Well, what about the president? And he, as the media says, at the congress of the All-Russian Popular Front сказалthat it is impossible to hurry with the dissemination of the experiment on social norms for the other utility services and other regions, because there are certain social risks in it. Ordinary and customary demagogy: the mention of “other services” means that soon people will be hit from all directions, and “you can't be in a hurry” means only that in 2013, the government limited itself to experiment, and in 2014, it will finally and irrevocably . The Kremlin will land citizens on elektropayek. Including limits is the right time: elections-2012 are already a bit forgotten, and before elections-2018 is still far away, and by that time people will get used to the norms. In addition, it will be possible to put forward a powerful election slogan to increase the "limit". Convenient, isn't it? The electorate has a short memory.
We will not rewrite what the media has already copied from someone else, but turn to the numbers directly to the legitimate source. Details about the social norms for electricity and calculation rules are given in the system. "Guarantor".
Let's start with the most important concept. The social norm of consumption of electric energy (power) is a certain amount (volume) of electric energy (power) that is consumed by the population and categories of consumers equivalent to it, within which and over which the supply of electric energy (power) is carried out at various regulated prices (tariffs) (Article 3 of the Federal Law of March 26 2003 No. 35-ФЗ “On the Electric Power Industry”). See you All this is invented more than ten years ago. Everything is clear: the state was preparing to join the WTO.
"Garant" indicates that Russian citizens and organizations consume electricity uneconomically. The data of the Ministry of Energy of Russia are also presented: annual losses of electricity as a result of its irrational consumption amount to about a third of the total amount of electricity used. Hence the search for legislators of new ways to stimulate the "careful use of electricity." These paths are described in the Federal Law of November 23 2009 №261-ФЗ “On Energy Saving and Energy Efficiency Improvement and on Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation”, which consolidated the principles of rational use of electricity. For the population, the main thing here is the social norm of consumption. It is fixed in the Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation on 22 July 2013, No. 614 “On the procedure for establishing and applying the social norm of consumption of electrical energy (power) and on introducing amendments to some acts of the Government of the Russian Federation on the establishment and application of the social norm of consumption of electrical energy ( power) "). The resolution was signed by D. Medvedev. Its text and calculation formulas can be found on the "Guarantor" by link. The document is huge.
According to this decree, the so-called pilot projects for the introduction of the social standard of consumption of electrical energy (power) from 1 September 2013 were to be implemented in seven constituent entities of the Russian Federation: in the Trans-Baikal and Krasnoyarsk Territories, in Vladimir, Nizhny Novgorod, Orel, Rostov and Samara regions . (The Samara region still refused the experiment).
The method of calculating the social norm of consumption of electric energy (power), included in the resolution, determines both the procedure for establishing standards and benefits with allowances. We quote paragraph 1: “The social norm of consumption of electrical energy (power) ... is calculated in accordance with the Regulations on the establishment and application of the social norm of consumption of electric energy (power) ... in the subject of the Russian Federation, taking into account household groups and types of dwellings specified in the Regulations in the manner prescribed by this methodology. " That is, the document gave the definition of these very norms to the regional authorities.
The coefficients are set: 1,5 - for households in the emergency housing stock or dilapidated housing stock with a wear rate of more than 90 percent; 1,2 - for households in a dilapidated housing stock with a depreciation rate of more than 70 percent. Indoor electric cooker can give even 90 kilowatt-hours per month. There are other allowances, which is useful to know including for the sake of objectivity. For example, the formula for calculating the social norm for residential premises located in urban settlements, equipped with electric heating and (or) electric heating installations, for each group of households, taking into account the seasonal nature of the consumption of electrical energy for heating, has been defined. It calculates the value characterizing the consumption of electricity for heating in residential premises, which are equipped in the prescribed manner with electric heating installations in the absence of a centralized hot heat and water supply. Its value is set by the authorized body of the subject of the Russian Federation. The regulation allows no more than 3000 kWh per month per household.
If you heat the water with electricity, then the technique gives you another extra charge. This is a value that characterizes the consumption of electricity for water heating in residential premises, which, in the established order, are equipped with electric heating installations in the absence of a centralized hot heat and water supply. It also gives 100 kWh per month per person. The rules are valid, however, only in terms that determine the beginning and end of the heating period.
Lonely retirees (old age or disability) will receive benefits. For these people in the first year of application of the social norm, the amount of payment for the entire amount of electricity consumed is calculated according to the tariff of the social norm. From the second year onwards, the increment coefficient 1,5 is applied to the social norm for such households.
Garant writes that in a pilot project on the application of the social norm, which was launched on September 1, the minimum social norms calculated for the first group of households (living alone) were recorded in Vladimir and Nizhny Novgorod regions (50 kWh). The Oryol region turned out to be the most generous: there the size of the norm for electricity is 190 kW * hour, and if more than five people are registered in the living quarters, then 90 kW * hour of electricity is relied on each next one.
In the Trans-Baikal Territory, the norm is 65 kWh, in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, 75 kWh, in the Rostov Oblast, 96 kWh. The premium for the installed electric stove had the maximum value (90 kWh), however, there were exceptions - in the Rostov region its size was less than half of the legal maximum - 43 kWh.
Garant experts estimated how much electricity the household uses.
“So, on average per month, a refrigerator consumes about 50-60 kWh, a washing machine — 20-30 kWh, a computer — from 20 to 60 kWh, depending on usage intensity, a kettle — 10-20 kWh , iron - 10-30 kWh, TV - 10-30 kWh, microwave - 5-10 kWh, chargers - 5-10 kWh If we add up the minimum monthly indicators of energy consumption of this necessary household equipment, we get about 140 kWh. In addition, in Russian homes today, you can often find dishwashers, boilers, underfloor heating, very energy-intensive air conditioners and other appliances and devices that significantly increase the consumption of electricity. ”
To this, of course, could and should have been added vacuum cleaners, hair dryers, electric razors, clippers, coffee makers, light bulbs, heaters, electric tools like drills, drills, jigsaws or electric choppers, which are needed not only by the woolens in their “households”, but and city dwellers, etc. - Yes, there is still a lot more, up to a fairly powerful pump in the well (1,2 kW - not the most powerful, believe my great experience), if you live in a village and you do not have a centralized water supply. Yes, and a computer, if you surround it with peripherals like a scanner, a laser printer, a router or an ADSL modem, a UPS, and other things, eat more 60 kWh per month. And I'm not talking about any gaming computer, the power consumption of the power supply which is almost comparable to the gluttony of the iron. And I will not talk about home swimming pools with lighting, electrosaunas and so on. We attribute this to expenses purely "bourgeois".
In most cases, the population in the mean standard kilowatts will not fit. On the "Guarantor" they even give nicknames of social norms: "Light on the cards", "Electropay" и "Tariff" Lucina ". The latter is downright artistic.
Garant also quotes Alexander Grigoriev, Head of the Department of Fuel and Energy Complex Research (Institute of Natural Monopolies Problems):
“The thesis of the irrational use of electricity by the population has no evidence. In terms of the volume of average annual per capita consumption of electricity in everyday life, we are far behind developed countries: in Russia this indicator differs from EU countries in 1,5-2 times, from the USA - in 4! Citizens will fit in or not - given to the local authorities, who will set specific parameters. So far, the existing experience (social policy has existed for a long time in several regions) suggests that it is likely that it will be extremely difficult to meet the social standards.
Without increasing the transparency of the process of tariff setting and restoring order in this area, any experiments on norms will most likely not give the effect that their authors expect. ”
Without increasing the transparency of the process of tariff setting and restoring order in this area, any experiments on norms will most likely not give the effect that their authors expect. ”
Here are the sad examples of the results of the "pilot project" of the government. They are not taken from the “yellow press”, but from "Rossiyskaya Gazeta" for October 24 2013 of the year.
In the Vladimir region, the experiment with social norms began in the year 2005. The limit was set to 50 kWh per month per person, in 2013, the authorities promised to raise it to 75 kWh, but they did not raise it.
“Such a rule was acceptable 20 years ago, but not today, when computers and other equipment appeared,” says Nadezhda Fursova, a mother of many children. - The old people, and those barely fit into this norm, saving literally everything. What to say about young families! ”
“The norm in 50 kW is the minimum not to live with a candle,” retired Galina Salova confirms. - It was invented by officials who do not know how the majority lives. In my month 100 kW burns. One refrigerator, which is economical, of the latest generation, takes the 30 kW. And this is despite the fact that I do not have a washing machine, or a computer, or an electric kettle, or a microwave, and I turn on the TV very rarely. ”
But Transbaikalia, where, as you know, is cooler than in Vladimir.
Social rules were introduced here back in the 2005 year, and there were no changes since 1 in September. 2013 was not there. Light Limit - 65 kW per person per month. Townspeople pay 2,28 rub. within social norms, 3,78 rub. - for excess kilowatts; villagers give respectively 1,59 rub. and 2,64 rub.
“Together with my husband, we fit into the standards only in summer, when it dawns early, it gets dark late and there is no need to turn on the heater,” says Irina, 30-year-old chitinka. - As soon as it gets colder, the electric heater is turned on: the heating in our houses is terrible, and the costs of light soar. How was it possible to introduce such insignificant norms in the region where the 9 months are winter, where there is almost no domestic gas, which means it is necessary to cook on electric stoves? ”
In the regional tariff service, Rossiyskaya Gazeta was told that the value of the social norms was determined with an eye to the budget possibilities: after all, the falling revenues of power engineers from the regional treasury. The budget of Transbaikalia will not master the larger norm.
There are enough examples. It makes no sense to bring them more. And without that it is clear: there are no people who are satisfied with social security among the population.
At present, officials of the Altai Territory are engaged in regional electrical calculations, where they are exploring the possibility of introducing social norms in the current year. Sergey Rodt, head of the local regional administration for state regulation of prices and tariffs says: "To determine the social standard, we take as a basis the power consumption in normal families using a normal set of household appliances." And he adds: “It’s groundless to talk about having to give up dummies, irons or refrigerators so as not to go beyond the social standard of electricity consumption.”
The social norm of electricity consumption will be established in the Vologda region. About this at a press conference Told Anna Popova, a lawyer for communal issues of the Vologda Public Relations Center: “The social norm is the minimum amount of electricity for a normal life at an affordable price. This amount of electricity in kilowatts per hour will be calculated per person. Its creation, firstly, is necessary in order to save utility resources. It is planned that this will help solve the problem of cross-subsidization, when prices for industrialists are artificially inflated due to price restraint for the population, therefore hopes for the introduction of a social norm are high, we hope that it will prove itself from the positive side. ”
So, the social norms in less than six months can step across the country.
In the article of Maria Khudovekova, “The deputies decided to abolish the social norms for electricity” ("Energy and Housing") from 11 December 2013 of the year states that the bill rejecting the social norms was submitted to the State Duma by representatives of Fair Russia. But the prospects for his approval are small.
The project was submitted by a group of State Duma deputies from the Fair Russia fraction of December 11. This was reported on the website of one of the authors of the bill Oksana Dmitrieva. The danger of introducing a new power supply throughout the country, the deputy sees in the fact that the tariff will be regulated, but outside the limit it can grow as you please. Comrade Dmitrieva said:
“We need to look for reserves not in the pockets of citizens, but in the energy companies themselves. It is necessary to fix all the detrimental consequences of the reform of the power industry according to Chubais, with numerous intermediaries and affiliated structures, an excessive number of managers, which doubled in the post-Soviet period with the same amount of electricity consumption. In addition, we should not forget that huge funds from both the federal and regional budgets are invested in the authorized capital of various power companies. ”
To the latter, you can easily add the so-called lobby - people from these companies never tire of promoting their commercial interests in the government and the Duma.
According to the authors of the bill, social norms in the “pilot” regions (see above the list of the “Guarantor”) were established by regional authorities without an economic justification. As part of an experiment in the Nizhny Novgorod and Oryol regions, the norms differ almost fourfold!
The explanatory note also noted that the population of Russia is quite economical in comparison with the population of Western Europe and the USA: on average, Russians consume 2 times less electricity than the Germans and the British, and 4,5 times less than the Finns and Americans. Why? The most common reason: the low standard of living.
People can not afford a large apartment, equipped with modern technology, and the technology itself is unlikely they can afford. The introduction of sotsnorm will lead to an even greater decline in the standard of living of the population.
The answer to the parliamentarian was given by the United Russia party. The answer is predictable.
Deputy from “United Russia” Pavel Zavalny believes that the law on “energy distribution" is not necessary to cancel, you can only finalize. As an argument, Mr. Zavalny referred to the "laws of economics."
“I just know that everything that the opposition contributes, especially“ Fair Russia ”, half smacks of populism. There are laws of economics that cannot be changed, canceled, ”the deputy noted in a conversation with the correspondent of RIA Energy and Housing and Communal Services. Zavalny noted that the problem of subsidizing electricity supplies to the population through industry was not solved in the country. And this every year - 240 billion rubles.
Everything is clear, let us add: the market. And the WTO, of course. What the Soviet Union would not bother with.
“As part of the development of the country's economy, there should be no subsidies - everything should cost as much as it costs. Because if at low prices electricity is supplied to people, then this is subsidized by industrial enterprises, and as a result, the cost of production increases. This product is not competitive, including in foreign markets, we can not sell it, competing in the global economy. And we joined the WTO, entered the global economy, in a global, in fact, competition. ”
Well what can you do - they entered so they entered.
I will finish the article by simple calculation. I lived in the village for a long time - in a house heated by an electric boiler on 380 volts. (The gasification of Russian villages, the “presidential program” were trumped before the 2012 elections of the year. Our gas will go to the Chinese sooner than it will be spent in small villages. That village I’m talking about is not to dream about gas. For ten years already " gasify. "Speech, by the way, about the Tyumen region.)
To live with relative heat (relative! Not plus 25 degrees, but about plus 18-20, depending on the temperature outside) in a house of slightly more than one hundred square meters. meters, built of good material (arbolitovye blocks, i.e. wood concrete), in the Siberian winter you need to run electric boiler no less than 6 kilowatts. With strong and stable cold (minus 25-30 and below) this is definitely not enough: people turn on additional heating elements, and the boiler already consumes 9, or even 12 kilowatts. But I count everything on 6. It is, of course, impossible to switch off the boiler for a long time in the winter - unless you have an alternative heating system, for example, solid fuel.
6 kilowatts multiplied by 24 hours per day and multiplied by 30 days. Total: 4320 kilowatt / hour per month. This is only electric boiler, and only on 6 kW. As a supplement (see above), the government promises us no more than 3000 kWh per month per household. Regional authorities may well lower this figure. But even if there is a maximum - 3000. As a result, 4320 - 3000 = 1320. 1320 kWh will have to pay at the so-called market price, thinking about the WTO. Judging by the results of the “pilot project”, the price of extra kilowatts is almost double.
Here electricity tariffs for individuals from Tyumen Energy Retail Company. We choose the tariff for the villagers, differentiated by two zones of the day (day - night): for the first half of 2014 - 1,53 rub. for 1 kWh and 0,77 rub. - for the same at night (eight hours of consumption). In the second half of the year, prices will be 1,59 and 0,80 rubles. accordingly (the price neatly rises twice a year).
It remains to calculate what amounts the “normative” and excess consumption will result in when using an electric boiler in the house. Believe the example of Transbaikalia (see the difference above) and assume that in the winter 2014-2015. prices for over-limit electricity will not rise 2 times, but 1,66 times.
You need to pay at the new price (2,54 rubles per kWh during the day, 16 hours every day, and 1,33 rubles per kWh at night, 8 hours every day) 1320 kWh. That is, two thirds of 1320 kW * h - 880 kW * h - will be paid for 2,54 rubles, and the remaining third - 440 kW * h - for 1,33 rubles. Multiply. We get 2235 rub. 20 cop plus 585 rub. 20 cop Total: 2820 rub. 40 cop
Do not forget that you have to pay for those 3000 kWh that the government has “granted” to the rural population. 2000 kWh per 1,53 rub. the villagers will fly into 3060 rubles per month, and 1000 nightly kilowatt hours - into 770 rubles per month. Total: another 3830 rubles in the winter month.
2820 rub. 40 cop + 3830 rub. = 6650 rub. 40 cop
This is in the best case, i.e., if the regional authorities give the population a maximum of social “surcharge” (3000 kWh), if the over-limit electricity is not twice as high as “social”, and if winter is mild . If, however, include a boiler on 1,66 and even on 9 kilowatts in very cold months, then, apparently, you need to take a bank loan for winter heating. Or go to the barn and hang on.
Do not forget that the tariffs of energy retail companies regularly - twice a year - are rising, keeping up with inflation.
And the salaries of people in the villages are small — ten to fifteen thousand rubles a month. 25 thousand is, consider, the local oligarch. Move to the shacks? .. Let Medvedev and Putin move.
Remember also that social norms are valid only during the heating season. That is, in cold September or May you will pay in Siberia for heating to the fullest. Well, or freeze.
Finally, I did not consider all other energy consumption: a borehole pump, a water heater, light bulbs, a computer with peripherals, a washing machine, an iron with a vacuum cleaner, a circulation pump that constantly drives water through the heating pipes, and everything else. Saw on my gasoline - and that is good. True, gasoline costs a little more than in Saudi Arabia ...
Of course, in addition to the electric boiler, since there is no gas, you can have a stove with a wood or coal-fired boiler in the house. But, first of all, someone must drown her — and drown constantly in severe cold. But if people go to work during the day, who will do it? But the tenants want to return to a warm house, in which the pipes are not frozen. To drown is vital. Secondly, firewood or coal, and also their delivery costs money too. And the price of them with the introduction of "socnorm" will inevitably soar - in accordance with the very "laws of economics" that Mr. Zavalny mentioned.