Military Review

“We always ask to find a worthy use for M-55”

27
Hero of Russia, Honored Test Pilot Oleg Shchepetkov answered the questions of the newspaper “Military Industrial Courier”


The presentation of the Roshydromet airborne laboratory in Zhukovsky gave a reason to recall stories the creation of high-altitude domestic aircraft. Although Russia now has nothing to boast about and, as in many other industries, it is more likely to lag behind the advanced technological powers than to lead, nevertheless, the scientific and industrial potential remains - a legacy of the Soviet Union.

- Tell us about the Yak-XNUMHD, on the basis of which a new flying laboratory "Roshydromet" was created.

- It came from Kazan airline "Tulpar", where it was operated as intended. Our company underwent re-equipment, having undergone many changes. But the changes affected mainly the work of operators, for the pilots the plane remained almost the same. All characteristic speeds are the same. During test flights we went out at high angles of attack, up to the alpha-dop. Speed ​​checks were approached very carefully in all flight configurations: with the mechanization removed, flaps in the take-off configuration, and landing. Our task was to check the plane, and not to test it in full. We tried to prevent stalling, especially the corkscrew, from which the Yak-42 comes out badly, also because of the shading of the T-shaped tail.

- Is there a limit on the maximum flight altitude, has the piloting technique changed?

“We always ask to find a worthy use for M-55”- The flying laboratory has all the characteristic speeds, the angles are preserved from the serial aircraft. According to the piloting technique, no changes were revealed. The cockpit was not altered, so the composition of the crew of three people has not changed. Is that a percentage of three increased fuel consumption. The maximum flight altitude for this aircraft is set to 9100 meters, we have reached it. When cutouts for sensors and blisters are made, the fuselage is inflated on the ground to check tightness. In our case, this was not done for the sake of cost savings. Tightness had to be checked in flight. We worked carefully: first we went to 2000 meters, then gradually increased the height to 4000, 5000, 7000, and finally, 9100 meters.

- How many flights are performed under the test program, what is their total duration?

- Seven. Two distilleries in Kazan to install the interior. The distance between Zhukovsky and Tatarstan is small, an hour and a half flight. In total, we flew, probably, eleven hours. There was only one problem - the air circulation inside the cabin was disturbed, the temperature rose and the operators began to complain. Cause found and eliminated.

- How does the research equipment affect the work of the standard onboard systems?

- Mostly electromagnetic incompatibility occurs. We conducted special tests on the ground and in the air. Found influence on the radio. Consistently disconnecting devices, found that the cause of the locators. We made the appropriate conclusions, and now all the equipment works well.

- Myasishchev EMZ is widely known for high-altitude aircraft. What is the state of M-17 and M-55 now?

- One-engine M-17 in the flying state is long gone. The car is preserved only in the form of an exhibit of the Museum of the Air Force in Monina. A twin-engine M-55 in the nineties at the Smolensk aircraft factory collected five pieces. One ("two") immediately went on static tests for the destruction of the power structure. Four were flying. In May, 1995, our company's chief-pilot, Honored Test Pilot of the USSR Edward Cheltsov died on take-off, then we lost another car in Akhtubinsk, but its pilot managed to eject. Now there are two aircraft. One military man, we are in storage and we periodically chase his engines. The last, fifth M-55 was re-equipped into a platform for research equipment for the study of the atmosphere. At the centenary celebration of the Russian Air Force, I flew it, since 1996, he began working on European scientific programs in the North, in Antarctica, Australia.

- What was interesting about flights for foreign customers?

- For me personally, many new things have opened in Australia, especially during the rainy season. Heavy cloud cover reaches 20 000 meters. Huge "towers" stand. In Brazil, I was once asked to go over such a “tower”. Started at 17 000 meters, and the clouds are rising. Going higher, getting closer to 19 000. And only on 18 700 managed to go around it. We worked on the study of the ozone layer, then the world was seriously concerned about the problem, they were afraid of destruction, they allocated funds. There is such a thing - tropopause. If you look at the cross section of the atmosphere, the temperature gradually drops, and at a height of about 11 kilometers the fall stops. The kilometer-two goes constant or the temperature even rises and the drop in values ​​is only even higher. This is the tropopause. In theory, nothing passes through it - dust, suspended particles. And in fact, this dust was found at very high altitudes. When they began to conduct special studies, it turned out that the reason - the very cloudy "towers". The most powerful are observed in Africa, especially in the tropics. They are very high - up to 18 kilometers, and the tropopause - on 11 kilometers. It turns out that the "tower" pierces the tropopause, the ascending streams emit suspended particles and they pour into the ozone layer.

Studies have helped establish that the lower the temperature, the lower the tropopause. For example, over the territory of Russia it is on 11 kilometers, and in Africa it drops. But it happens that depending on the geography rises. It turned out that the lowest temperatures in the atmosphere are not in the North, but in the tropics.

- Americans have the high-altitude aircraft, the famous U-2. Have to communicate with their pilots?

- When we flew over the Seychelles, the air temperature dropped to minus 90 – 92 degrees Celsius. The tropopause is high there, the conditions are very difficult, because in Russia the planes are designed for minus 70 degrees. Therefore, before the flight in conditions of ultra-low temperatures, they consulted with the Americans, who used to fly here on U-2. They answered: at temperatures below minus 70, you can fly no more than 15 minutes, because the fuel thickens, it becomes like jelly. We have not confirmed this. I think because of the design features of the M-55, the pumps of which drive fuel to the supply tanks more than is required to maintain the operation of the engines, the fuel has been drained back into the tanks. At the expense of the pump, the fuel is heated, but the tanks themselves are not heated and no chemical elements are added. So the problems, like the Americans, we did not have up to minus 90 degrees.

But on their recommendation, we changed the grease in the hinges, which freezes at altitude. We have mechanical wiring on the plane, without boosters, so as you pull, so the plane is controlled. If the lubricant freezes, there may not be enough human power. Thanks to the replacement of the lubricant, we were able to carry the flight for hours at ultra low temperatures.

- As with the U-2, the wing of the M-55 is of very large elongation. And what are the differences?

- They are. I do not know if U-2 controls booster, but this is a very unusual machine. She has drop racks, a huge number of restrictions - they can not fly in a turbulent atmosphere, be sure to forward the aircraft forward for reconnaissance. When it was created, there was another tolerance system for duralumin. Americans chose the thinnest sheets and only from them they riveted the construction. Sometimes U-2 is called “Johnson's ghost plane” because the machine is as light as possible, with a minimum of hardware. It takes off and lands only practically in calm weather with obligatory accompaniment on a parallel course. And with the posts on the wing tips they had a tragedy: the plane took off, the stands on the spot. The pilot decided to help dumping, shook his wings, and the plane crumbled, and the pilot died. And our plane is quite durable. Over Italy, I got into strong turbulence, chatted so that it is scary to remember. But the car broke down, nothing broke off.

- Speakers at the presentation of the Yak-42D "Roshydromet" talked about the need to create a second flying laboratory for high-altitude flights. Maybe the second surviving M-55 opens up new perspectives?

- I do not even know. We are ready to maintain both aircraft, standing on the territory of the flight test base, in working condition, we are constantly asking the interested structures to try to find a worthy use for them. In the West, especially in Germany, we would like such a car, even offered to sell. But those who wished were assaulted by their own government in Berlin: they say, why spend money abroad when you can do it yourself. The company Grob Aircraft decided to create a high-altitude aircraft and made Strato 2C with two turboprop engines. They also had a single-engine Strato 1, which we saw in Australia. He is able to fly to an altitude of 14 kilometers, but cannot be compared with M-55. So Europeans continue to order flights from us.


Help "MIC"

Oleg Shchepetkov was born on 21 in February of 1954 in the city of Morozovsk, Rostov Region, in the family of an Air Force officer. Now he lives in Zhukovsky, a senior test pilot at the EMZ named after VM Myasishchev. I mastered the 65 types of aircraft, the total flight time is 3800 hours.

Honored Test Pilot of the Russian Federation (1999), Hero of the Russian Federation (19 July 2004). In 1971 – 1975 he studied at the Kaczynski Higher Military Aviation School for Pilots, then served in the Air Force. In 1984, he graduated from the Test Pilot Training Center in Akhtubinsk, Astrakhan Region.

From 1985, to flight test at the State Red Banner Air Force Scientific Test Institute (now Chkalov GLITS). In the 1992, he was given the military rank of "Colonel".

He participated in the tests of the Su-25 attack aircraft, the MiG-21M target aircraft, the Su-27 and MiG-29 fighters, and the M-55 high-altitude aircraft "Geophysics". Fired in March 1996 of the year, after which he works at EMZ.
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27 comments
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  1. polkovnik manuch
    polkovnik manuch 16 January 2014 18: 33
    +1
    What kind of machine are you talking about? Is this the younger brother of the M-50 rocket carrier?
    1. Dart weyder
      Dart weyder 16 January 2014 18: 48
      +14
      M-55 Geophysics
      M-55 Geophysics
    2. Vadivak
      Vadivak 16 January 2014 19: 00
      +5
      Quote: ///
      The car was preserved only as an exhibit of the Air Force Museum in Monin.

      2010 Monino



      And so he looks after restoration
      1. Dart weyder
        Dart weyder 16 January 2014 19: 03
        +5
        this is the M-17 Stratosphere - the predecessor
        1. Vadivak
          Vadivak 16 January 2014 19: 09
          +5
          Quote: Dart Weyder
          this is the M-17 Stratosphere - the predecessor


          I completely agree. It all started with him.
          Our air defenses were forced to use air-to-air or ground-to-ground missiles to destroy drifting balloons. So they came up with a killer, but I think for U-2 too
          1. Dart weyder
            Dart weyder 16 January 2014 19: 16
            +5
            where does the U-2 !? they with the M-55 are almost similar in terms of performance characteristics, and both high-altitude - how to catch up with something like that at a speed of less than 800 km !? especially since there were already S-75, S-125 and S-200, am I already silent about fighter aircraft ???
            1. Vadivak
              Vadivak 16 January 2014 19: 21
              +4
              Quote: Dart Weyder
              where does the U-2 !? they are almost similar to M-55 with the M-XNUMX,


              Only ours for some reason with guns and they are not
          2. S-200
            S-200 16 January 2014 21: 32
            +1
            Quote: Vadivak
            Our air defenses were forced to use air-to-air or ground-to-ground missiles to destroy drifting balloons

            or maybe "space-space" ? lol
            1. aksakal
              aksakal 17 January 2014 14: 03
              0
              Quote: S-200
              or maybe - "space-space"?

              The Germans will find a worthy answer to your systems "kosmos kosmos": "Grob Aircraft decided to create a high-altitude aircraft and made the Strato 2C with two turboprop engines"- familiar company name what But for some reason I don’t want to fly on the planes of this company. Forum users, are there anyone?
      2. pensioner
        pensioner 16 January 2014 21: 13
        +4
        Vadim! hi I understand that this is exactly the famous Geophysics plane ... They were made like 3 pieces ... But 1 is said to be a flying laboratory and still flies!
        1. s1н7т
          s1н7т 16 January 2014 22: 23
          0
          Quote: retired
          But 1 say as a flying laboratory flies so far!

          Gee! So on it and the story, in fact!
        2. The comment was deleted.
          1. pensioner
            pensioner 16 January 2014 22: 31
            0
            Quote: c1n7
            Gee! So on it and the story, in fact!

            Read to the end! fool
            To blame! fool
    3. Civil
      Civil 17 January 2014 06: 43
      0
      Ohhhhh, geophysics, he started to take an interest in aviation.
  2. escobar
    escobar 16 January 2014 18: 45
    +2
    Quote: polkovnik manuch
    What kind of machine are you talking about? Is this the younger brother of the M-50 rocket carrier?

    Google to the rescue:
    http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Myasishchev_M-55_Geophysica.jpg?uselang=r
    u
  3. cayman gene
    cayman gene 16 January 2014 18: 47
    +5
    a plane with such enviable characteristics is not in demand in Russia? maybe I'm dumb, but it's amazing and weird. who will explain the situation?
    1. alone
      alone 16 January 2014 18: 51
      +8
      Quote: Cayman Gena
      a plane with such enviable characteristics is not in demand in Russia? maybe I'm dumb, but it's amazing and weird. who will explain the situation?


      No, you are not stupid. Do not stipulate yourself. It’s just that the country is managed by effective managers. And where there are efficient ones, there is nothing in demand.
      1. ty60
        ty60 16 January 2014 20: 46
        +4
        According to Zadornov, he was a koker. A person who does not know how the equipment actually works, how the structure of its application is arranged, IS NOT ABLE to manage EFFECTIVELY, here the essence of efficiency is not in finances.
        1. S-200
          S-200 16 January 2014 21: 35
          +3
          Quote: ty60
          A person who does not know how the equipment actually works, how the structure of its application is arranged is NOT ABLE to lead

          hi
          Well, the "sweet couple" of YurYstov took tuevu huchu laws that hinder the development of the country ...
        2. Edward
          Edward 16 January 2014 21: 48
          +2
          alas, these are not Zadornovskie kokekers ..
          these just know what they are doing and why and what result they are waiting for
    2. Dart weyder
      Dart weyder 16 January 2014 18: 53
      +6
      so and not what to interpret ... in 20 years, many good things have been ruined ... so this is half the trouble, - they managed to lose production technologies irrevocably for some products, substances and materials ... that is, in the 2010s, the country cannot reproduce what she did in the 1980s ........... "progress" as they say on the face ............. sad
      1. VADEL
        VADEL 16 January 2014 19: 35
        +3
        "Irretrievably Lost" is in China. The regression is awesome.
  4. dmitrij.blyuz
    dmitrij.blyuz 16 January 2014 18: 49
    +4
    M-55. Geophysics. The machine is not new, but there are no analogues. A pure scout.
    1. Dart weyder
      Dart weyder 16 January 2014 18: 57
      +5
      yes, there are no analogues at all .... or is he an analogue !? Is the scout clean !? initially, its predecessor, the M-17, was created to combat balloons .... and with a range of 1200 km, it was "analogless" to the prototypes of Dalek, although the machine is unique


      U-2? TR-1, - doesn’t resemble anything !? and then geophysics appeared
      1. Vadivak
        Vadivak 16 January 2014 19: 20
        +3
        Quote: Dart Weyder
        U-2? TR-1, - doesn’t resemble anything !? and then geophysics appeared


        Only the U-2 has no weapons. And on the "stratosphere" -Automatically operating balloons are struck by cannon fire at optical visibility of the target. The aircraft's armament system ensures the destruction of the balloon with a burst of 100 shells.

        Now you can hang a shuttle on her back
        1. Dart weyder
          Dart weyder 17 January 2014 02: 47
          0
          it’s logical - but you seriously think that a cannon on such a low-speed boat is such a unique KNOW-HOW !?))))))))))))) He’s just not a scout like his overseas friends, with their speed, maneuverability and dimensions, he can’t defeat the MIG-15 in battle, and the tasks are different
    2. Vadivak
      Vadivak 16 January 2014 19: 04
      +5
      Quote: dmitrij.blyuz
      M-55. Geophysics. The machine is not new, but there are no analogues. A pure scout.

      Well, and a scout. I would call him Zeppelins hunter in the original execution essno
      1. dmitrij.blyuz
        dmitrij.blyuz 16 January 2014 19: 26
        +2
        It’s rude and not informative enough. Have you seen this masterpiece live? I had time, from nothing to do, before flying, I counted rivets on it. But I don’t know how many of them.
        1. Vadivak
          Vadivak 16 January 2014 19: 42
          +4
          Quote: dmitrij.blyuz
          Rude and not informative enough


          Sorry if I offended you, I’m not only trying to inform you
          1. dmitrij.blyuz
            dmitrij.blyuz 16 January 2014 20: 31
            +2
            Yes, I'm not so informed. I just feel sorry for the car. I apologize if I hurt your feelings. drinks
            1. Vadivak
              Vadivak 16 January 2014 23: 16
              +2
              Quote: dmitrij.blyuz
              . I apologize if I hurt your feelings.


              It's my pleasure hi We drove through
  5. rodiy2007
    rodiy2007 16 January 2014 18: 58
    +3
    Unusual plane, thanks for the article, very informative!
  6. dmitrij.blyuz
    dmitrij.blyuz 16 January 2014 18: 58
    +2
    Myasishchev Design Bureau. High-altitude, subsonic. Mass-23400. Fuel-7900. Engines-2 turbofan engine D-30-10V. Thrust-2 on 9000. Speed ​​max-743. Ferry range-5000. Range of work-1315. Barathing time-48 minutes. Crew-1 person.
  7. Panikovsky
    Panikovsky 16 January 2014 19: 09
    +2
    read and was saddened as Oleg Shchepetkov in the photo.
  8. avt
    avt 16 January 2014 19: 22
    +2
    I saw him in flight on the first MAX. Awesome pterodactyl! good
  9. dmitrij.blyuz
    dmitrij.blyuz 16 January 2014 19: 23
    +3
    Guys! Well, don’t fumble in Myasishchego’s cars — don’t laugh. M-17 Stratosphere. Ancestor of M-55. Take-off weight-19850. Engine-1 turbojet engine RKBM.RD-36-51V. Thrust-6000. Range-1325. Operating time-2.15. Ceiling-21550.
    1. Alex 241
      Alex 241 16 January 2014 19: 45
      +5
      ............................................................
  10. dmitrij.blyuz
    dmitrij.blyuz 16 January 2014 20: 40
    +1
    Alex 241. As always, no arguing against facts! fellow
  11. Heccrbq.3
    Heccrbq.3 16 January 2014 22: 01
    +1
    Such a sad man’s eyes ...
  12. kagorta
    kagorta 17 January 2014 07: 05
    0
    The company Rough Aircraft decided ..., I liked it laughing
  13. viktor_ui
    viktor_ui 17 January 2014 07: 19
    0
    Heccrbq.3 - "Such a man's eyes are so sad ..." is another "THING" ruined for decades with unrealized opportunities and has not given an additional impetus for the development of the entire aviation industry as a whole. Eh AEROFLOT ... how unlucky you were ... remember how one of the next leading Aeroflot, a high-ranking _clown__, came up with the logo "flying elephant" and this _shit_ was played on the central channels. We must live up to the time when all these top-notch goat managers will have eyes no less sad for all their deeds. MANAGER = LOST am
    1. Hort
      Hort 10 February 2014 09: 16
      0
      clown__, thought of the logo "flying elephant" and this _shit_ was played on the central channels.
      moreover, "humor" with an elephant would be more or less understandable if the modernized Il-86 \ Il-96 were flying ...
  14. Hort
    Hort 10 February 2014 09: 14
    0
    The article says that
    Now two planes are preserved

    climbed onto the website of the Smolensk Aviation Plant, M-55 in their list of manufactured equipment is available ...
    In this regard, it is interesting that in 2014 there were still two aircraft left in operation or were they still built \ are going to release several more?