Military Review

Alexander Mladenov on the reform of the training system of the Bulgarian Air Force fighter pilots

Famous aviation expert Alexander Mladenov also talks about the reform of the training system for fighter pilots on MiG-29 aircraft in the Bulgarian Air Force in the article "More than Meets the Eye", published in the March 2013 issue of Air Forces Monthly magazine.

The process of the formal commissioning of the updated MiG-29 into the Bulgarian Air Force began in 2006. After a period of three years, the process was proceeding normally and the pilots began to manage a maneuverable and powerful fighter at the limit of their strength in a real-world situation inspired by American approaches in tactics, technology and procedures.

The expansion of the capabilities of the MiG-29 in maneuverable melee combat and tactical air defense was made possible by the introduction of a completely new, effective and combat training developed in Bulgaria. She replaced the relatively conservative and rigid learning philosophy that took place during the Soviet era, and which dominated the Air Force of the small countries of Eastern Europe at the time of Bulgaria’s entry into NATO as a full-fledged member in 2004.

Alexander Mladenov on the reform of the training system of the Bulgarian Air Force fighter pilots

Fighter MiG-29 Bulgarian Air Force, 22.09.2013 (c) Svetlan Simov /

During the existence of the Warsaw Pact and later 15 years after its inglorious dissolution, the Bulgarian Air Force continued to follow the so-called. "Basic destructive maneuvers." They were agreed in advance and discussed in detail by the pilots before the flight. This outdated approach to combat training completely excluded such an element as a maneuverable aerial combat.

Source of change

Brigadier General Rumen Radev (Rumen Radev), commander of the 3 fighter air base Graf Ignatievo in 2005-2009, and now (the beginning of 2013 of the year - bmpd) deputy commander of the Air Force, said: “throughout my career as a pilot, Fighter I have always shown interest in the transformation of the Air Force into an effective combat system, as well as the search for that fine line between victory and defeat in modern air combat. I also thought about ways to bring realism into the routine process of combat training and, at the same time, resolve the conflict between realism and aviation security. ”

A talented pilot of the MiG-29, General Radev is a graduate of the US Air Force Air Force College (graduation year 2003). Many years ago, before his appointment to the post of commander of the Aviabaza Graf Igntayevo, he came to the conclusion that serious changes are needed in the preparation of the Bulgarian Air Force.

Shortly after his appointment to the post of air base commander, exercises "Viper Javelin" were held on it - joint exercises with the participation of: 510 of the fighter squadron of the USAF “Buzzards”. They then gave Colonel Radev the opportunity to initiate his own model of combat training in the Western style. During the exercises, both sides practiced two-by-two interceptions, in addition there were training battles between the MiG-29 and the F-16 Block 40. They were carried out in the old, pre-prescribed manner, with pre-agreed maneuvers and restrictions. The pilots of the 510 Squadron, who had no experience of such an unrealistic manner of teaching, did not like this.

According to General Radev, “during the Viper Javelin exercise in October 2005, we faced a real gap between two very different ways of training and the philosophy of air combat”. “At that time, we clearly understood that the Bulgarian Air Force was very far from progressive models of combat training. Thus, to compensate for this gap, we had to take a series of drastic measures. First, during these exercises, I assumed responsibility as the base commander and performed the first free maneuvering flight, unilaterally lifting all restrictions and piloting at the limit of my capabilities. The first battle was against the American commander, the second - against the best-trained pilot of the 510 squadron. It was a clear message to our American allies that, despite the numerous restrictions in our air force, we are ready to embark on the adoption of realistic combat training concepts. And that we are going to become a serious opponent in future exercises. ”

The exercises "Viper Javelin" provoked a chain of events that was changed by the training systems of the fighter pilots of the Bulgarian Air Force. Captain Viktor Khristov, one of the most experienced and strategically minded instructors of the MiG-29 in the Bulgarian Air Force, at the end of the 2000-s put a lot of effort into creating a new style of training and developing tactics. He explains: “It is a well-documented fact that during those first joint exercises we completely rewrote our instructions, realizing that we systematically under-utilized 50% of the enormous potential of MiG-29 in maneuverability in air combat due to numerous administrative restrictions, imposed by a bureaucratic system thinking in terms of the times of the Warsaw Pact, which still dominates the Bulgarian Air Force. All training flights during the "Viper Javelin" exercise were to be carried out with limitations: without aerobatics in the final stage, only two turns were allowed on 90 ° or one on 180 °. Despite this, the final part of the training took place in training battles without restrictions, during which both sides carried out aggressive maneuvering. In the new conditions we tried to make turns on the limits of our forces, as a result, the system of flight angle restrictions (SOS-3М) was often included. This device is an electro-mechanical limiter, which can be turned off when taking control knobs after reaching the angle of attack at 26 ° at speeds of less than 300 km / h. The restrictions of the Air Force at that time categorically forbade any intentional inclusion of the SOS system, and by doing this we violated the then existing safety rules. ”

According to Christ, the minimum speed limit in 300 km / h, prescribed by the technical description of the MiG-29, should be considered as a recommendation for pilots of average qualification. At this speed, the MIG-29 9-12 and 9-51 series can safely maneuver when overloaded to 1,5g. But in the technical description of the aircraft it is written that the fighter can maintain horizontal speed 210 km / h at an angle of attack 26 °. Exceeding the limits of the SOS-3M system, it is possible to continue horizontal flight at lower speeds and a greater angle of attack, although this will cause some stability problems due to the constant trembling of the control knob caused by the operation of the SOS system. Such serious limitations of the angle of attack do not allow to fully unleash the potential of the MiG-29 as a fighter: according to Khistov, they were introduced in the middle of the 1980-ies, when the aircraft entered service with the USSR Air Force, to ensure safe control at low speeds for medium pilots qualifications.

Realistic maneuverable air combat

According to Brigadier General Radev, the teachings of the Sentry Lion, which took place at the Graf Ignatievo airbase in June 2006, had a decisive effect on the abolition of the outdated Bulgarian air force practices in the field of combat training. F-15 173 squadrons of the National Guard from Oregon participated in the exercises. American commanders insisted that the Bulgarian side put up opponents who could participate in free flights, without any restrictions on pilotage. Radev explains that “at that time I accepted the first amendment, which allowed me to create a realistic model of combat training and implement realistic close-in air battles during the exercise. All this became possible due to the presence at my disposal of a small core of well-trained and motivated MiG-29 pilots who, I was sure, could answer the call and do their work. ” Before the first free-to-air doctrine, all MiG-29 pilots received extensive theoretical training under the guidance of experienced pilots of the 173 squadron.

In the end, the Sentry Lyon exercises proved to be an outstanding success for the Bulgarian fighter pilot community, which demonstrated profound improvements in the conduct of close air combat and the level of instructor pilots. They also began to understand the role of possession of the situation and introduced new ways of interacting with the ground-based radar of the air situation to break with Soviet practice of tight control. The radar operators were required to provide the pilots with as much environmental information as possible.

Despite all the improvements in the conduct of maneuvering combat, there was a lack of a modern model of combat training, which would allow developing the qualities necessary for conducting air combat.

Captain Khristov continues: “In the past, we were constantly punished for speed reduction below 300 km / h during maneuvering or air acrobatics, but the MiG-29, unlike the MiG-21 and MiG-23, is a safe plane to control at low speeds, and I do not think that this regime is dangerous. During the Sentry Lyon exercise, we noticed that pilots from the 173 squadron often exceed the angle of attack at 30 °, actually stopping during maneuvering, but due to their extensive experience in handling in critical modes, they had a clear idea of how the aircraft behaves in such situations and how to return to normal flight. ”

“We were very surprised by their free manner of controlling the aircraft. That is why our boss, Brigadier General Radev, made a bold decision to incorporate the low speed mode and large attack angles into our combat training course. This meant the introduction of a formal training program to teach us how to control the MiG-29 at low speeds and high angles of attack. This technique was taught in the MiG-XNUMHUB fighter, in which the instructor was sitting in the back seat. General Radov made the first flights, and the control of the aircraft in critical modes is an obligatory part of the preparation for each Bulgarian pilot MiG-29, while the “safe” flight level is 29 m. ”

Brigadier General Radev believes that the previous risk avoidance system adopted by the Bulgarian Air Force was a big mistake, as it did not allow the pilots to fully unleash the potential of the MiG-29, as well as understand how to use it in close combat combat. He said that “if my pilots will worry more about what speed will affect the flight recorder [which is checked after each departure for possible violations of speed and altitude] instead of thinking about the right tactics and maneuvering, they will continue to live with the mentality of the victim, not the hunter. "

Beautiful looking air acrobatics does not help

The deputy commander-in-chief of the Air Force recalls: “In the summer of 2007, the time came for us to take a step forward to increase the level of realism of combat training - namely, to send restrictions on maneuvering to textbooks stories and introduce formal maneuvering requirements at critical angles. I can tell you that this is not the pleasant piloting that you can see at the airshow. Beautiful looking maneuvers at an air show have nothing to do with modern combat maneuvering. To survive and win, you need to perform aggressive, often ugly, improvised and unpredictable maneuvers in order to move into a position to attack or avoid an enemy strike. ”

Having a huge experience of piloting on the MiG-29, General Radev knows the capabilities of the MiG-29 and says to his pilots: “you can kill yourself while maneuvering on the MiG-29 only when you start turning the plane along the longitudinal axis at high angles of attack on a small height. In all other extreme situations, you can return the plane to horizontal flight. "

Major Nikolai Rusev, commander of the 2 Squadron, adds: “My experience shows that during the hot fights of the melee you inevitably enter critical flight regimes. Therefore, by making the training of critical regimes common practice, we gain psychological certainty that we will be able to keep the aircraft in critical modes, that the aircraft will behave in an understandable and predictable manner, and, moreover, that the pilot can act in any situation and return the aircraft to normal mode flight. Thus, at present we feel confident at low speeds and high angles of attack, as the training course on critical modes shows us and teaches us how the MiG-29 behaves to the very limit of its capabilities. ”

The difference in philosophy

Answering the question about the reasons why the initial Soviet / Russian instructions on the MiG-29 included so many restrictions on control at low speeds, Brigadier General Radev said that this was the dominant philosophy at the time. The concept of mass use of the USSR Air Force and its allies under the Warsaw Pact was based on the principle of using a large number of aircraft and training a significant number of pilots. Soviet tactics consisted in the victory of the enemy at the expense of quantity. The prevailing philosophy, in accordance with which a strict flight safety system was applied, was based on getting a large number of rules from cadets, and not on getting the most out of the best ones.

Maintaining key skills with a limited number of flying hours in Bulgarian conditions (40-60 hours per year) is very problematic. The number of departures is a much better measure than the number of hours for evaluating fighter pilots, since each sortie is rather short - about 45 minutes, and the load on 70 sorties on each pilot per year is quite intense. According to General Radev, this is almost enough for most experienced MiG-29 pilots. “This may seem paradoxical, but using such training methods, you can maintain a high level of flight safety, despite the limited number of flight hours. Realistic training brings to life two factors that contribute to flight safety. The first contributes to the development of the pilot's innate desire for continuous self-improvement, and as a result he approaches the task with the maximum concentration. The second is that in conditions of a very intense flight task and the need for its successful completion, there is no room for intentional restrictions on basic maneuvers. Such intentional restrictions often cause serious accidents, which often happened in the past, when the trained pilots were in the comfort zone and for many years showed very slow, or even zero progress. As a result, they were not faced with difficult tasks [and unforeseen risks were excluded]. ”

Fighters in sparring or equal opponents?

In Eastern Europe, it is widely believed that in the course of bilateral exercises that took place in the 1990 and 2000, when the MiG-29 fighter "fought" against the Western, especially American types of fighters, the Western military received more than their Eastern European colleagues. General Radev does not agree with this view. His opinion can be derived in the following phrase: “you get exactly what you put into it from the workout”. Under his leadership, Bulgaria sought to modernize its educational process and tactics, while never forgetting flight safety. He was never so proud or narrow-minded so as not to learn from his new allies, he did everything in his power to accept any innovation with which he had to face. Radev claims that the American squadrons also learned something from joint exercises with the MiG-21 and MiG-29: “by 2007, they began to encounter pilots who squeezed the most out of their MiG-29 capabilities in realistic conditions”.

The final “dog fight” in freestyle

During the Mako Javelin exercise, the 93 th Makos Fighter Squadron from the 482 Fighter Wing, based at the Florida Homestead Air Base, landed at Graf Ignatievo Air Base in June. According to General Radev, “we first encountered such a maneuverable enemy as the F-2008 Block 16 fighter, which was driven by experienced and very aggressive pilots, which made him a highly efficient killing machine.” He also added that the pilots of the 30 Squadron used tactics that were different in some aspects and which were difficult to resist. Instead of using close encounters with large overloads and two circles, reservists from Florida preferred so-called. “Old-good melee tactics” (which does not require overloading maneuvers) - one lap, an intensive coup quickly turned into a low-speed flight. The MiG-93 pilots were initially surprised by such an unusual and rather aggressive approach to close-combat maneuver, but they managed to quickly adapt and develop countermeasures against the F-29.

Taking into account the security measures, strict restrictions were imposed. The ceiling was installed in 3000 m, and this required to start a fight at a height of 5000-6000 m. In addition, an imaginary "security bubble" with a diameter of 300 m was not drawn around each plane, which was forbidden to fly into. Under these conditions, none of the parties showed a desire to begin vertical maneuvering. Instead, the battles turned into a horizontal plane with the use of an afterburner, as each pilot tried to outplay his opponent. A greater number of battles were stopped, as one of the participants "pierced" the ceiling, and not because of the destruction of the enemy.

Viktor Hristov recalls: “At first, the phenomenal maneuverability of the F-16 Block 30 was an unpleasant surprise for us, as we are used to dealing with heavier 40 Block 31 th fighter wings in Aviano. There is no comparison between these two modifications in terms of maneuverability. We quickly realized that Block 30 is very difficult to attack, and reservists from Florida are experienced professionals. ”

During the exercise, General Radev agreed with his American counterpart - the commander of the 93 squadron, Colonel Jose R. Montegudo (Jose R Monteagudo) - that the four selected Bulgarian pilots would undergo a special course of American-style melee air combat, operating their MiG-29UB , in the back seat of which would be instructors - «Makos». F-16 used as sparring partners. During this training, each Bulgarian pilot made three flights to practice offensive, defensive and highly maneuverable MiG-29 versus F-16 melee combat, and three more flights in a single MiG-29 against F-16 under the instructor's control. Currently, these four people form the core of the Graf Ignatievo airbase destructive group, acting as opponents during international exercises.


The service of the MiG-29 in the Bulgarian Air Force is evidence that if you have the will and perseverance to introduce change and are willing to take risks, Soviet weapons can be successfully adapted to Western tactics of combat. For Brigadier General Radev and his fighter pilot cores, the revelation of the possibility of their MiG-29 fighters, from which they squeezed everything, using the right tactics along with an innovative approach to the use of ground-based operators. According to the general, “I can be proud that, starting from 2005, a second life began for the Bulgarian MiG-29, which opened our Air Force to deep and radical transformations. I have prepared a new generation of fighter pilots who have a full understanding of the capabilities of their aircraft and their own limitations, and who are willing to constantly learn and improve themselves. ”

Opinion pilot MiG-29

Captain Lubomir Slavov, Flight Safety Officer in the 2 Fighter Squadron, is one of the four pilots of the Bulgarian Air Force who underwent their initial training for the maneuvering combat under the guidance of the 93 Squadron instructors in the "Mako Javelin" exercise at 2008 in Otvechay when asked about his impressions of the near-maneuverable battles “MiG-29 against F-15 and F-16”, he said: “It’s very difficult to find a real enemy for the MiG-29 in a close maneuver fight, since this fighter was from the very beginning designed by In order to have excellent performance in close combat, and he still remains one of the best fighters in this category thanks to the redundant and aerodynamic design, which gives him excellent maneuverability. I could see firsthand his superiority in maneuverability in the course of several international exercises, in which the power of the MiG-29 was used to its fullest, especially at low speeds. Given my experience in fighting against F-15 and F-16 with different types of aircraft, it was very difficult for me to survive in a close maneuverable battle against F-16 Block 30, although Block 40 and 50, as well as F-15C are not the most serious opponents among those I have come across. F-15 and F-16 Block 40 / 50 are great aircraft, but close combat with various types of aircraft against the MiG-29 is not their strength. In a battle out of sight, the MiG-29 is technologically inferior to them. According to my modest observations from the cockpit, both of these types of aircraft lose energy faster than my plane: Block 40 faster than F-15 and F-16 Block 50. ”

"An integrated target targeting system, which is used on both the F-15C and the F-16 Block 50, combined with the AIM-9X Sidewinder missile, can be a deadly advantage that experienced F-15 and F-16 pilots can use in maneuverable because you have to remain outside the target targeting system / AIM-9X Sidewinder during an air battle. ”

“In the course of close battles, we conditionally used the on-board gun [the recording of the results was carried out on an outdated FKP-EU cinema photo pistol] and simulators of the R-60 missiles. Unfortunately, during the exercises we did not have the P-73 missile-ready simulators, and this greatly reduced the capabilities of the MiG-29 in a maneuverable battle due to the lack of an all-round missile. The aiming of the P-60 rocket was provided by the excellent ability of the MiG-29 to orientate the nose, especially at low speeds. In one of the closest air combat missions, I tried to use my helmet-mounted targeting system against the F-15, but nothing came of it. ”
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  1. Stiletto
    Stiletto 15 January 2014 15: 56
    The sober assessment of the Bulgarian pilots about the capabilities of the machines is encouraging, they are not the only ones who have gained invaluable experience in conducting a training battle with the enemy as close as possible to the fulfillment of combat missions, they have seen the strengths and weaknesses of the most massive and similar LTX vehicles.
    1. sledgehammer102
      sledgehammer102 15 January 2014 17: 19
      Quote: Stiletto
      It is depressing that they were not the only ones who gained invaluable experience in conducting a training battle with the enemy as close as possible to the fulfillment of combat missions, and saw the strengths and weaknesses of the most popular and closest LTX vehicles.

      It is necessary to ask Shoigu to conduct air tests with the Americans, by analogy with tank biathlon and air darts.
      1. ty60
        ty60 15 January 2014 21: 01
        Sound idea. I'm for
      2. And Us Rat
        And Us Rat 15 January 2014 21: 40
        Quote: sledgehammer102
        It is necessary to ask Shoigu to conduct air tests with the Americans, by analogy with tank biathlon and air darts.

        I don’t think that USA will agree, this is only possible on mutually beneficial conditions, and they have long received everything they wanted on the MiG-29. The former Warsaw Bloc countries, especially the poorer ones, have long provided everything to everyone interested.
        For example, in order to get the MiG-21 into our own hands, our intelligence at the time had to conduct a series of multi-pass operations, which lasted a couple of years ...
        And to get the MiG-29 - it took just ask request
  2. EvilLion
    EvilLion 15 January 2014 16: 12
    20 For years they sat and waited, Soviet training manuals interfered with them. And so what prevented the use of Soviet training methods for the 1 class, I’m even afraid to ask.
    1. Same lech
      Same lech 15 January 2014 16: 37
      In fact, BULGARIA is a NATO member and, as a result, is our potential adversary, and therefore do not flatter ourselves to increase the combat readiness of their Air Force.
    2. Bagatur
      Bagatur 15 January 2014 22: 19
      We all know what a bele crisis! Many pilots were fired, many went to civilian life. You don’t have to forget that in the Bulgarian Air Force there is only one escadril of the 29s, everything else except the Su-25 (but he is not a fighter) garbage ... And about the military experience of the USSR, I think that there is no other country of the Airborne where everyone from the USSR copied 1: 1 like Bulgaria ... I know a pilot, I flew a MiG-1993 bis before 21, I said that only after repair they allowed the car to fly around by 100% afterburner ...) Unfortunately, everything is in money! The budget of the army is about 1 billion US dollars, and less is ... from where are the pilots taken for new equipment and training?
      1. EvilLion
        EvilLion 16 January 2014 01: 16
        Therefore, it looks like a fiction, pilots with a raid on the 50-70 clock will still not be able to maintain the class, the EMNIP test pilot Kvochur called the raid on the 120 clock the minimum necessary. The result, or take a Soviet training manual entry-level, or try to twitch until someone is killed.
      2. HAM
        HAM 16 January 2014 12: 16
        Well, you are FULL members of NATO !? And you are very proud of it.
  3. askort154
    askort154 15 January 2014 16: 39
    An interesting, instructive article. The simplification in the preparation of flight crews since the 40-50s, has become
    reinsurance standard for staff bureaucrats. It’s easier and safer to ban than to teach. All KULPs and
    and RLE, always relied on the average pilot. Lucky guys who fly under the supervision of General Radev.
    1. Alexander D.
      Alexander D. 15 January 2014 23: 15
      And what is simplified in training, where pilots are given the opportunity to develop further than the "average combat pilot". What is simplified in flying at higher angles of attack at a lower speed? What's oversimplified in the greater mental burden on the pilot and the greater freedom of action for maneuvering? If only to criticize everyone who does not pray to Russia!
  4. FlyEngine
    FlyEngine 15 January 2014 16: 45
    How many MiG-29s do they have left?
    1. samoletil18
      samoletil18 15 January 2014 20: 17
      Quote: FlyEngine
      How many MiG-29s do they have left?

      12 and 3 combat training. There were MiG-21s, but I don’t know about the current time.
      1. Bagatur
        Bagatur 15 January 2014 22: 22
        MiG-21, 21 bis, 23, Su-22-all to the landfill! Only 29 in 3 IAP Graf Ignatievo and approx. 30 Su-25 in Bezmer (now, with the money from NATO, the band will be extended to the position and larger transport and refueling aircraft) .
  5. propolsky
    propolsky 15 January 2014 17: 15
    A NATO member is politics, but how a hand will be raised against brothers in life is "who knows, who knows" ...
  6. BOB48
    BOB48 15 January 2014 17: 22
    and how much longer will they fly with them?
  7. Gado
    Gado 15 January 2014 17: 40
    And they will fly as long as necessary, or until the whole resource is gone, but it’s clear that we will not fight with the Russians, ask the Bulgarians themselves how they feel about this prospect. Have a nice day!
    1. samoletil18
      samoletil18 15 January 2014 20: 11
      But what about the oath? But what about obligations to NATO allies?
      1. Bagatur
        Bagatur 15 January 2014 22: 24
        Is Russia preparing a war with NATO? I can’t understand why NATO was npadat Rossi, what did you finish from UTB ???
      2. Alexander D.
        Alexander D. 15 January 2014 23: 11
        And you are aware that the NATO bloc is conducting military operations against any country only with the consent of all participants in this organization. Otherwise, a single country (which wants to fight most of all) takes all military expenses on itself. For example, France slipped into the Central African Republic, and then asked for NATO assistance, and nevermind - now they don’t know how to get down without tarnishing the honor of their uniform.
    2. HAM
      HAM 16 January 2014 17: 23
      And who will believe you now ??
  8. HAM
    HAM 15 January 2014 17: 46
    Probably in Soviet times, the Bulgarian pilots were beaten on the hands (like the "cosmonauts-researchers" from the socialist countries "so that the buttons were not pressed.
    1. Gado
      Gado 15 January 2014 18: 32
      You don’t have to be echidna, ask people really in this matter, they will tell you what was what.
    2. Bagatur
      Bagatur 15 January 2014 22: 24
      And not only the pilots!
  9. samoletil18
    samoletil18 15 January 2014 20: 08
    The concept of mass use of the USSR Air Force and its allies under the Warsaw Treaty was based on the principle of using a large number of aircraft and training a significant number of pilots. Soviet tactics consisted in the victory of the enemy due to quantity. The prevailing philosophy, in accordance with which a strict flight safety system was used, was based on ensuring that cadets fulfill a large number of rules, and not on maximizing the best.

    It was then that he pierced. But it is important that all opponents of the Russian Air Force accept this as a guide to action. Remember the Soviet anecdote: "There will be no support for aviation today, the pilot is ill."
    1. EvilLion
      EvilLion 16 January 2014 01: 18
      But will the NATO Air Force not use the tactics of filling up with quantity?
  10. Raptor75
    Raptor75 15 January 2014 20: 57
    The concept of mass use of the USSR Air Force and its allies under the Warsaw Treaty was based on the principle of using a large number of aircraft and training a significant number of pilots. Soviet tactics consisted in the victory of the enemy due to quantity.

    In World War II, Germany relied on a small group of aces pilots who were constantly thrown from place to place. At the end of the war, every loss of such an ace was compared to a disaster. Drawing "Abschussbalkens" on the fuselage interested them most of all. Infantry support - sort of between drawing.
    USSR - Prepared a large number of pilots of average qualification, there are few aces compared to Germany, there has always been a replacement for every one who has left. Support for ground troops - task number 1.
    Who turned out to be right is not necessary to say.
    History has not been taught by Bulgarians.
    1. Bagatur
      Bagatur 15 January 2014 22: 29
      My not Russia, and many pilots have never been and never will be! An hour's flight is 40 dollars, so we don't have a choice, if there are not many of them, then we need to cook them well! I don’t think that for Russia now it’s not very advantageous to give in the hands of "average qualifications" a destroyer for 000 million dollars!
      1. Raptor75
        Raptor75 16 January 2014 00: 06
        In a war, pilots and planes are consumables, alas. If it is not replenished, defeat is a matter of time, do you catch my thought?
        1. sds555
          sds555 16 January 2014 02: 11
          For consumables that the pilot that the plane is very expensive these days, it was during the Second World War that they could afford to lose 1000 fighters and build even more in six months, now this will not work, but I don’t speak about pilots
          1. sds555
            sds555 16 January 2014 02: 38
            This is to say that sending a pilot of average skill on a plane worth several tens of millions of dollars to the battle is somewhat wasteful, it will not lead to anything good, so Bagatur still what is right, but of course you need to have the resources to make up for the loss of flight personnel in case of war
      2. EvilLion
        EvilLion 16 January 2014 01: 30
        Well, not 40000.
        In general, a very controversial issue, in absolute terms, not even Russia, but Poland or Turkey will easily expose more pilots, the maximum level of training, than Bulgaria. There is not much difference, 12 of fully trained aces, or 24 so-so, anyway it is very small. Therefore, countries with a small population often simply abandon the Air Force. And why did you get the idea that 12 pros will be better and cheaper than 24 middles? At the same time, in large air forces it is possible to form selective units by dropping out of thousands of pilots. Among the 10-30 colleagues, talent will simply have nowhere to go.
    2. EvilLion
      EvilLion 16 January 2014 10: 22
      So the middle peasants survived better, and there are few aces. :)
  11. Shturmovik
    Shturmovik 15 January 2014 22: 49
    article is complete nonsense !!!! starting from the words "superelevation with a turn by 90 and 180 degrees" (in any textbook of aerodynamics it is written that a superelevation is an aerobatics figure with a turn in a horizontal plane by 360 degrees), SOS-3m is not a device, but a system, and it does not turn off when taking control, the speed limit for the pilot is imposed not by the technical description, but by the manual of flight operations, the speed limit of 300 km / h for performing simple and complex aerobatics, but not for higher, etc. in every paragraph there are these slips of the tongue, blooper clauses. In general, not an article but nonsense
  12. GEO
    GEO 16 January 2014 07: 19
    the Bulgarians are not brother to us, but the most ordinary traitors, we must always remember this ... 2 world wars they were on the other side of the front.