved as the state (o) developed Ukrainian lands. Something like land pirates who lived by robbery. They were uncomfortable within the state. But this has nothing to do with the chatter about the mysterious "Ukrainian Cossacks in Ukraine."
      1. Gato
        Gato 18 January 2014 10: 38
        +3
        Quote: Kurkul
        The same B. Khmelnitsky wrote "Russians", etc.

        I completely agree with you. "Ukraine" or "Okraina" is a Polish term (more precisely, not Poland, but the Commonwealth). Well, for political reasons it was also called the Russian Principality.
        Something like land pirates who lived by robbery.

        Here you can argue, but I do not want to. Looted, of course, including in the classic marine style, where there is the coastal fraternity of Tortuga. Ripped whole provinces of the Ottoman Empire.
        But! In those days, no one made a difference between "conventional" war and outright robbery.
        1. Curculum
          Curculum 18 January 2014 10: 55
          0
          Quote: Gato
          But! In those days, no one made a difference between "conventional" war and outright robbery.

          + I absolutely agree, that's why I wrote earlier "type land pirates. " hi
          1. Gato
            Gato 18 January 2014 11: 05
            +4
            Quote: Kurkul
            "type of land pirates"

            The robbery of the Turkish coast is a favorite Slavic fun since the time of Prophetic Oleg laughing laughing
            1. Curculum
              Curculum 18 January 2014 11: 57
              +2
              Quote: Gato
              The robbery of the Turkish coast is a favorite Slavic fun since the time of Prophetic Oleg

              Why is it so rude, at the time of "Prophetic Oleg" there was no "Turkish" coast yet: Prophetic Oleg - Prince of Novgorod from 879 and Grand Prince of Kiev from 882; after the collapse of the Konya Sultanate of the Seljuks (ancestors of the Ottomans), Osman I formed the Ottoman Porte in 1299, and Constantinople fell in 1453 ...
            2. 120352
              120352 18 January 2014 21: 15
              +2
              At the time of Prophetic Oleg, Turks, all as one, lived in Turkmenistan, and Byzantium was located in the territory that Turkey now occupies. This is only later, when Islam began to grow stronger, Muslims began to seize Christian lands. Including and Byzantium. Interested in a date? So this, the capture of Byzantium by Muslims, happened in the middle of the 16th century.
    2. KuzmichDP
      KuzmichDP 20 January 2014 22: 27
      0
      Eh, your words, but to our powers that be in the eyes, ears, hands and feet. Long ago they would have been reborn from the ashes, but united. But, as they say, "trust in God, but do not make a mistake yourself." hi
  4. Tanysh
    Tanysh 18 January 2014 09: 32
    +3
    You need to know the story, thanks! Let the rulers of Ukraine look back at history and find their way.
  5. xan
    xan 18 January 2014 10: 06
    +1
    I liked the article.
    Pre-Petrine Russia was so weak that it was necessary to negotiate with Poland and Sweden.
    This is about the role of the individual in history.
    1. Gato
      Gato 18 January 2014 10: 50
      +3
      Quote: xan
      Pre-Petrine Russia was so weak that it was necessary to negotiate with Poland and Sweden.

      Oh, these storytellers lol
      1. O_RUS
        O_RUS 18 January 2014 18: 26
        +2
        Quote: Gato
        Oh these storytellers lol


        Do you like fairy tales themselves? hi
      2. 120352
        120352 18 January 2014 21: 18
        +1
        Diplomacy i.e. the art of negotiating, it was invented not just from weakness, but from strength. The powers of the mind in particular.
    2. svp67
      svp67 18 January 2014 12: 15
      +1
      Quote: xan
      Pre-Petrine Russia was so weak that it was necessary to negotiate with Poland and Sweden.

      Yes, the state, which at that time was SUCH in size, couldn’t be weak ... temporarily weakened - yes, but always POTENTIALLY strong, which over time it confirmed ...
    3. Sour
      Sour 18 January 2014 19: 59
      0
      Quote: xan
      Pre-Petrine Russia was so weak that it was necessary to negotiate with Poland and Sweden.

      Post-Petrine Russia was in the same way all along with someone in a coalition.
      And the USSR until 1945 is the same. Let not agree with Sweden, but with the USA it was necessary.
      It is impossible to be stronger than the whole world combined.
      And pre-Petrine Russia also experienced extreme pressure from the east and south.
      1. xan
        xan 19 January 2014 16: 53
        -1
        Quote: Sour
        Post-Petrine Russia was in the same way all along with someone in a coalition.

        Post-Petrine Russia 50 years after Peter simultaneously fought immediately against all of its eternal opponents - Crimea, Turkey, Poland and Sweden. All on business received lyuley, and on the territory. And for this, Russia did not need to enter into coalitions with someone.
        It started with Peter.
  6. svp67
    svp67 18 January 2014 10: 23
    +2
    Yes, this delight happened due to the understanding that if it was not carried out, then the identity of the Ukrainian people could be forgotten, so actively the Poles "integrated Ukraine into the Euro-space ..." through the gallows and rears ...
    1. Gato
      Gato 18 January 2014 10: 49
      +3
      Quote: svp67
      "integrated Ukraine into the euro space ..."

      Oh, okay. Then the words of such obscene did not know laughing
      1. svp67
        svp67 18 January 2014 11: 44
        -2
        Quote: Gato
        Oh, okay. Then the words of such obscene did not know

        Well, if "according to the then", then "the gentlemen indicated their place to their slaves ..."
        1. svp67
          svp67 18 January 2014 12: 02
          0
          In Polish it sounded like "Znaj swoje miejsce niewolnika"
      2. 120352
        120352 18 January 2014 21: 20
        +1
        And things are often done without words. Silently. The more serious the matter, the fewer words.
  7. individual
    individual 18 January 2014 10: 28
    -1
    The state of Ukraine was formed from the contradictions of Poland, the Vatican, Sweden and the Turkish protectorate of the Crimean Khanate.
    The united faith and clan of the Cossacks of Don with the Cossacks of Zaporozhye led to
    Pereyaslav Rada in 1654, when Ukraine reunited with the Russian kingdom.
    One way or another, but B. Khmelnitsky had not joined Ukraine to Russia, it would have been divided between other neighbors.
    The weakness of the Gorbachev-Yeltsin government allowed again to divide the territory of modern Ukraine into pieces.
    For Ukraine, a new B. Khmelnitsky is needed, but for the future 3-5 years it is not visible.
    1. 120352
      120352 18 January 2014 21: 27
      +4
      Well, this is generally nonsense! The state of Ukraine first manifested itself, albeit unsightly, as a result of the implementation of the plan of Otto von Bismarck, when the Bolsheviks paid with part of the Russian land, with Little Russia, for the treacherous Brest Peace. The ethnonym "Ukrainian" was not familiar to either Shevchenko or Lesya Ukrainka. Both he and she called themselves LITTLE. And read what is written in the forum above from Nicholas. I just don't want to repeat what has already been said more than once. There was no reunification of Ukraine (the outskirts are not written with a capital letter) with Russia, but there was a reunification of the RUSSIAN PEOPLE. IN THE DOCUMENTS OF THAT TIME IT IS SPEAKED ABOUT THIS.
  8. PSih2097
    PSih2097 18 January 2014 10: 32
    +2
    Zapadentsev and Svidomo probably today mourning ...
    1. svp67
      svp67 18 January 2014 10: 36
      +1
      Quote: PSih2097
      Zapadentsev and Svidomo probably today mourning ...
      And they have to do with it? At that moment, only left-bank Ukraine joined Russia, a lot of blood of Russian soldiers was spilled, until Ukraine appeared on the political map within the borders that we now know ...
      1. Egoza
        Egoza 18 January 2014 12: 08
        +6
        Quote: svp67
        And they have to do with it?

        very much even with! Until now, when they come to Kiev, they try to spit (in the literal sense) on the monument to Khmelnitsky! "Well, what a bastard - he did not bow to Poland, but turned towards the Russian Tsar!" laughing
        1. Nicholas C.
          Nicholas C. 18 January 2014 13: 06
          +8
          Quote: Egoza
          Arriving in Kiev, they try to spit (in the literal sense) on the monument to Khmelnitsky!

          A wonderful poet and not only Ivan Franko, born not far from the same name what of the city, then Stanislav, as a smart man, did not call himself any Ukrainian to please the then European integrator Grushevsky (the inventor of the Ukrainian people and the textbook of the Ukrainian language - it’s so natural if you don’t know the language spoken by the then edge of Ukraine, to invent a textbook for him (more precisely , for starters, Austrian Ruthenians and Poles who liked the ideas carried out through Grushevsky)). Franco called himself Ruthenian. He was even the leader of the so-called Moskvofilsky party in Austrian Lviv. Although it was necessary from lack of money, by order of the same Grushevsky, to transfer Marx and the Marxists, and even himself, to the invented grumpy Grushevsky.

          This Franco has a wonderful poem "On the Holy Jurassic Mountain" 1900. I think it is not easy to find this poem in Ukraine now. Well, if svidomye even with Bulgakov are at war. The mountain itself is located in Lviv, and on it is the most important Uniate temple of the same name. Uniates are those who then betrayed and sold the faith to Rome, unlike Khmelnytsky. So Franco in this poem puts the following words into the mouth of Khmelnitsky:

          "They even wanted to
          we climb in the end!
          replace our faith
          faith of grandfathers and fathers.

          "Turkogreks" scold us,
          churches - you judge for yourself -
          lock - unbaptized
          and go unmarried!

          Yes, even the prelates of greedy,
          in red robes, they send us
          this marriage is violent with Rome
          they call the union ... "

          It is strange that svidomye in Franco do not spit. From cave denseness, probably. But the elder did not order.
          1. Egoza
            Egoza 18 January 2014 14: 48
            +3
            Quote: Nikolai S.
            It is strange that svidomye in Franco do not spit.

            Nothing strange. He never changed his convictions, he called for a revolution. But Shevchenko - "darling" - both ours and yours. He has poems where he curses the Poles, and there is, where he curses "m.s.k.a.l.ey"
            Typically "Ukrainian position" - everyone is to blame, I alone, poor, unhappy.
            1. Nicholas C.
              Nicholas C. 18 January 2014 15: 21
              +2
              Quote: Egoza
              Nothing strange. He never changed his beliefs, called for revolution.

              Therefore, it is strange that they do not spit. We need to be careful about the revolution here. He used words like "eternal revolutionary". But he has nothing in common with the Russian professional revolutionaries sent to Russia in sealed wagons and on American ships. Although he called Austria a "prison of nations", "a rotten swamp", etc. Relevant and accurate for Europe and now.

              "Bagno rotten mіzh kraiv Europe,
              Cover the color, the greens are thick!
              To the Rose Gardener of Nonsense and Stagnation
              Oh A [embed]! Dee put your feet

              Povze service, health, crying to the people,
              Color the heartlessness, on the other hand, with muru.
              Ti tisnesh i krychish: "I give freedom!"
              Dresh skin and movish: "I move culture!"

              "Prison of peoples, with a hoop of steel
              You bound their joints alive
              and you hold - not for profit and glory,
              and so that the klevrets swim with fat "

              Especially accurately he described then today's "patriots" of Ukraine:

              PATRIOT

              I must see the bistro
              I’ll cover everything, everything to Zbridge,
              I’ll squash everything, upset everything,
              I’ll give everyone a drink.

              De treba, in my soul,
              I want to break the honor
              For everybody's work
              I will not know,

              On every day
              I’ll put it on -
              І all those, all literally,
              I impose so formally

              Spokіyno, i decently,
              I methodically,
              I'll leave the scandal
              I don’t smell the crime.

              A hto bi mav hunt
              Call my robot
              In a dirty word,
              I repudiate the court

              You'll screw the horns
              I pure, without trivi,
              Don't dog after raft
              All will be a patriot.
              Written 1906 p.
              1. 120352
                120352 18 January 2014 21: 47
                0
                And he wrote his diaries exclusively in Russian! The secret is always written in the native language, and if you want to appear before people to others, to hide - it is more convenient to write in a different language ... Psychology, you know.
            2. 120352
              120352 18 January 2014 21: 41
              0
              That is why the modern Little Russian writer Oles Buzina, one of the authors of the film "To Kill the Russian in Oneself", calls Shevchenko a UPYROM.
          2. 120352
            120352 18 January 2014 21: 38
            -2
            And I would like to draw your attention to the fact that this work was written not in an artificial, invented mov, in order to somehow differ from "her", but in real Russian, which was spoken by all of Ukraine at that time! (This is for Svidomo and the hesitant).
      2. 120352
        120352 18 January 2014 21: 32
        +2
        Illiteracy! Left-bank Ukraine did not exist and does not exist today. This is part of the Russian lands, developed economically, which were part of a single empire, but fed malorosiya after the reunification of the Russian people.
    2. Gato
      Gato 18 January 2014 11: 09
      0
      Quote: PSih2097
      Zapadentsev and Svidomo probably today mourning ..

      Let's wish them permanent mourning, starting from "black" (for them) Thursday.
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. andrei332809
    andrei332809 18 January 2014 11: 45
    +2
    and maydanutyh, probably mourning, the beginning of the occupation recourse
    1. Egoza
      Egoza 18 January 2014 12: 15
      +11
      Quote: andrei332809
      and maydanutyh, probably mourning, the beginning of the occupation

      Not only them, but also some Ukrainian historians who argue that between Russia and Ukraine an agreement was concluded between equal states (!!!) on cooperation and support. And then the Russian Tsar hid this treaty (tore it up, destroyed it, burned it, ate it ... then substitute it) and turned Ukraine into its colony! And indeed, there is NO AGREEMENT between the two states! (The fact that there was no state of Ukraine is somehow forgotten. WAS - and at least crack) But there is a petition from Khmelnitsky! Well this is fake! laughing
  11. major071
    major071 18 January 2014 11: 48
    +17
    Today, after work, I’ll definitely go to the monument to Bogdan Khmelnitsky, across the square to them. B. Khmelnitsky in an ordinary small town in the South Urals. And there, with great pleasure, I choke a hundred for the unity of one people! Happy Holidays, Slav brothers! drinks
    1. andrei332809
      andrei332809 18 January 2014 11: 49
      +2
      Quote: major071
      And there, with great pleasure, I crush a hundred for the unity of one people

      and take my share drinks
      1. major071
        major071 18 January 2014 12: 04
        +6
        Hi Andrew! hi drinks Persuaded, and I’m chipping for you! laughing Those who wish, for whom it is still necessary to ask, I’ll ask you not to put much pressure on me, otherwise I, as a very responsive person, get so tense that I can’t crawl to the house! laughing drinks
        1. andrei332809
          andrei332809 18 January 2014 12: 13
          +3
          Quote: major071
          Hi Andrew!

          healthy Volodya hi
          take care of the liver. someday and on our street the holiday will be, then it will come in handy laughing
        2. bagpipe
          bagpipe 19 January 2014 23: 51
          0
          and I’m pushing for you, at home, in Western Ukraine, Man! drinks
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. Roman 1977
      Roman 1977 18 January 2014 13: 59
      +3
      Thank you, Comrade Major, although he is only a captain, but I do not lose hope for striped trousers, I am also happy to rattle for the brothers of Ukrainians (he is half-mother Ukrainian). In general, for everyone, for us, for the brothers of the Slavs ...


      drinks
    5. 120352
      120352 18 January 2014 21: 49
      +2
      It is for the unity of ONE PEOPLE and I would have drunk, although atrial fibrillation does not like this.
      1. Egoza
        Egoza 18 January 2014 22: 14
        +2
        Quote: 120352
        It is for the unity of ONE PEOPLE and I would have drunk, although atrial fibrillation does not like this.

        Respected! Think better about the fact that the opposition - the "three-headed member" is already flying not even like in the song - "The tank is punctured, the tail is on fire" - they are already dumping into a tailspin. Tyagnibok was "pressed" with revelations, and Klitschko and Yatsenyuk were simply bored with everyone. like tachycardia on the ECG, and now they have gone lower and lower ... Where will your arrhythmia go! hi
  12. Klim podkova
    Klim podkova 18 January 2014 12: 31
    +4
    A huge plus I want to note the attached map, which outlines the territory recognized as controlled by B. Khmelnitsky. The statements of Kiev politicians that "Ukraine has no territorial claims to anyone" have always caused me fits of unbridled joy. wassat You bet!
  13. Egoza
    Egoza 18 January 2014 12: 31
    +3
    I will add some more quotes from an article by A. Popov (newspaper 2000), which is also devoted to this topic.
    "almost imperceptibly 10 years ago, the previous, more round jubilee also passed: a coin issued by the National Bank and a decree of President Kuchma dedicated to the 350th anniversary of this event.
    In response to it, the outraged 45 deputies from Our Ukraine and BYuT and a number of public figures signed an appeal saying “we see in today's reanimation of the Soviet myth of the supposedly positive significance of the Pereyaslav Rada an attempt to find a historical justification for Russia's modern imperial encroachments on Ukraine. Although the decree meant only publishing books, holding scientific conferences, a competition among schoolchildren and students about knowledge of the history of Ukraine, etc., nothing was said that it was necessary to evaluate the Rada itself and its consequences at these events.

    However, there was no signing of documents in Pereyaslav.
    On January 8, at 14 p.m., a drum-beating battle was heard in the city. When people gather in the square, the hetman tells him about the sufferings of the Orthodox from the Poles and about the desire of the Polish king, Turkish sultan and Crimean khan "to possess Ukraine, as well as the consent of the Russian autocrat to annex this country." And he ends the speech with the words: “except for his royal high hand of the most sacred refuge, we will not find it, and whoever disagrees with us, wherever he wants is a free road.” After which the people shouted "we are free under the Tsar of the Eastern Orthodox."
    That is, there was legitimization of the choice of the hetman and his entourage in the voice of the assembled people. Then the ceremony is transferred to the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist, where archimandrite Prokhor and Archpriest Andrian, who arrived with the ambassadors, take the citizens to the oath of the king according to the official book.
    What is called the Pereyaslav articles was signed by no means then and there, but in Moscow, in March 1654, when the envoys of Khmelnytsky, Pavel Teterya and Samoilo Bogdanovich, arrived there with a petition for the sovereign. The text of this petition with the resolutions on it of the Russian Tsar is called the Pereyaslav articles.

    Not a single testimony of contemporaries says that Bogdan and his entourage considered the option of independence of Ukraine until 1654. No, it was a question of whose citizenship to choose - stay in Polish, go to Turkish or go to Russian. There is no evidence what distinguishes preparation now as international treaties - persistent discussions around each item and coordination of the positions of the parties. No, it wasn’t all done from the floundering bay (and I won’t get drunk, as Shevchenko wrote) - five and a half years passed between the first message of Khmelnitsky to Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich and Rada herself.

    On July 2, the sovereign finally sends the hetman a response to his letters of letters with his consent to "take the Zaporizhzhya army under his own hand."
    In total, the document contains 23 articles and acquaintance with them says that it cannot be considered as an international legal treaty. It is set out in the form of a petition to the king with a request for the preservation or granting of certain rights. The main subject on whose behalf the petitioners are not Ukraine, but the “Zaporizhzhya Army”.
    The issue of the rights of Ukraine as a territory is not considered in the articles, it is about the preservation of estate rights. Only paragraphs on self-collecting taxes and the right to relations with foreign representatives are knocked out of this series.
    1. alex_valent
      alex_valent 18 January 2014 19: 13
      +3
      An equal treaty? Between whom? On the one hand, Russia, on the other, is an unrecognized territory controlled by different atamans. The cardinal and the haberdasher are power !!!!
    2. 120352
      120352 18 January 2014 21: 56
      +2
      In fact, it was about the reunion of one, the Russian people. And this is reflected in the documents. Read.
  14. moremansf
    moremansf 18 January 2014 13: 24
    +5
    The conclusion suggests itself: - LETS LET'S LIFE FRIENDLY !!! We are one Slavic nation, Russia has gone from Kiev, everyone loves lard, so let's be friends with the head !!!
    1. Pilat2009
      Pilat2009 18 January 2014 13: 52
      +2
      Quote: moremansf
      GUYS LET'S BE FRIENDS!!!

      Are you telling this to us? To us or to them? You can make friends with families, apartments, groups in kindergarten ... If half of the country wants to the West and half to the East?
      1. Egoza
        Egoza 18 January 2014 14: 44
        +2
        Quote: Pilat2009
        If half the country wants the West and half the East?

        Yes it is. Only not half of the country, but a quarter.
        "The BBC correspondent, talking about Lviv, says that its residents feel like a part of Europe, and Donetsk is like a Russian city.
        "Walking around the old part of Lviv, I feel that I am in the very heart of Europe. There is classical, Gothic architecture, very similar to the cities of Central Europe. This part of Ukraine was formerly under the rule of Poland, and then Austria-Hungary. Before it became part of the USSR, and therefore many people here look to the West, look to Europe and advocate closer ties with the European Union, "the correspondent comments with a British accent. - “But, as you can see, the picture is completely different in this city. This is Donetsk, it is located more than 1000 kilometers east of Lviv. It does not at all look like Central Europe, but rather resembles a typical Russian city. Signs in Russian, everything speak Russian, and many enterprises depend on the Russian market, on trade relations with Russia. Therefore, many are afraid that the agreement with the EU will cause great damage to economic relations with Russia. "
        1. 120352
          120352 18 January 2014 22: 38
          +2
          You probably don't know the story well. Everything that you saw in Lviv was built by the Russian empire, and not by Austria-Hungary, especially the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. These two were destroying more and more. I will add that on the eve of the First World War in this city they spoke exclusively Russian, and the people who lived here called themselves Russians, Rusyns, or Little Russians. Ukrainians have never lived here (and still do not live). Ukrainian is not an ethnonym, but a professional affiliation of the people guarding the land of the fatherland, living near these lands. Today, this word corresponds to the modern BORDER. But is it worth all the people to stand at the border, especially in peacetime ...
          A few words about typical Russian cities. Have you ever been to St. Petersburg? Or in Moscow? Or in other cities built before the Bolsheviks? I think no. And in Donetsk, if they went beyond the borders of the working outskirts, they would see something interesting.
          And as for me, I have never considered Russians, Belarusians and Little Russians different nations and held them for their own, as one nation with a common culture and values!
      2. 120352
        120352 18 January 2014 22: 17
        0
        The half that wants to go to the West do not know that the EU today is a crowd of beggars and unemployed. Think of Greece, Portugal, Italy, France, Bulgaria, Romania, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and others. The economy is positive, and even small, only in Germany. And she will not feed everyone. Moreover, the "multicultural project", according to Merkel, did not give positive results and will soon be curtailed. Ahead of Europe, where now more than 30% of the population are those who are likely to soon begin to be evicted, as the Roma are now being evicted from France. Then it starts! Few will seem to anyone! And it would also be nice to keep in mind that Europe has a little more than zero mineral resources and there will not be enough of them for all. And we, thank God, have not stolen everything. So Russia, in comparison with Europe, is a more reliable and promising partner. Especially for little people. Although I do not think that after another betrayal in Russia, everyone will be happy to join them as a region. On other rights - not considered!
    2. 120352
      120352 18 January 2014 22: 08
      +2
      In fact, Russia started from the city of Rusa (now old Rusa), located on the southern coast of Lake Ilmen. The city stood at the confluence of the Porusya and Polist rivers, and salt was mined here. The salt was boiled down, as usual. The people who boiled salt were called VARIANS. They were wearing MITTENS on their hands. (The root is common. This is from Lomonosov). When people from Rusa came to other places, they were asked, they say, "and you guys will be whose guys", "yes we are Russians," the guys answered. After 300 years in the north of Lake Ilmen, the city of Novgorod was rebuilt - one of our first capitals. And when Novgorod got stronger, he sent his "representatives" to the regions further south, and there they built Kiev. On the site where Kinv was built, there was a ferry that belonged to Kiy. Hence the name of the city.
      As for living together, it's me forever!
  15. godun
    godun 18 January 2014 13: 30
    +1
    "Divide cannot be joined." Honor and gratitude to descendants, to those leaders of our countries who will correctly put a comma in our common history.
    Perhaps I, today, too, pile the pile with my wife, Ukrainian.
  16. Roman 1977
    Roman 1977 18 January 2014 13: 34
    0
    And now in Little Russia like this ...

    The statement of the so-called. "Hetman" (an ordinary puppet sitting on German bayonets) Skoropadsky: "... Narrow Ukrainianity is exclusively a product brought to us from Galicia, and it makes no sense to transplant a culture of which to us: there is no evidence of success and this is just a crime, because there is, in fact, no culture there. After all, the Galicians live on leftovers from the German and Polish table. Their language alone clearly reflects this, where in five words - 4 of Polish or German origin ... ".
  17. Cristall
    Cristall 18 January 2014 14: 01
    +2
    About
    Quote: Horde
    Traditions are trying to assure us that the type of gangster KAZATSKAYA army base, which was the Zaporizhzhya Sich-robber’s nest led by Bogdan Khmelnitsky, was able to defeat the MOST STRONGEST troops in Europe at that time in Poland - the POLISH LITHUANIAN army? An army that relied on the economic capabilities of a POWERFUL medieval state? For example, in the Polish army at that time there was already the famous winged armor cavalry. The blow was so strong that only troops equipped with a CANNON BATTLE could defend themselves, which the undeveloped economy of the Zaporizhzhya Sich never had or the same heavily armed LATNIKI, which again runs counter to the definition of Sich as the RELEVANT ECONOMIC BASIS of the army.

    How did the rebellion begin? Yes Hops raised a few Cossack regiments + 5 thousand Tatars Tugay Bey. Weapons were taken from what remained of the campaigns to the Crimea (admittedly, they were banned but unofficially the Cossacks robbed the lower reaches), so for starters there were a couple of guns. Cossacks-lovers of pistols. In a battle, usually sabers, and with pistols it’s convenient to quickly deal with any opponent nearby. Yes, and you can take them more than 2.
    Let me remind you that later Khmel recruited 9 thousand registered Cossacks with weapons to its side and the advanced detachment of the Poles was easily dispersed and the weapons seized. So little by little the Cossacks themselves made an arsenal. Well, in the first victory over self-confident Poles, they captured 28 guns and pretty good loot. Here you have an arsenal + guns + money (the ransom for the Poles, nobles, by the way, was also a lot.
    In battle, the armored cavalry could only act as a ram. It was not hot and cold for the Cossacks from it — guns and pistols, squares, camp carts and a picket fence were used.
    In general, those who said that they were against a firearm were right - the armor was redundant. By the way, the Cossacks themselves owned cavalry but were more infantrymen and used to deal with the Tatars (fast cavalry), therefore they had experience in operations against cavalry.
    How the siege of the cities was carried out - but this was just bad. There was little siege equipment; the firearm of the defense burned everything. Cossacks undermined poorly, little trench knowledge. The siege on exhaustion was carried out more, then the ransom and went further. Look Lviv did not take-preferred ransom. And so the poor opened the gates of cities.
    In general, Hops received a very good education - he and Mazepa were the most educated hetmans of the Cossacks. Experienced and good organizers. Their paths were different.
    The Ukrainian lands of those times were the scene of battles, uprisings and robberies. Tatars robbed and taken prisoner, Poles simply killed everyone, Ukrainian gaydamaks, all Jews and Poles, Cossacks, all Poles, etc. In general, a very terrible picture. Nobody could live in hell. The right bank was depopulated.
    One cannot believe that the Sultan was so generous - he was young. I haven’t really read anywhere that he would offer such an army. Hops may have suggested the path of the Moldavian and Wallachian state.
    1. Horde
      Horde 18 January 2014 21: 48
      0
      Quote: Cristall
      How did the rebellion begin?


      firstly, when you answer, answer in the thread that started the discussion ...
      Quote: Cristall
      Yes Hops raised a few Cossack regiments + 5 thousand Tatars Tugay Bey. Weapons took what has been preserved since the campaigns in Crimea (admittedly, they were banned but unofficially the Cossacks robbed


      in short, you again did not understand. NEVER a single PEOPLE REBELLION could defeat the ORGANIZED NATIONAL ARMY. The possibilities of the STATE and the AREA of the OLD PEOPLE are not comparable, even the help of the Tatars did not add the corresponding POWER to Khmelnitsky for victory in the war. was to equip the army? There were no bases.
  18. Cristall
    Cristall 18 January 2014 14: 02
    0
    In general, the war began and the initial requirements were very modest - to stop infringing on the rights of the Cossacks, to allow campaigns, to be able to profess Orthodoxy. After the victories under the LiveJournal and others - the hop requirements grew and grew. After Berestechka, Khmel did not fade, but continued to gather quietly, but when the European Butch brewed (Sweden Poland Lithuania Russia Crimea, etc.) that it was too late to think with the Poles after bloody vengeance, the Tatars and Turks are understandable to us. Optimal-Sweden, but how could she help Khmel, and so was the Moscow state, which was originally really abroad (Cossack ambassadors were accepted as foreigners)
    The situation for Alexei Mikhailovich was difficult - the Cossacks brewed such a thing under the border that certainly caused bad consequences in Muscovy itself. For example, the institutions of the Cossacks did not arouse approval at all - after all, they contradicted the principle "boyars own the peasants"
    the flight to Slobozhanshchina could throw unrest in Moscow. state
    Probably Alexei decided to link the tasks of maintaining order + to return the lost lands from the Poles and Lithuanians. The situation was not easy, but something had to be decided. It is better to do something than to wait when the abscess itself opens and pus floods all borders.
    By the way, regarding Ukraine and the celebration of the Pereyaslovskaya Rada as illegal, I’ve heard for the first time. In the textbooks, everything is fine, just BYuT deputies, VV Svolota and others - you need to immediately put them in and not let them into BP. These are traitors to the motherland.
    And I myself think this is a good event, the only thing that overshadows is when Russia and Polshch divided us along the Dnieper, gave us away Kiev (they returned it already under Sofya) and rewrote the March articles (although after the betrayal to Ruin it may be right)
    but this is all a story — everyone interprets it in his own way. The main thing is how to explain to children - how the brick of the universe will be laid for the future generation, their attitude to the Russia + Ukraine phenomenon.
    1. Roman 1977
      Roman 1977 18 January 2014 15: 15
      +2
      Well, yes, well, yes, the Ukrainian Cossacks were just the so-called "piracy from Tortuga", but they were never an independent force. The same Sagaidachny could rob Russian cities, but after that he asked for money and patronage from Mikhail Fedorovich:
      "First of all, he [Sagaidachny] took and ruined the cities of Putivl, Livny and Yelets, destroying many men, women and children in them ...". So, in Putivl, the Molgansky monastery was looted, and all the monks were killed. The same thing happened in Rylsk with St. Nicholas Monastery.
      “Depending on Sagaidachny, Mikhailo Doroshenko acted with his comrades, who took the cities of Lebedyan, Dankov, Skopin and Ryaski, beating a lot of men, women, children into them“ to sheer babies ”; and then, bursting into the Ryazan region, set fire to many villages, beat several priests and proceeded to the city of Pereyaslav, but was repulsed and went to Yelets. Sagaidachny himself, taking Livny and Yelets, went to Shatsky and Dankov and from here sent Colonel the Gracious with 1000 ahead of him a man of Kozaks under the city of Mikhailov (Ryazan province), ordering him to break into the city at night and take him. Colonel the Gracious, hesitating for a long time as a result of the terrible thunder and heavy rain, managed to come to the city only on August 12 of the day, on the same day when 40 people of Great Russian military men came to the city of Sapozhkov. The latter, leaving Sapozhkov’s city with several of his inhabitants, did not allow the Merciful to Mikhailov “and defeated many warring constipation”. ”
      On August 17, the hetman approached Mikhailov with the main forces and demanded the surrender of the city. But the warriors and the townsfolk rejected the offers of the Cossacks. They answered from the walls of the fortress: a legitimate king was elected in Moscow and we kissed the cross for him, but we do not need any Polish princes or any other rulers. 17 August Zaporizhzhya army launched an assault on the fortress.
      Sahaidachny ordered to shoot around the city with red-hot kernels and shoot arrows with incendiary substances. The Cossacks built a "omen" - they filled up the ditch with earth and brushwood, dragged the logs, built a kind of platform to the level of the fortress walls.
      The attacks of the Cossacks lasted two days. Then some philistine Mitrofan led the besieged on a sortie through the North Gate. The Cossacks did not expect a performance and fled. Mikhailovtsi managed to burn "all shields, assaults and signs" (various wooden protective devices).
      The next day, an enraged Sagaidachny announced to the residents of Mikhailov that he would take the city like a bird and put it on fire, and he would order all residents, young and old, to cut off his arm and leg and throw it to the dogs. 23 August Cossacks again began to prepare for the assault. And the defenders in plain sight of the Zaporizhzhya army made a procession with icons and banners on the walls of the fortress.
      With the beginning of the assault, the Mikhailovites again went on a sortie. Not only warriors, but also women and children fired from the city walls from cannons and squeakers. “And the all-pernicious enemy of Sagaidachny, with the rest of his consternations, departing from the city with fear and grief of August on the 27 day, and the inhabitants of the God-protected city of Mikhailov celebrate all summer long on those days, on the first day of August on 17 day, a miracle of the archangel Michael, and on the departure from the city of the constipation of August in 27 day is celebrated by the great miracle worker Nicolas "
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Roman 1977
        Roman 1977 18 January 2014 15: 21
        +5
        However, the Poles did not appreciate the "exploits" of Sagaidachny and again reduced the register and again he ran to the Russian Tsar ...
        As for the Sahaidachny himself, he apparently finally realized what he and the Little Russian Cossacks threatened with an alliance with the Poles. Sahaidachny publicly repented and asked for forgiveness from the Jerusalem patriarch Theophanes for the atrocities committed by him and his Cossacks in Russia in 1618.
        Not only that, he sends his chieftain Peter Odints to Moscow "with comrades" with a request to accept the hetman, along with the entire Zaporizhzhya Army, to serve the tsar.
        In March 1620, Odinets spoke to the boyars. Here is her official record: “They were sent by the entire Zaporizhzhya army, hetman Sagaidachny with comrades, beating the sovereign with the brow, declaring their service that they all want to serve him as their great sovereign as before, as they had served the former great Russian sovereigns and in their state there were commands and went to their enemies, Crimean uluses smashed. Now they also serve the great sovereign, went to Crimean uluses, and there were 5000 people, they had business with Crimean people on this side of Perekopi under the very wall; Tatars were at Perekopi with 7000 people, and at the outpost with 11 000; by the grace of God and the sovereign happiness of the Tatars they beat many, the Christian people freed many from the hands of the Tatars; with this service and with Tatar languages ​​they were sent to the sovereign: God is free and the royal majesty, as he grants them, and they want to serve his royal majesty with all their heads and now they want to seek him for royal mercy ”. The wise clerk Gramotin, praising them for their service, said: “Here in the Russian state, a rumor rushed that the Polish Zygimont king made peace with the Turks in friendship and wants to step on their faith: so they would have declared as the Polish king with the Turks Dad and Caesar? And on their faith from the Poles, what kind of encroachment is there? ”Cherkasy replied:“ There was no encroachment on us from the Polish king; he is with the Turks in the world, and at sea we are forbidden to go on Turkish people from Zaporozhye, but it is not forbidden to go from small rivers; we don’t know anything about the caesar and about the pope, and we were not ordered to go to Crimea. In the spring we all go to Zaporozhye, and to Tsarist Majesty we all beat our brow, so that the sovereign grants us as his servants. ” The king sent the Sahaidachny 300 rubles of “easy salary” and sent a letter.
        1. Roman 1977
          Roman 1977 18 January 2014 17: 43
          +2
          And five years later, when hetman Vyhovsky betrayed, for the first, but not the last time, there was a battle near Konotop, which svidomo historians still call "the great victory of the Ukrainian arms", although the main victory was won by the army of the Crimean Khan, for the Tatars were 35 000, and the Cossacks 16, and on the Russian side, there were 000 Cossacks of the Zaporozhye hetman Ivan Bespaly. However, they cut out all the prisoners, without disassembling the Russians or Ukrainians ...

          Svidomo picture of the battle of Konotop
          Vygovsky was the same ethnic mutant that most modern Ukrainian politicians are: “An ethnic mutant is at a loss in assessing his ethnicity, as he feels the struggle of opposing, mutually exclusive principles in his soul. Many representatives of the Cossack foreman of the Hetman era precisely represent such a nationally mutated type: Russians by blood, in their psychology, social life, cultural preferences, adjoined the Poles and were guided by gentry-caste values. Historical fate decreed that they were not destined to assimilate completely into the Polish ethnic group, but they no longer felt Russian, although they also called them by inertia ”
          Well, then came the "Ruin", about its morals best, evidenced by the Chronicle of the 17th century:
          “In the monastery near Baturin, a record of one of the seventeenth-century archimandrites was kept for a long time. Its name speaks for itself: “Ruin”, and it contains a description of “the acts and atrocities of the hetmans and other leaders of the Little Russian people”, giving their following list:

          Vygovsky Ivan - an oath, fratricide, the drive of the Tatars to destroy the Little Russian people, the sale of Russia to Catholics and Poles, a silver lover Veliy.

          Khmelnitsky Yuri - the oath-breaker three times, Christ seller of faith and people to the Lyakhs and Busurmans; Tatar drive.

          Doroshenko Petr is a bribe taker, a rascal, an oath-breaker, the culprit of fratricide and torment of the people from the Tatars who have undergone, a Busurman servant.

          Teteria Pavel is a money-lover, oath-criminal and servant voluntary lyashsky. The instigator of Yu. Khmelnitsky for treason.

          The many-sinful Damian is a crafty, double-minded slave, prone to betrayal, well-exposed and punished with retribution.


          In general, the criminal code rests ...
          1. zennon
            zennon 18 January 2014 19: 26
            0
            In general, the criminal code rests ...

            This is nothing! You will recite at your leisure a list of popes! Bandit on a bandit! yes
            1. Roman 1977
              Roman 1977 18 January 2014 19: 40
              +3
              Dear, we are not discussing popes now ... Just excuse me in the Russian Empire, Ukrainians became field marshals (Paskevich) chancellors (Kochubey). The most outstanding ace of the Soviet Union is Ivan Kozhedub, also Ukrainian. And this is part of OUR common story, which NEEDS to be proud, forgive me as a cat-dog Bandera and his comrade-in-arms Shlyukhevych, I will never be proud, and I do not want to, but only be ashamed, but now their time has come, sorry Iosif Vissarionovich. And God sees, I would really like to be proud of Ukraine, but unfortunately there is nothing to be proud of ...
              1. zennon
                zennon 18 January 2014 20: 24
                0
                Dear, we are not discussing popes now ...

                People, dear, remain people. It does not matter where and when they lived. At all times there have been, are and will be heroes and traitors. And Karbyshev existed along with the Vlasov. And Kozhedub with Bandera. I don’t see anything original ...
                1. Roman 1977
                  Roman 1977 18 January 2014 21: 22
                  +3
                  You know, Vlasov, unfortunately, is my fellow countryman (look in profile), a native of the Nizhny Novgorod region, and when his relative decided to open a house museum, the Afghans and Chechens came to her and explained how this museum would burn brightly in the night ... And I am proud of these ... A monument to Banderlog is only erected in the Zapadenshchina, and on Skhid there are monuments to those killed by creatures

                  Monument to the cat-dog Banderka in Lviv
                  And this is a monument to the victims of banderlog in Lugansk

                  And as for the monument to Vlasovites, so the only monument to scum looks now like this ...

                  1. zennon
                    zennon 18 January 2014 23: 04
                    +1
                    And I'm proud of these ...

                    And I completely share your beliefs! I do not see a subject of dispute between us. But again! Scum and heroes coexist wonderfully in this world! In one trench, someone makes a bunch of grenades in order to blow itself up under an enemy tank, and a certain creature applies a cabbage leaf to leg, to make a crossbow and go to the "hose part". Nothing will surprise the white light ...
                2. The comment was deleted.
                3. 120352
                  120352 18 January 2014 22: 58
                  +1
                  That's just to set Kozhedub next to Bandera - the last thing!
                  1. zennon
                    zennon 18 January 2014 23: 07
                    0
                    Quote: 120352
                    That's just to set Kozhedub next to Bandera - the last thing!

                    I just said that they existed at the same time. And note the names of ushlepkov wrote with a small letter ...
                  2. Roman 1977
                    Roman 1977 18 January 2014 23: 08
                    +5
                    I subscribe to every word, you can’t match the German (yes, anyone who pays the most) cat-bitch Hannah Banderka with OUR BEST ASOM Ivan Kozhedub, it’s the same as comparing feces and HUMAN. Yes, choose yourself ...

                    Cat-dog, German slut and scum Banderka

                    Ivan Kozhedub- reference Ukrainian, beauty and pride of any Air Force
                  3. The comment was deleted.
                4. xan
                  xan 19 January 2014 17: 19
                  0
                  Quote: zennon
                  People, dear, remain people. It does not matter where and when they lived. At all times there have been, are and will be heroes and traitors. And Karbyshev existed along with the Vlasov. And Kozhedub with Bandera. I don’t see anything original ...

                  And I see the original! Among the leaders of Ukraine at that time there are no Karbyshevs and Kozhedubov, and all are solid Vlasovs, Bandera and Mazepa. All changed sides several times, changed the oath. Even the most famous warrior Bogun also noted in treason, managed to take the side of his eternal enemies of the Poles and ultimately was shot by them for treason already in Poland.
                  If there are knowledgeable people here, let them name at least one who has not been noticed in treason.
          2. 120352
            120352 18 January 2014 22: 53
            +1
            Not I said, the story says: betrayal and bribery are the favorite entertainment of a significant part of Ukrainians.
        2. The comment was deleted.
      3. 120352
        120352 18 January 2014 22: 48
        +1
        Unfortunately, there are enough of such Sahaidachnye in malorosiya. It seems to me that all the last presidents of her, including Yanukovych, are the same. One passion: to strip Russia or Europe, and better both those and others (and the neighbor).
    2. The comment was deleted.
  19. godun
    godun 18 January 2014 15: 18
    +2
    No matter how anyone interprets history, the main thing is that we ourselves and our children do not forget that we are of the same root, one genus, Rusich. And then, no one reptile can not drive a wedge between us.
  20. homosum20
    homosum20 18 January 2014 15: 59
    +5
    I carefully read and understood one thing: the so-called. the elites of the land on which modern Ukraine is located made political prostitution their ideological base in the 1600s. Yes....
    With such a heredity, it’s hard to be decent people. My condolences.
    It seems that the closer to the geyrop, the stronger the corrupting influence. At all times.
    1. Pilat2009
      Pilat2009 18 January 2014 17: 14
      +1
      Quote: homosum20
      made political prostitution their ideological base in the 1600s

      In such a situation it’s not easy to become a prostitute. On the one hand, Poland, on the other Tatars, on the third, Russia. They turned aside.
      1. Curculum
        Curculum 18 January 2014 18: 36
        +1
        Quote: Pilat2009
        In such a situation it’s not easy to become a prostitute. On the one hand, Poland, on the other Tatars, on the third, Russia. They turned aside.

        And you couldn't cross your legs (in your opinion) and do more legitimate business? Is the gut thin or is something always in the way? "Kaneshna", it is easier to dodge than to create ...
      2. 120352
        120352 18 January 2014 23: 07
        0
        Everything is so, but only Russia is not on the third side. Russia is the motherland!
    2. shevron
      shevron 18 January 2014 18: 51
      0
      Quote: homosum20
      With such a heredity, it's hard to be decent people.

      And you see with a different heredity - obviously not Slavic roots. THIS IS HOW MUCH DIFFERENT PEOPLE IN RUSSIA LIVES NOW
      1. 120352
        120352 18 January 2014 23: 09
        +1
        In Russia, dishonorable people are in every way less than in malorosii.
        1. shevron
          shevron 23 January 2014 00: 04
          0
          Did you consider it yourself? And what is the criterion of dishonesty in the Slavic roots?
  21. GorynychZmey78
    GorynychZmey78 18 January 2014 19: 11
    +4
    give brothers! friend! needs to be united as soon as possible! and then the farther into the forest the louder screams for the EU!
    1. 120352
      120352 18 January 2014 23: 13
      +1
      But I’m thinking, being behind me in a combat situation, the representative of modern Ukraine, is safer than he won’t be alone ...
  22. zennon
    zennon 18 January 2014 19: 21
    0
    Quote: MIKHAN
    Happy Ukrainians! In unity, our strength!

    And will we give them the joy of the Voronezh region?
    1. 120352
      120352 18 January 2014 23: 15
      +1
      Yes, we really will take all their areas for ourselves. Is there one people? and the territory should be one.
  23. Egoza
    Egoza 18 January 2014 19: 47
    +6
    The Council of Slavic peoples of Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Belarus advocated the unity of the peoples of the three countries
    The need to restore a single economic, humanitarian and defense space between Ukraine, Russia and Belarus was indicated by the participants in the Council of Slavic Peoples of the three countries. It was dedicated to the 360th anniversary of the Pereyaslav Rada, celebrated on Saturday, the most important historical event that for centuries determined the fate of the Slavic peoples, ITAR-TASS reports.
    “We appeal to the governments of Ukraine, Belarus, Russia and fraternal Kazakhstan to immediately resume negotiations on Ukraine’s participation in the Common Economic Space and complete them before the beginning of 2015,” the forum’s final declaration says. - We appeal to the parliaments of Belarus, Russia, Kazakhstan with a request for political support for the formation of the Eurasian Economic Union with the participation of Ukraine. "We fully support the idea of ​​the will of the people to join Ukraine in the Customs Union and the Common Economic Space of Belarus, Russia and Kazakhstan."
    The appeal calls on the citizens of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan to speak out in support of the formation of the Eurasian Economic Union, based on common interests. The world community is pointed out to the need to "condemn the manifestations of neo-fascism, the propaganda of Nazism and the glorification of Hitler collaborators, no matter who they organize in Ukraine."
    The forum participants asked presidents and parliaments to declare January 18 as a single state holiday - the Day of Unity of the Peoples of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia.
    http://news2000.com.ua/news/sobytija/v-ukraine/242908
    HERE AND LITTLE FROM THE PAST TO THE FUTURE !!! LET IT BE SO!!!!
    1. Sour
      Sour 18 January 2014 20: 14
      +2
      Quote: Egoza
      indicated the participants in the Council of Slavic peoples of the three countries.

      The whole problem is that no one has chosen this party. And no one authorized them to speak on behalf of the peoples, and at once three.
      Quote: Egoza
      in the single economic space

      Either a single unitary state, or tobacco apart. "Single economic space" - this is when Russia at its own expense feeds everyone, and then. when Russia has difficulties (and they periodically arise for all), these willing people will turn their ass towards Russia, and even blame it for all the problems. This was the case in 1991. I have no objection to Ukraine joining Russia as the Southwest Federal District. But no "federations" and no "common spaces" are needed. Because the result will be the same - for the money of Russian taxpayers (including mine) they will feed the "fraternal peoples" who will then betray Russia at any moment convenient for them.
      Quote: Egoza
      "Condemn the manifestations of neo-fascism, the propaganda of Nazism and the glorification of Hitler collaborators, no matter who they organize in Ukraine."

      Here I do not mind even once.
      1. xan
        xan 19 January 2014 17: 22
        0
        Quote: Sour
        Either a single unitary state, or tobacco apart. "Single economic space" - this is when Russia at its own expense feeds everyone, and then. when Russia has difficulties (and they periodically arise for all), these willing people will turn their ass towards Russia, and even blame it for all the problems. This was the case in 1991. I have no objection to Ukraine joining Russia as the Southwest Federal District. But no "federations" and no "common spaces" are needed. Because the result will be the same - for the money of Russian taxpayers (including mine) they will feed the "fraternal peoples" who will then betray Russia at any moment convenient for them.

        I think so.
    2. GorynychZmey78
      GorynychZmey78 18 January 2014 20: 32
      +2
      Egoza
      “We appeal to the governments of Ukraine, Belarus, Russia and fraternal Kazakhstan with an appeal to immediately resume negotiations on Ukraine’s participation in the Common Economic Space and complete them before the beginning of 2015,”


      oh, I’m going to have a hot year 2014-15!
      and a campaign not only for Ukraine
      Europe, too, is clearly unintentional so easy to establish its position!
      even in our country, even under Old Man, the liberal forces that had sat down to sit down and the Natsyks started stirring recently lately snapped oh not good))
      but nothing at all! it’s all unlikely that we can stand it and stand together! and it will be as it should be!
      Thanks you! the news is without a doubt positive! we will hope and try to do everything possible on our part so that it all is so!
  24. AVV
    AVV 18 January 2014 21: 16
    +1
    Quote: Gato
    Quote: JIaIIoTb
    I will put)))

    It’s nice to understand that there are people who are really interested in history, and do not read newspapers drinks

    They are interested in history and read newspapers !!!
    1. KuzmichDP
      KuzmichDP 18 January 2014 21: 33
      0
      For vodka and beer wink drinks
  25. Cristall
    Cristall 18 January 2014 21: 35
    0
    The capture of Putivl by Sagaidak was the same as Baturin and Sich for the Ukrainians. Yes, we can say that there were traitors (traitors for the king / tsarina), but what the tsar’s troops did was no different from the Sagaidak Cossacks. So if you look for pain points, then you can find a lot of them if you wish and poke them to each other. Only it is not necessary.
    Sagaidak was a subject of the King of Poland — Poland led the war and Sagaidak was there as a subject / ally. Moreover, he didn’t just go there. Great work was worth persuading him and the Cossacks too. Only the Poles deceived the Cossacks this time. And then the Cossacks did not rescue them near Tsetsora. Only for repeated promises did he save the Poles near Khotyn at the cost of his life.
    So Sagaidachny should not be blamed; he is a child of his era, not a barbarian. He did a lot for the Ukrainian lands and culture and Orthodoxy.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Roman 1977
      Roman 1977 18 January 2014 22: 05
      +3
      Quote: Cristall
      The capture of Putivl by Sagaidak was the same as Baturin and Sich for the Ukrainians. Yes, we can say that there were traitors (traitors for the king / tsarina), but what the tsar’s troops did was no different from the Sagaidak Cossacks

      Yes, cheeks you cheat on me, let's start with Baturin, by the way where mass graves, Svidomo historians counted there 30 000 victims, so it should be at least 30 graves, but for some reason there were no graves, it remains only to paint beautiful pictures ...

      Moreover, the “Black People” openly hated the hetman who enslaved them - it was not in vain that Mazepa kept the “Serdyukov” and “Companions” with him, and the purely Cossack regiments tried as often as possible to send them to fight somewhere far away. Yes, by the way, Mazepa himself was still a traitor, and besides Peter he was ready to betray Karl too ...
      Tangled in provocations and intrigues, executed in absentia and forever cursed by the Orthodox Church and all the people, the old villain and traitor began to rush in search of a way out. Strongly doubting the chances of the “invincible Swedes”, Mazepa suddenly realized with horror that he had made a terrible mistake. Russia and Peter, whom he so basely betrayed, will win! In desperation, at the end of 1708, he sent his messenger to the king with an incredible proposal. He, Mazepa, captures and hands over to the Russians Karl XII and the main Swedish generals. For this, Peter returns him the hetman mace, his mercy and former location. At the same time, Mazepa demanded a guarantee from large European states. So the sworn enemy of Ukraine and Russia became a traitor to his new ally and friend - the Swedish king Charles XII.

      Mazepa’s army, for reasons unknown today, did not take part in the Poltava battle. The remnants of the Charles Horde were surrounded by regular Menshikov cavalry and Cossacks, after which they surrendered with great relief. By the way, the Swedes came up with a yellow-black flag to distinguish their Cossacks ...

      1. Kars
        Kars 18 January 2014 22: 25
        +3
        I will answer the picture.
        No need to strain yourself to call someone brothers, why did you decide that this will please us?
        1. Roman 1977
          Roman 1977 18 January 2014 22: 41
          0
          Wow, there’s already been brewed with cracks in the BTR-4, by the way fools have found who will buy this shit, although this metal bay will look best in ZSU.

          In general, the feces of HEROES, HEROES of the feces.

          1. Kars
            Kars 18 January 2014 23: 19
            +3
            Quote: Novel 1977
            In general, the feces of HEROES, HEROES of the feces.

            If you like it, eat it. Just do not impose it on others.

            Quote: Novel 1977
            on BTR-4

            There are articles on this subject, my comments are there.
        2. The comment was deleted.
      2. igor67
        igor67 18 January 2014 23: 11
        +5
        [quote = Roman 1977] [quote = Cristall] The capture of Putivl by Sagaidak was the same as Baturin and Sich for the Ukrainians. Yes, we can say that there were traitors (traitors for the king / tsarina), but what the tsar’s troops did was no different from the Sagaidak Cossacks [/ quote]
        Yes, cheeks you cheat on me, let's start with Baturin, by the way where mass graves, Svidomo historians counted there 30 000 victims, so it should be at least 30 graves, but for some reason there were no graves, it remains only to paint beautiful pictures ...
        I was in Baturin at 2011, and as the excursionist told when they excavated and discovered an agromic number of the remains of people, both children and adults, which graves were not there, I remember only the ruins of Razumovsky and Mazepa’s palace from childhood,
        And in Ukrainian: before sho you are mani balakae, and you have some kind of surzhik, you better write in Russian
        1. Roman 1977
          Roman 1977 18 January 2014 23: 25
          +1
          So I am Russian with Ukrainian roots
          Quote: igor67
          I was in Baturin at 2011, and as the excursionist told when they excavated and discovered an agromic number of the remains of people, both children and adults, which graves were not there, I remember only the ruins of Razumovsky and Mazepa’s palace from childhood,
          Well, if there were mass graves there, so svidomye would have trumpeted the whole world for a long time, as a sign of Russian cruelty, by the way we did not forget ...
          1. igor67
            igor67 19 January 2014 00: 02
            +1
            Quote: Novel 1977
            So I am Russian with Ukrainian roots
            Quote: igor67
            I was in Baturin at 2011, and as the excursionist told when they excavated and discovered an agromic number of the remains of people, both children and adults, which graves were not there, I remember only the ruins of Razumovsky and Mazepa’s palace from childhood,
            Well, if there were mass graves there, so svidomye would have trumpeted the whole world for a long time, as a sign of Russian cruelty, by the way we did not forget ...

            So, under Yushchenko, they sounded the trumpets, you probably missed it, they erected monuments near Konotop, the roads were paved in honor of the Battle of Konotop, in Baturyn at the burial site, by the way it was a moat, again, according to the guide, a chapel was erected. And there they talk about the cruelty with which Menshikov staged a "massacre"
            1. The comment was deleted.
            2. Roman 1977
              Roman 1977 19 January 2014 00: 10
              +3
              Igor, and what are you from the Sumy region, my mother is from Lipovo-Dolinsky district, and my grandmother says that when the Germans came all the Jews (I’m not offended, I’m judging by the flag) were taken to Kozelnoe and shot, well, in general, give OH you happiness and health, so that not one Churkobesovsky "Kassam" will never fall on you.
              1. igor67
                igor67 19 January 2014 00: 42
                +1
                [quote = Roman 1977] Igor, what are you from the Sumy region, my mother is from Lipovo-Dolinsky district, and my grandmother says that when the Germans came all the Jews (no matter what, I’m judging by the flag) were taken to Kozelnoe and shot, well, in general OH to you happiness and health, so that more than one Churkobesovsky "Kassam" never falls on you.
                Thank you, I'm from the Sumy region., drinks only hezbola has no box office, they have hail laughing Father and his mother (my grandmother) were evacuated from the factory, my grandfather died near Stalingrad, the rest of the relatives were killed by the Germans, so who and how many of them were father doesn’t shoot in our city, two were shot in the territory of the former h, a monument has been standing there since Soviet times, most likely there were shot prisoners of war Jews, there was a concentration camp and second place outside the city, there are local residents.
                1. The comment was deleted.
                2. Roman 1977
                  Roman 1977 19 January 2014 00: 55
                  0
                  You know, I generally have a cool father in this matter, half Mordvin, half Russian (a red star for Afghan, would get more, but you need to drink less), "stuntman". Ukrainian mother must correspond, there are four stars on the chase, but tell me Igor, there is a small country of Israel, you still will not exterminate all Arabs, and you will lie down for her, but you will not pull home.
                  1. igor67
                    igor67 19 January 2014 01: 03
                    +1
                    Quote: Novel 1977
                    You know, I generally have a cool father in this matter, half Mordvin, half Russian (a red star for Afghan, would get more, but you need to drink less), "stuntman". Ukrainian mother must correspond, there are four stars on the chase, but tell me Igor, there is a small country of Israel, you still will not exterminate all Arabs, and you will lie down for her, but you will not pull home.

                    Today or yesterday, I don’t want to look for an article that, after reading the Gulag, an American writer did not see Russia, and the second article was about how the Americans see the Sochi Olympics because of the media, so now you are quite the opposite, in order to understand at least there is a lot going on here, it’s necessary to see with your own eyes, and not just what they write and show, when I went here I also thought about you, but it turned out that no one is destroying anyone, we live here together, we can say in the shuffle, in neighboring houses,
                    1. Roman 1977
                      Roman 1977 19 January 2014 01: 13
                      +3
                      Well, give IT to you to your children, and most importantly to the parents OF GOOD LUCK and health, and this is the main thing, hear, and you shot from Tavor, it’s like a descent, it's tough ... this is not a military secret, by the way, it's just interesting, you know if you shoot from a new PM , it is difficult to pull the trigger, especially if the trigger is not cocked
                    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. xan
      xan 19 January 2014 17: 32
      0
      Quote: Cristall
      Sagaidak was a subject of the King of Poland — Poland led the war and Sagaidak was there as a subject / ally. Moreover, he didn’t just go there. Great work was worth persuading him and the Cossacks too. Only the Poles deceived the Cossacks this time.

      No need to shield Sagaidachnogo, you can hang noodles for those who do not know history.
      The campaign of Sagaidachny did not have military significance, the Poles were stopped and left for Poland before joining Sagaidachny. If he is such an honest warrior, why didn’t he leave for Ukraine after he received the news that the Poles were leaving for Poland, but remained to rob and kill?
  26. vignat21
    vignat21 18 January 2014 21: 56
    +1
    Not a contract, but a satisfied petition. There was no signing of documents in Pereyaslov. In the city on January 8 (according to the old style) at 14 o'clock there was a drum beat, calling residents to the square. When the people gathered, the hetman addressed him with a speech. After which the people shouted: “Volim under the Tsar of the East, Orthodox!” That is, the choice made by the hetman and his entourage was legitimized by the voice of the assembled people.
    In a document agreed in Moscow, which has to be called Pereyaslavl articles anyway (since under this name it went down in history). The word "Ukraine" is mentioned only once in it (Article 20), and in the lines written by the Russians, from which it is not very clear whether the whole Ukrainian territory is meant or simply the border of the Russian state.
    1. Nicholas C.
      Nicholas C. 19 January 2014 00: 09
      +2
      Quote: vignat21
      In a document agreed in Moscow, which has to be called Pereyaslavl articles anyway (since under this name it went down in history). The word "Ukraine" is mentioned only once in it (Article 20), and in the lines written by the Russians, from which it is not very clear whether the whole Ukrainian territory is meant or simply the border of the Russian state.

      Quote: vignat21
      The word "Russia" is also mentioned once (Art. 3), just in the text of the petition written by the Cossacks, and by Russia is meant just Ukraine.

      Quote: vignat21
      The main subject on whose behalf the petitioners speak is not Ukraine, but the Zaporizhzhya Army.


      Lying. And intentionally bring here Svidomo's lies and propaganda. Agreed in Moscow in total eleven! There is no 20th article and there is no "Ukraine" there. But Great Russia, Little Russia at every turn. Pay attention in the above scan to the direct speech of Bogdan Khmelnitsky, where he speaks about "the name of the Russian in our land" and about "our Little Russia". The petition comes not only from the hetman personally and from the Zaporozhye army, but also from "the whole world of the Christian Russian."
      http://www.nlr.ru/e-res/law_r/show_page.php?page=318&root=1/1/

      It is also worth noting that the great Lithuanian princes in these documents are called the Russian Grand Dukes.

      The complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire. The 1st edition was compiled under the direction of M. M. Speransky and published in 1830. Pages. 318 onwards. www.nlr.ru/e-res/law_r/search.php
  27. vignat21
    vignat21 18 January 2014 21: 56
    0
    The word "Russia" is also mentioned once (Art. 3), just in the text of the petition written by the Cossacks, and by Russia is meant just Ukraine. “The gentry, which is gained in Russia and faith according to the immaculate command of Christ to you, our great Sovereign, your Royal Majesty, was made so that, with their noble liberties, they would remain ...”, that is, this is a request to be on the annexed lands Ukrainian gentry retained its rights.

    In total, the document has 23 articles, from familiarity with the content of which it follows that it cannot be considered as an international legal treaty. It is set out in the form of a petition to the king with a request for the preservation or granting of certain rights. The main subject on whose behalf the petitioners speak is not Ukraine, but the Zaporizhzhya Army. Here is the first article of the petition:

    “First, please your Royal Majesty confirm our rights and liberties. The troops, as has happened for centuries in the Zaporizhzhya Army, have narrowed their rights and had their liberties in good and in the courts; so that neither the voivode, nor the boyar, nor the steward would join the military courts, but from their oldest so that the partnership would be narrowed: where there are three Cossacks, then two third should be judged. "

    The following is a note already made in Moscow: “The Tsar pointed out this article and the boyars were sentenced to be so by their petition”. A similar litter accompanies each of the articles. And in most of the rest, it is mainly about Cossack affairs.

    Art. 2 determines the number of troops at 60. 000 secures Chigirin in the domain of the hetman. Art. 5 preserves the election of the hetman by the Cossacks. Art. 6 assigns the Cossacks land and other property that they owned, as well as the inheritance of this property by widows and children. Art. 7–8 favor mills and monetary compensation to the chief officials of the Cossacks — the military clerk, colonels, judges, Yesauls, etc. 11 provides the Cossacks money for the manufacture of weapons and salaries to the gunners.

    Art. 14 retains the right of the Zaporizhzhya Army to communicate with foreign envoys. Moreover, they undertake to inform the king if these ambassadors made proposals hostile to him. This article was approved with reservations: the king decided to communicate with all the ambassadors, detain ambassadors of countries hostile to him and not communicate without a royal decree with the Turkish sultan and the Polish king.

    Art. 16 secures the non-interference of the royal governor in the affairs of the Ukrainian Cossacks. Art. 17 - gives the Cossacks privileges on their liberties in the form of “charters written with seals hanging”, while the Cossacks are given the right to determine who the Cossack is and who the peasant is.

    Art. 19 contains a request to send tsarist troops to Smolensk, art. 20 - to allocate at least 3 thousand troops to protect against Poles at the borders of the new annexed territory. Art. 21, where a request was made for regular payments to the Zaporizhzhya Army with a specific indication of salaries by job, the only one with which the tsar did not agree, citing heavy military expenses. In addition, he recalled: the hetman informed the tsar's envoys that the army would not ask for a salary. Art. 22 asks that Don Cossacks not attack the Crimea in case of its neutrality and provide assistance in case of raids, Art. 23 - allocate supplies for the Kodak fortress, as well as for the Cossacks beyond the Dnieper rapids.
    1. vignat21
      vignat21 18 January 2014 21: 59
      0
      I found this here: [media = http: //maloros.org/tradicii/retrospektiva/2543-2014-01-17-02-44-06.html]
  28. Egoza
    Egoza 18 January 2014 22: 19
    +5
    Today, January 18, in Kiev, the all-Ukrainian organization "Ukrainian Choice" is holding its action - they organized a car rally, reports TSN.
    Photos on Facebook were posted by Nikolay Knyazhitsky. The pictures show that the number of cars with the flags of Russia and "Ukrainian Choice" is at least six. Such a large column will no longer be able to move without permission through the streets of the country after the new law comes into force.
    The organization organized a large-scale rally with Russian flags in Chernihiv - they even made three festive salvos from a cannon in honor of the 360th anniversary of the Pereyaslav Rada.
    http://www.segodnya.ua/politics/pnews/kolonna-avtomobiley-s-rossiyskimi-flagami-
    kursiruet-po-kievu-489374.html
    This is how our media manipulate! After all, the law says that if you want to move around in a large column, you just need to give permission to the traffic police to indicate the purpose of the column, for example, a wedding. But it’s necessary to say disgust, at least slowly.
  29. 120352
    120352 18 January 2014 23: 22
    +1
    One people must be together!
  30. Cristall
    Cristall 19 January 2014 00: 15
    +1
    Quote: Novel 1977
    Yes, cheeks you cheat on me, let's start with Baturin, by the way where mass graves, Svidomo historians counted there 30 000 victims, so it should be at least 30 graves, but for some reason there were no graves, it remains only to paint beautiful pictures ...

    I'm talking about Ivan, they tell me ...
    stop kindergarten! Do you understand that you are provoking srach again? I cited as an example, that poking at each other the moments of history interpreted differently as evidence of the cruelty of each other's betrayal and other things not good --- it's bad. Yes it was! It was the attitude of Ukrainians to Russians and vice versa. No need to pretend that some were good and warm, while others were evil and cold. winked Both sides were good! If we only remember this, then we won’t cook porridge.
    And stop carrying heresy, you everywhere svidomye seem. They do not exist in VO, but even adequate Ukrainians are being harassed. I will not forget how Akim was called Bendera. This is unforgivable!
    "as soon as the wind from the heights of power changed and the crowd shouted crucify him ...."
    Think what you say and to whom you say!
    Threat, sorry for the emotional comment. We ourselves carry chestnuts from the fire and sculpt bricks for the wall ...
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Roman 1977
      Roman 1977 19 January 2014 00: 31
      0
      Sorry, I didn’t want to ... we won’t ... And it’s not worth it ... Hear, you know, in 1991, fate created Ukraine and Russia, there are people, there are scum, my mother is Ukrainian, you know how frustrated when on TV about things in your HRAID are telling, or I’ll say something stupid about Ukraine, my wife is half Ukrainian, her surname is Ulyanchenko. You, my friend, explain to me what happened, that the Russian (I agree to .... dagger) with the Ukrainian will be disgraced. Understand it yourself, they will order me to, and you probably will do the same, but why? It’s scary to think that a Russian and a Ukrainian will go to each other with weapons, but after all, this is all going on ... Can it really be so ... IT DOES WE NEED FOR YOU?
      1. igor67
        igor67 19 January 2014 00: 52
        +1
        Quote: Novel 1977
        Sorry, I didn’t want to ... we won’t ... And it’s not worth it ... Hear, you know, in 1991, fate created Ukraine and Russia, there are people, there are scum, my mother is Ukrainian, you know how frustrated when on TV about things in your HRAID are telling, or I’ll say something stupid about Ukraine, my wife is half Ukrainian, her surname is Ulyanchenko. You, my friend, explain to me what happened, that the Russian (I agree to .... dagger) with the Ukrainian will be disgraced. Understand it yourself, they will order me to, and you probably will do the same, but why? It’s scary to think that a Russian and a Ukrainian will go to each other with weapons, but after all, this is all going on ... Can it really be so ... IT DOES WE NEED FOR YOU?

        The human nature is such, it needs to fight with someone, I remember the 70-80s, there was no national issue as such, it was in Western Ukraine, but rarely, I know it well because my mother is Ukrainian and there are many relatives in Western Ukraine, so in those years there was another question, if they remember they beat the face only because you were from another district or street. What mass fights were, district by district, thousands of people beat each other only because they live in the same city but in different areas, always two crews of firemen were on duty, the police, then they connected paratroopers.
      2. Corsair
        Corsair 20 January 2014 07: 59
        0
        Quote: Novel 1977
        It’s scary to think that a Russian and a Ukrainian will go to each other with weapons, and after all, this all goes ...

        In Ukraine, everything is much more complicated and confusing, and nevertheless, it is clear if the POWER (I will not argue "bad or good") does not take control of what is happening in the capital http://www.kp.ru/online/news/1636462/, be a civil war ...

        And whether Russia will be able to stay on the sidelines with such "layouts" is a QUESTION with a monosyllabic answer.
    3. xan
      xan 19 January 2014 17: 39
      0
      Quote: Cristall
      Yes it was! It was the attitude of Ukrainians to Russians and vice versa.

      And what was the opposite? Russians betrayed Ukrainians? When and where?
      How can the Sagaidachny’s carving of peaceful cities be eliminated, and Baturin, the elimination of treason in wartime? Maybe the Ukrainian mentality does not allow us to see the difference?
  31. The comment was deleted.
  32. FLUM
    FLUM 19 January 2014 01: 19
    +2
    Quote: Sanyht
    geeks and kami I consider ALL who have erected borders between one united people! and now, for the sake of the United States, for United States candy wrappers - inciting hostility between peoples! it is naive to believe that the redneck women spent money in vain for the destruction of the Slavs, and Benderlogs of a new wave are working out the money.
  33. FLUM
    FLUM 19 January 2014 01: 21
    0
    Yes, the true truth.
  34. barbiturate
    barbiturate 19 January 2014 09: 24
    -1
    As already tired of all sorts of Ukrainians, etc. Does Russia have few problems? Let them live as they want. I am from Siberia, Russia and I are far away, but I need to keep people and give birth, and here they are still trying to hang problems
  35. Barakuda
    Barakuda 19 January 2014 16: 36
    0
    Quote: barbiturate
    As already tired of all sorts of Ukrainians, etc. Does Russia have few problems? Let them live as they want. I am from Siberia, Russia and I are far away, but I need to keep people and give birth, and here they are still trying to hang problems

    I myself was born in Siberia, Parents and Grandfathers, Ob, Yenisei, Altai - everything is Native! but fate brought to Ukraine, and there are not one hundred thousand of us here. Like you - us, I can tell a dozen familiar families that oil and gas pump hard workers and engineers in Yamal and not only -. And we are not indifferent to the fate of Russia and ourselves. And if you are up to the bulb, then it's time for you to eat the barbiturate, well, and then if you are lucky in Kashchenko ...
  36. Const
    Const 19 January 2014 16: 54
    +2
    He lived in the Lviv region in the very last years of the USSR (family of an officer). Soviet power was not there. Already. Russians openly (everywhere except party meetings) were considered occupiers. For 6 years everyone has heard enough about himself and about the Russians. Now I and I are told Ukrainian brothers, nonsense. As they were, to put it mildly, without moral principles, they remained so.
    The mere support of bandits in the Caucasus is worth it.
    Already at that time they said that they were all robbed. And according to the statistics of the USSR, the purchase prices of only foodstuffs from collective farms were higher than the RSFSR-ovsky. Question: Why the heck are such relatives to me?
    1. Barakuda
      Barakuda 19 January 2014 17: 27
      0
      Geopolitics ... Russia will never give up Chechnya and the west of Ukraine. Without funding from the West and Saudi Arabia with Qatar (I was there), purposeful none of this would have happened. The hereditary military man himself, I know. And in Poland and in Vladikavkaz, and in the Donbass of Ukraine I had to live a little, now I’m pulling a strap near Kiev. Vovka Putin seems to have changed his mind already ... There is no hope for Yanyk ..
  37. The comment was deleted.
  38. Barakuda
    Barakuda 19 January 2014 17: 40
    0
    Gentlemen Admins, You have a specific virus here, the message is crippling as it can.
  39. Victor Wolz
    Victor Wolz 19 January 2014 18: 47
    0
    Maybe the Vishnevets, Sapega and Radzivils had no less rights to the title of Russian-Lithuanian heirs of Kievan Rus, unlike the Romanovs, but their departure from Orthodoxy deleted them from the number of builders of the Great Russian state. They were only subjects of the Polish King and not fighters for the third Orthodox Russian Rome.
  40. 573385
    573385 19 January 2014 19: 08
    -1
    The funny thing about the "nezalezhnye" is that they use the Russian name of the borderlands of Muscovy as the self-name of their "state"! Ukraine was visited by the cities of the "Golden Ring", and as the borders moved, the "Ukraine" \ outskirts \\. They do not want to be called Little Russia, let them be the outskirts of the Russian Empire with all the ensuing consequences!
  41. slavlav
    slavlav 20 January 2014 02: 02
    0
    informatively .. look forward to continuing
  42. Taezhnik
    Taezhnik 20 January 2014 06: 56
    0
    Quote: Const
    Already at that time they said that they were all robbed. And according to the statistics of the USSR, the purchase prices of only foodstuffs from collective farms were higher than the RSFSR-ovsky. Question: Why the heck are such relatives to me?

    This is indisputable, at a time so unloved by many Ukrainian pseudo-patriots (although in Russia there are no less) the Ukrainian SSR sometimes lived many times better than many regions and regions of the RSFSR, including the European part. Many at that time from the RSFSR traveled to the Ukrainian SSR to relatives, for example, and from there they drove all sorts of deficits. And I don’t understand when it is heard from Ukraine: we don’t need your gas, we have our own rich land. Well, if you do not need gas, then do not buy, do not ask for eternal discounts on the price. Arriving at the store, no one declares that the slogans that are not needed and / or cannot be financed by finance are declared. Yes, and no one will creep into your land, for which, by the way, many Russians have shed blood for centuries. Crimea, at least remember or look at the map given in the article. And no one is going to unite our state now, but we are talking about a spiritual, commercial, industrial unification. I'm all for it. I have a Ukrainian wife, her parents are purebred Ukrainians with roots from western Ukraine. They have been living for 20 years in Siberia. And perplexed by the numerous hysterical events and slogans. I know many in Ukraine the same against all this obscurantism, and we in Russia will always support you. For example, I’m proud to be aware that after all it would not be known if the state of Ukraine and the Ukrainian people (Little Russian) didn’t exist on the planet’s map on January 18.01.1654, XNUMX, the unification of peoples would have occurred. And that we Russians have a very great relationship to this!
  43. demotivator
    demotivator 20 January 2014 07: 12
    0
    Meanwhile, Ukraine is again restless - it is understandable, those gathered on the Maidan from long idleness for money got bored, and they were aimed at new provocations. This time the situation is serious and could result in something more formidable than just a confrontation. Ukraine is half a step away from the civil war and is already head over heels in a dictatorship. Yanukovych announced today, January 20, negotiations with the Maidan, for which NSDC Secretary Klyuev is responsible. V. Klitschko met with the president on behalf of the opposition. "I said that the condition for resolving the process is the resignation of the government and the president, - said Klitschko. "The President pretended not to notice my words."
    So if Yanukovych does not take any decisive steps, then most likely he will have to go to early elections, including the presidential one. And it is possible that he will have to lay down his powers before the election. On the other hand, these are the words of Klitschko, the internal troops have weapons, and they are ready, having received an order, to shoot to kill.
    Personal opinion: Ukraine escaped its 93rd year, the Supreme Council still sits there, and it is, in fact, still a parliamentary republic. But capitalism in Ukraine is quite wild, no less wild than in Russia. And the contradiction between the oligarchic economic system and the political system, which still carries traces of democracy and even the Soviet legacy, will sooner or later be resolved. And today both sides of the conflict are leading the country to a bourgeois dictatorship. The only difference is that Yanukovych will implement the dictatorship according to the Russian scenario, and the opposition will under nationalist slogans and under the patronage of the European Union. It looks like a mockery of history that the Maidan, protesting within the framework of bourgeois democracy against the still far from dictatorial regime of Yanukovych, somehow becomes a trigger for the establishment of a real bourgeois dictatorship. "Tightening the screws" will be a necessary way out of the situation for any side - even the most notorious liberal and populist will not endure for a long time when his every decision will depend on the whims of the "community". Yeltsin's political fate is a vivid confirmation of this - he began with trips in a trolleybus with pensioners, and ended up with the war in Chechnya.
    One can agree with Klitschko - Ukraine is half a step away from the civil war. Wars for no particular reason ...
  44. Corsair
    Corsair 20 January 2014 07: 49
    +1
    Quote: demotivator
    V. Klitschko met with the president on behalf of the opposition. "I said that the condition for resolving the process is the resignation of the government and the president, - said Klitschko. - The president pretended not to notice my words."

    And this is stated by the “leader of the opposition,” “the father of the Maidan,” in fact, INAPPROPRIATE to influence the anti-state actions of the forces “mobilized” by him to fight the “evil rulership” ...

    Picture from 19.01.2014/XNUMX/XNUMX.http://www.kp.ru/online/news/1636401/
    T.N. The "leader" was sprayed with a fire extinguisher by radicals from the forces opposing the riot police. After that, having urgently retreated, the non-politician rushed to "pump rights" to Yanukovych ...
    The obvious makings of sanity belay
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