SCIENTIST MIKHAIL FEDOROV
It all started with a meeting between Galina and Mikhail in the already distant 1947 year. But first, let us tell a little about the life course of each of our heroes before this momentous moment.
Mikhail Vladimirovich Fedorov was born on January 1 1916 in the city of Kolpino, near Petrograd, in the family of a St. Petersburg worker. My father worked at the Izhora factory in the steel mill at that time, and his mother was in the household. When, in 1922, his father returned from service in the Red Army, the family moved to live in the city of Yamburg, renamed Kingisepp soon.
In Kingisepp passed the childhood and youthful years of Michael. At school, he was fond of sports, so after finishing ten years in 1935, he entered the Leningrad Institute of Physical Culture and Sports named after PF. Lesgaft
After graduating from the 1 institute in September 1939 of the year, on the day of the beginning of the Second World War, Mikhail was enlisted in the service in the 5 administration of the Red Army, as Soviet military intelligence was called at that time. And in early October of the same year, he was sent to undergo reconnaissance training on an individual basis in the intelligence department department of the headquarters of the Western Special Military District in the city of Bialystok. The training included the study of two foreign languages, radio and photography, ciphers. I had to study every day, from morning till late evening, practically without days off. The training program was designed for 18 months. It was planned that at the end of June 1941, he had to illegally go to Poland, and then, having acquired Polish documents there, to try to settle in Germany. However, management plans were not destined to be realized. When the preparation of the scout was almost completed, the Great Patriotic War began.
Caught up by the invasion of the German troops in Bialystok, Mikhail, together with other intelligence officers, came out of the encirclement and broke through to his own.
At the end of July, 1941, Mikhail was sent to the intelligence department of the headquarters of the Western Front in the area of Vyazma, to Kasnia station. As deputy commander of the reconnaissance team, until December 1941, he was behind the front line in Velikiye Luki and Nevel. Members of the group conducted reconnaissance on the deployment and movement of enemy units, mined the roads, destroyed communications, punished traitors of the Motherland.
In early September, 1942 of the year Mikhail as part of a reconnaissance and sabotage detachment of special purpose was thrown out on a parachute near the city of Baranavichy, Brest region. For participation in combat operations, he was awarded the Order of the Red Star.
In total, Mikhail Fedorov spent more than 27 months behind enemy lines. He learned to endure difficulties, to find his way in a difficult situation, he mastered the radio business to perfection, acquired conspiracy skills, improved German and Polish. The experience of the war years helped him a lot in his subsequent intelligence work.
After returning to Moscow from behind the front line in August 1944, Fedorov was seconded to the Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Red Army. He underwent the necessary training and in August 1945 of the year was sent to work illegally in England. He worked there in the diplomatic mission of one of the foreign countries. He transferred important information of a politico-military nature to the Center.
However, a year and a half later, due to a ridiculous accident, the intelligence officer had to stop the business trip. And that's what happened. One day, Michael was walking along the corridor of the institution in which he worked, and suddenly in his opposite side he saw his acquaintance - a former teacher from Bialystok, from whom he took foreign language lessons. Direct contact was avoided. However, Mikhail was not sure that the woman did not notice him. The next day he found out that the teacher was in England on a business trip and visited the embassy for her personal affairs. A radiogram of what happened happened in Moscow. The center decided not to risk a scout.
Already being in Moscow, in the middle of 1947, Fedorov was transferred from military intelligence to work in the Information Committee at the Council of Ministers of the USSR (as foreign security intelligence was called at the time) and begins to prepare intensely for a new task abroad. But the case again intervened in the preparation plans.
Later, Mikhail Fedorov recalled: “I went somehow to the dining room. The queue is small, but I was in a hurry somewhere. I see - my colleagues are standing, I am to them:
- Warned that I will? - and I make signs myself, they say, help out. They were just about to answer how a thin voice came from behind:
- No, did not warn.
I turn around and meet the gaze of burning black resinous eyes, looking at me with challenge and reproach. So I met Galya. ”
GALINA MARKINA, SHE FEDOROV, SHE JANNA
Galina Ivanovna Markina (in marriage - Fedorova) was born 17 February 1920 in the city of Saratov, in a working family. My father was a self-taught electrician. Immediately after the revolution, he joined the Bolshevik Party. The last years of his life was on the party work.
After the death of her father in 1932, it became very difficult for her mother to raise four children: her elder sister Galya was 14 years old at the time, her younger brothers were less than ten.
Since 12, Galina was raised by her aunt - her father’s sister, who lived in Moscow. In 1937, the girl graduated from a ten-year school. She began working at a technical position in the USSR Commissariat of Finance and at the same time studying at the evening faculty of the Moscow Higher Technical School named after N.E. Bauman.
In January, 1939, on a Komsomol voucher, Galina came to the state security agencies. Initially, she worked in the Transport Directorate of the NKVD, dealt with technical issues, but was also involved in the implementation of certain operational tasks.
During the Great Patriotic War, Galina was at the disposal of a special group of the 4 NKVD administration, which trained personnel to work in the underground behind enemy lines. In 1946, she graduated from a two-year foreign language course at the Higher School of the MGB of the USSR. Galina was offered to go to work in foreign intelligence, in a unit that was engaged in intelligence from illegal positions.
What led a young girl to explore? About this Galina Ivanovna later told in her memoirs:
“I went to work in exploration consciously, with a full understanding of the significance of this service for the state and the responsibility that I assumed. Neither at that time, nor later did I have the slightest hesitation or belated doubts about the correctness of the path chosen in my youth. I am happy that intelligence has become my life’s work. ”
Soon there were pleasant changes in the personal plan. As a gift of fate, he appeared - Michael: a strong, loyal and reliable friend. The young people decided to get married, and the Center employees were forced to change the plans for preparing Mikhail and began to develop a variant of their joint trip to illegal intelligence work.
Days and weeks of active working out of legends-biographies flowed, based on new tasks that were assigned to the scouts. They had to learn a lot and learn a lot before going to combat work.
Among foreign intelligence officers, the expression “illegals are not born, they become” is perceived as truth, which does not require proof. It is just that at some point intelligence, on the basis of the arisen or assigned tasks, requires a specific person who enjoys special trust, has certain personal and business qualities, vocational guidance and necessary life experience in order to direct him to work in a particular region of the globe.
Sepu and Zhanna (such were the operational pseudonyms of Mikhail and Galina Fedorovs) it was necessary to settle in an unfamiliar country, find a suitable job there and gain a foothold in a “permanent” residence. An intense period of preparation for leaving the cordon began: the scouts got used to their new biographies, studied ciphers, secret writing, the radio business, improved foreign languages.
A year later, Sep and Zhanna left for illegal work in one of the countries of Western Europe, on whose territory important sites of the North Atlantic were located. They had to create in this country a regional point of illegal communication with Moscow, which in the case of military actions against the USSR should go into combat mode of operation.
Deep subsidence. Now, after many years, it can be said that the long stay of illegal intelligence officers abroad was successful and passed almost without problems due to their high professionalism. But then, in the middle of 1950, it was just the beginning, and before Sep and Jeanne the suspense stretched. They almost had to start life from scratch.
They arrived in the country allegedly after long years of emigration. The war left them without relatives and friends. At first, Sep worked as a mechanic at a car repair shop. Jeanne worked as a secretary at a local firm.
Illegal Scout Zhanna. The middle of the 1960's. Photo courtesy of the author
Scouts had to endure serious long-term interest from the local special services. The thing was that the local authorities and their special services took the repatriate spouses into a test. The local counterintelligence brought their informants from among their acquaintances to the intelligence officers, organized sudden visits to their home under far-fetched pretexts, exposed them to external surveillance. One of the most acute methods of verification, “with the Russian text,” was subjected to Zhanna, when one of her acquaintances gave her a note written in Russian. Zhanna reacted in cold blood to this provocation: she turned the paper around, expressing complete indifference and bewilderment.
For each fact of counterintelligence maneuvers around illegal immigrants, they informed the Center in detail. The tension was increasing. In Moscow, there was a well-founded concern for the fate of the intelligence officers, and the leadership even began to consider the possibility of their return to their homeland.
In this regard, it would be interesting to cite here a small excerpt from the memoirs of General Vitaly Pavlov, who was at that time one of the leaders of the Soviet illegal intelligence:
“As the deputy chief of the illegal service, I discussed in detail the security problem of the established residency of a regional relationship with the leadership. The original draft directive of the Center contained a definitive order for illegal immigrants to go home, since there was a real threat of their arrest. But I knew that Sep had already gone through a good school of illegal work in England, was an experienced partisan and intelligence officer during the war and, obviously, was able to determine when the urgent need arose for them to disappear from the country. Therefore, he proposed to soften the instruction, while retaining the possibility of another solution. The chief of illegal intelligence also agreed with my opinion. He shared my complete trust in Sep and my confidence in Jeanne’s endurance. ”
As a matter of fact, the final decision on the issue of continuing or interrupting work from illegal positions was transferred to the discretion of intelligence officers who, better than the Center, felt the situation around them. And they decided:
“In reality, having assessed the situation both in the country and around us, we report that, in principle, the legalization was successful, the situation at work is solid. We consider the attention shown by the special services as prophylactic, caused by the general escalation of the espionage campaign. In this regard, we consider it possible to continue our stay here to solve the tasks. We ask your consent. ”
After a thorough study of the situation, the Center agreed to continue the work. More than three years, local intelligence services kept the scouts "under the hood." The serious professional exam imposed by counterintelligence was successfully passed. “In Moscow, it was unequivocally determined,” Pavlov noted in his memoirs, “that Sep and Zhanna, with their perseverance, correct behavior and reaction to the events of the special services, dispelled their suspicions and, displaying a subtle understanding of the plans, outplayed the special services. It was stated that now nothing prevented the implementation of the main task. ” And in subsequent years, the scouts effectively carried out the most acute operations, without feeling behind the restless breath of counterintelligence.
AT BATTLE WORK
The first operational tasks that the Center had set before Sep and Zhanna concerned the search for agents of foreign intelligence in European countries, the connection with which was interrupted with the start of the war. Scouts had to make numerous trips around Europe. First of all, it concerned Spain and Portugal, where the Soviet foreign intelligence did not have any positions at that time. They conscientiously carried out each task of the Center, showing a sense of purpose in overcoming the difficulties that sometimes arose.
A certain time passed before they became the owners of their own company, acquired a small villa, convenient for implementing radio communication with Moscow. The monetary sums that were allocated to them by the Center and which they declared to the local financial authorities made it possible to maintain the reputation of wealthy people. Soon it was possible to establish and test a radio line with the Center. It was possible to start the implementation of specific operational tasks.
Over the long years of illegal work, Sepu and Zhanna managed to do a lot. They provided uninterrupted communication with Moscow, selected caches and carried out operations on laying and retrieving materials, studied people and recruited events, engaged in reestablishing communication with agents in various countries of Western Europe, collecting information on a wide range of problems, conducting meetings with valuable agents and transmitted information from her to the Center. Let us give some figures indicating the intense rhythm of their work: more than 300 conspiracy meetings were held by the scouts, more than 200 radio sessions were held with Moscow, more 400 important secret materials were transmitted to the Center through other channels.
The information passed through the hands of the intelligence officers mainly concerned various aspects of the activities of the North Atlantic bloc, in particular, its military organization, whose headquarters were located in the small Belgian town of Mons, near the south-western border with France.
It is hardly necessary to say that in those years it was an exceptionally important military-political problem directly related to the security of our country.
Mons developed plans for the preventive use of nuclear weapons against the USSR, determined the methods of its delivery to specific targets on Soviet territory, conducted NATO headquarters military exercises with the maximum approximation to the combat situation. Sep and Zhanna promptly informed the Center about the operational plans of the NATO generals.
At the beginning of 1959, the intelligence officers received a highly valuable source of communication - a high-ranking NATO official (let's call it Brig). Brig regularly received important information about the creation, re-equipment and modernization of the Bundeswehr of the Federal Republic of Germany, the documents of the NATO Planning Committee on the tasks of individual military units, their combat equipment, the system of command and control, their strategies and tactics, as well as other military issues related to offensive operations. this unit in Europe.
In the information flow, a lot of places were occupied by the most detailed information on the persons from among the leadership of various NATO structures.
It was Brig, in particular, who for the first time received extremely valuable information about the creation within the block of intelligence and counter-intelligence units that are part of an independent special service, autonomous from the respective national structures and having supranational status.
On the eve of the annual sessions of the UN General Assembly, the source transmitted confidential information about the upcoming position of leading European countries on key issues on the agenda. It is quite clear that this information was very useful for the Soviet delegations that traveled to New York.
Extremely important information came from Brigue and during the Caribbean crisis, when only tensions developed between the USSR and the USA. The operational work of intelligence officers Sepa and Zhanna during this period was put "on a war footing."
The spiral of crisis unwound with great speed. The brig informed that in the USA, 40, thousands of military sailors, and also 5 thousand troops, who were at the Guantanamo military base, were alerted. With the increased combat readiness of the 82-th land and 101-I air division, mobilized 14 thousand reservists. That the total number of troops deployed in Florida for a throw to Cuba approached 100 thousand people. All this information was immediately transmitted to the Center. And in that, in the end, common sense won out, there was certainly a fraction of the efforts undertaken by Brig and the residency he led.
Around illegal intelligence officers, various “emergency situations” often arise, as the astronauts say, which it is simply impossible to foresee beforehand. They can happen during an intelligence operation, and during an innocent walk, and in connection with the random coincidence of some factors.
The ability to calmly weigh the degree of a real threat both for oneself and for the business as a whole, and depending on this, acting according to the situation is an indicator of the level of training of the intelligence officer and his professionalism.
From the story of Jeanne:
“It is clear that the Russian illegal intelligence officer, who is at work abroad, in all cases of the local life should use only a foreign, local language, in which he should think. This is an axiom that I had to check myself.
One day, I suddenly had a pain in my right side. The doctor diagnosed inflammation of the appendix and insisted on an immediate operation, which should take place under general anesthesia. How to be? The problem is not in surgical intervention - the doctors there are experienced, but in my possible behavior when I come out of the anesthesia: will I not speak half-forgotten in Russian? With all my strength I inspired, convinced myself that my brain was already completely rebuilt, I think in the local language.
The appointed day came, I was taken to the operating room. I began to wake up from the nurse’s light claps on the cheeks, and the first thing I said while still in a semi-conscious state: “Where are my glasses? I don’t see well without them. ” The nurse gave me glasses and smiled warmly. So, I really spoke as expected. ”
ON THE MOTHERLAND
From the Sheremetyevo airport, the scouts were brought to the “intermediate” apartment. Over the festively laid table raised glasses of champagne for a safe return. During a lively conversation, one of the comrades jokingly asked:
- What would you most like now?
A little thought, Michael exclaimed:
- I would like to first of all take a steam bath at the Moscow Sanduny.
Everyone laughed merrily.
“And I would like to call my aunt, who raised me since childhood, and please her with her return,” said Galina with difficulty choosing words.
However, such simple desires of the scouts were destined to come true much later. For about two weeks they had to walk around Moscow, listening to the lively speech of Muscovites and acquiring lost conversation skills in Russian, which was forgotten by them.
Our story about the life and work of a pair of illegal illegals would be incomplete if we omit a very important and undoubtedly many interesting question about starting a family during a long stay in the country of destination. After all, intelligence officers work abroad in the best, young years of their lives, precisely when children usually appear in a family.
From the story of Galina Fedorova:
“This question stood before us almost constantly when we were abroad. In principle, the Center does not object to illegal immigrants acquiring children, and we know of cases when intelligence officers returned home from a foreign trip, even having two children. However, in our minds we could not unite two concepts into one whole: on the one hand, our work, for which we arrived in the country of destination, on the other, the birth of children, whose presence and upbringing would undoubtedly create many additional diversified difficulties which would greatly limit our operational activities. In addition, there was a certain risk in observing conspiracy. After all, children are well-known “why?” We perfectly understood the positive side of having children: a positive family image is created in the eyes of the Western environment and thus the level of suspicion is reduced. And yet, in our reasoning, we put in the first place a sense of duty, the desire to be as helpful as possible, and therefore we were wholly committed to the assigned task, to our nervous and hard work. The desire to bring great benefit to the Motherland always took over, therefore the creation of a full-fledged family was postponed until returning home. However, fate decreed otherwise: we returned at an age in which we usually bring up our grandchildren. ”
After returning from a trip, the service of Galina and Mikhail Fedorov in intelligence continued. When the need arose, they traveled abroad to solve specific reconnaissance tasks. In total, the scouts spent over the cordon for about a quarter of a century.
Merits to the Homeland of honorary state security officers Colonels Mikhail Vladimirovich and Galina Ivanovna Fedorov were awarded many orders and medals, as well as badges "For service in intelligence".
The time has come, and Fedorov by age - Mikhail Vladimirovich in 66, and Galina Ivanovna in 55 years - retired.
From the memoirs of Mikhail Fedorov:
“When drawing up a pension in the regional Sberbank, the employee, looking through the case of Galina, suddenly frowned and said with regret:
- Here is a bad luck! An error has crept into the data of your seniority. Unfortunately, I must return the case to the retirement department for an amendment. And you have to go to us again.
- And what is this mistake? - Galina asked.
- You see, in the column "seniority years" indicated 50 years. It cannot be so, because the pensioner herself is only 55 years old, she answered.
“Why can not be,” Galina objected and immediately added, “I worked in Magadan for a very long time, and there the working experience is considered a year or two. That accumulated so many years. (According to the situation in foreign intelligence, the year of the intelligence officer’s work in illegal work abroad is counted as two years of service for two years. - Auth.)
The employee remained indecisive for some time. Then, after deliberation, she asked Galina to wait, and she went somewhere to consult. Absent for quite some time. Returning, I apologized for the delay and duly issued my pension documents. ”
After retiring to retirement and becoming pensioners, the Fedorovs did not break ties with the Service: they did a lot of social work, worked with young people who came to the field to replace veterans, shared their invaluable experience in illegal conditions, helped young employees to master the “technology” of a difficult profession scout
In April, Mikhail Vladimirovich's 2004 was gone. Galina Ivanovna died in 2010 year.