Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami (Islamic Liberation Party) was created in 1953 by a Sharia judge Taki ad-din al-Nabhani (1909-1977) in East Jerusalem. At the beginning of his career, Nabkhani was a member of the Muslim Brotherhood Muslim movement, but he later created his own organization, where the central idea was to create a caliphate - a global, planet-wide, Islamic state. AT stories There were already two caliphates in the Middle East - Arab and Ottoman, whose rulers bore the title of Caliph - the ruler of all Muslims, even those who did not live on the territory of these states. The Hizb ut-Tahrir proclaiming the caliphate also carries out its activities in Europe, especially in the United Kingdom, where one of the organization’s main offices is located. The second office is located in Beirut (Lebanon), and the Russian-language Hizb-ut-Tahrir information center is located in Stockholm (Sweden), from where the organization's sites are moderated in Russian.
Despite the fact that the Quran does not even mention the word “caliphate” at all, the ideologists of the party consider the creation of a caliphate as the religious duty (fard) of every Muslim. Since there is no caliphate now (the last Turkish Sultan Abdul-Mejid II was deprived of the Caliph title in 1924), the Hizb ut-Tahrir party is in favor of taking the oath to its leader. Today the organization is headed by Palestinian Ata Abu Rasht.
The methodology of Hizb ut-Tahrir includes several stages. Initially, they seek to organize cultural and social events related to Islam (charity dinners, picnics, cultural evenings, distribution of food or clothing to the poor). The purpose of such actions is to endear others. Often, their social work is aimed at attracting retirees who are beginning to harbor respect and appreciation for the attention given to them, telling their children and grandchildren about this. Cultural and educational work they pay great attention.
At the second stage, having gained favor with themselves, people from the Hizb ut-Tahrir party begin to talk about their organization and those who have shown interest are invited to circles (halakat) for the study of religious literature. Naturally, old people are not their target group for ideological processing, they are more often needed to cover up their activities, emphasis is placed on young people. The second stage is an ideological upheaval in the minds of people, expanding its influence on the population. This can be done more publicly, for example, to hold a rally, picket, rally, a procession with a demonstration of their attributes, usually in the form of a flag. The goal is to draw attention to the organization. At the same time, liberal human rights demagogy and populism are used. Representatives of the party themselves begin to say that they are in favor of the rights of Muslims; they can portray themselves as ardent supporters of the Constitution and secular laws of the state.
Finally, the third stage is the seizure of power into their own hands with the help of officials and society already sympathetic to them. At this stage they allow the use of weapons. A vivid proof of this is the active participation of Hizb ut-Tahrir in the war against the legitimate government of Syria. At the same time, despite certain ideological differences, they can easily be combined with other radical currents of Islam, for example, with the Wahhabis.
Externally, people in the Hizb ut-Tahrir party are no different from other Muslims. If Wahhabis can often be distinguished by short pants and thick beards, then Hizb ut-Tahrir members wear suits and ties. Beards are usually short, but do not oblige to wear the beard of their followers (you can find beardless party members). Listening to music, playing songs from them is not forbidden, unlike Wahhabism, since they believe that if it helps to attract more people, then it’s permissible. Therefore, on their actions you can see small concert programs, where singers perform with a repertoire on Islamic themes. They do not prohibit smoking.
The Hizb ut-Tahrir structure is a pyramid that includes seven levels: mu'tamad (chief leader on a state-scale), masul (head of a regional organization), musa'id (assistant of masul), nakib , district), Nakiba assistant, mushrif (head of one or several circles (halakat)), Shabab (an activist who already understood the ideology to the end and became a full member of the organization) and daris (member of the circle who is still a novice. The primary cell of the organization is already b It said that the study of religious literature is called the halalat consisting of 5-15 daris, led by the mushrif. Halakat classes are held twice a week. Once a month, there is a meeting of the mushrifs, during which practical and organizational issues are discussed. Naqib supplies literature , distributes funds and accepts donations. In addition to studying literature, circles give instructions on arrest cases, so those who are involved there know how to behave with the investigator and during arrest. Based on the instructions, people from Hizb ut-Tahrir always have a video camera ready to film the police. This is their favorite method of psychological pressure on law enforcement. Very defiant behave with the investigators. Getting into the bullpen or prison is perceived by them as a “baptism of fire” and as an opportunity to continue propaganda (dagvat) among cellmates. That is why, finding themselves in common cells, they immediately begin to recruit new members for the organization. At the same time, in situations that are dangerous for them, concealment or renunciation of membership in Hizb-ut-Tahrir (the principle of “takiya” - concealment of one's beliefs) is permissible, if it helps to avoid consequences that are more serious for a member of the organization.
The Hizb ut-Tahrir hierarchy may vary by state or region, may be more complex or more simplified. What remains common is that there is a lower, middle, and higher level in the organization.
Theologically, the main accusation against Hizb ut-Tahrir, which is put forward by representatives of traditional Islam for the indigenous Muslim peoples of Russia, is the refusal to recognize Hadiths of the Akhad category (transmitted by one transmitter) and to follow them. At the same time, most of the Sunni dogma is built on the Hadith of the Ahad category, and the Hadith Mutavatir (transmitted by several transmitters) is a very small number. Because of doubts about the authenticity of Hadith Ahad, the ideologues of Hizb ut-Tahrir deny the torture of the grave, Dajjal (the counterpart of the Antichrist in Islam), the circumstances of the arrival of Mahdi and Isa (Jesus) .
In Tatarstan, Hizb-ut-Tahrir appeared with migrants from Uzbekistan, one of the first masuleas was Alisher Usmanov (not to be confused with a famous major businessman), who started his activity in 1996 on arrival in Kazan, starting work in one of the local madrasas. Since the organization in our country was recognized as a terrorist and was banned only in 2003 by the decision of the Supreme Court of Russia, Usmanov carried out his activities quite legally for a long time . It is from this time that one can speak of the beginning of the spread of the Hizb ut-Tahrir ideology in Tatarstan.
The fact that Hizb ut-Tahrir’s ideology is spreading through migrants is also recognized by law enforcement agencies / special services. Former Minister of Internal Affairs of Tatarstan, Asgat Safarov, writes in his memoirs that “gaining popularity in the Asian republics, the Hizbutchik people moved their activities to Russia.” “To do this, they actively used migrant workers from Central Asia, most of whom are Uzbek, converted to new faith” . In December, 2006 was detained by 25 people involved in this organization in Kazan, and 12 were sentenced to prison sentences ranging from 4 to 8 years, and for the first time in Russia, they were charged under the article “Preparations for the Forcible Seizure of Power”.
The outstanding Tatar theologian Valiulla Yakupov, who was killed by 19 on July 2012 in the entrance of his house by one of the “amirs” of Tatarstan Robert Valeyev, quoted the Prophet Muhammad in one of his works: “After me, the Caliphate will be only 30 years, and then there will be just a kingdom”. “This hadith turned out to be a visionary,” wrote Valiullah-hazrat, “After the era of righteous caliphs (634-661), although many Muslim public entities were called“ caliphates ”and many leaders were“ caliphs ”, in fact, nothing to do with the essence of this phenomenon did not have. The “caliphs” of the middle ages were often engaged in the struggle for power for the throne and crown, not stopping in front of any bloody victims. In this regard, the caliphate disappeared not in the 1924 year, but much earlier, as the holy prophet warned us, ”concluded the late Kazan theologian .
An analysis of Hizb ut-Tahrir’s activity suggests that members of this party have their own interpretation of the Koran and their own worldview. As a religious-political movement, this organization is characterized by a negative attitude to secular power, the desire for power as the main strategic goal, the ideology of forming a political system, the presence of a caliphate building program and tactics of struggle, the possession of a developed propaganda apparatus and means of agitation. According to the Islamic theologian Said Shagaviyev, Hizb ut-Tahrir seeks to “split the Muslims of Russia and weaken, embroil among themselves, inciting Muslim youth against the state and their clergy” .
Muslim theologian Farid Salman notes that members of the Hizb-ut-Tahrir party demonstrate disrespect for the traditional canons of Russian Muslims even during Friday’s sermon in the mosque, when they can defiantly stand up, interrupt the imam’s speech and begin to argue with him, obviously with a view to public effect, proving that the clergy in matters of religion is illiterate and does not speak the truth, but they know it. Their characteristic feature is the belief in their uniqueness, that they know the truth. Often, the 3 sura of the Quran is cited where it says: "... And let there be among you a group that calls for good [Islam], orders approved and forbids what is deprecated" (Quran 3: 104), believing that this Koranic ayah is about them. This is their sectarian essence .
On closer examination, it becomes clear that Hizb ut-Tahrir refuses violence only in words, since it has never condemned other groups pursuing the same goal and using violence. This group has never condemned terrorist acts. As American researcher Zeino Baran writes, “in many ways Hizb ut-Tahrir is an element of the“ division of labor ”: she herself is engaged in active ideological training of Muslims, while other organizations are planning and conducting terrorist acts. Despite objections to such a characteristic, Hizb ut-Tahrir currently serves as a conveyor belt for terrorists .
The organization was most active in Tatarstan after the 19 July 2012 attack in Kazan, which was carried out by a group of "Mujahideen of Tatarstan" against regional mufti Ildus Faizov and Tatar theologian Valiulla Yakupov. The latter was killed in the entrance of his own house, and the head of the Muslims of Tatarstan was wounded. Launched operational-search activities of law enforcement agencies, which led to the detention of about a hundred and the arrest of suspects (subsequently released) by 7, led to the fact that representatives of the Hizb-ut-Tahrir party led by Rustem Safin, the imam of the Al “Ikhlas”, convicted in 2009 for membership in Hizb ut-Tahrir by suspended sentence, but managed to retain the post of imam of the mosque. 29 July, 5 August and 19 August, he and his followers organized pickets and rallies in Kazan, at which, from the initial liberal-rights-based demagogy, the participants soon turned to calls for the overthrow of secular power and the establishment of a caliphate. At the same time, Hizb ut-Tahrir symbolism was used. Despite the FSB special operation against militants from among the “Mujahideen of Tatarstan” held in Kazan on October 24 2012 of the year, Hizb ut-Tahrir organized mass motor rallies with the flags of October 26 and December 22 2012. A number of researchers are inclined to believe that the Islamist community of Tatarstan has three wings: fighting (terrorists from among the “Mujahideen of Tatarstan”), political (Hizb ut-Tahrir and participants of Islamist street rallies) and lobbying (some officials and business representatives, ideologically sympathizing with Islamists or interested in promising investments from foreign Islamic countries that prefer to invest in those regions where the positions of Islamists are strong). However, apparently, the insistent demand of the federal authorities to restore order and the approaching Universiade (7-16 July 2013 of the year) forced to take decisive actions: the Al-Ikhlas mosque, which turned into Hizb-ut-Tahrir headquarters in Tatarstan, was closed for renovation, which limited the possibility of a public religious preaching for Hizb ut-Tahrir activists; subsequently it was dismantled, and in its place began to build a new mosque "Mirgaziyan" (in memory of the founder and the first imam of the mosque "Al-Ikhlas" Mirgaziyane Salavatov). However, activists continued their activities on the street and on the Internet.
On the eve of the Universiade, members of Hizb ut-Tahrir held their action: they took to the central street of Kazan with T-shirts “I want to live in the caliphate”, consciously posing and shocking passersby . Moreover, the action was led by a former police officer, in the past - even the deputy of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Tatarstan, Anatoly Vasilyev (after the adoption of Islam - Taufik Vasilov). He himself was brought to administrative responsibility for this, which, however, does not mean at all that he ceased his activities within the framework of this trend of Islam.
25 September 2013 held a trial on Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami (Islamic Liberation Party) leader in Tatarstan Rustem Safin, who received 2 of the common regime colony , which absolutely does not mean that the activities of a terrorist organization discontinued in Tatarstan. This became especially evident on September 27 of 2013, when in a number of Kazan mosques, activists of this organization at the end of the Friday namaz began to publicly conduct anti-Russian propaganda among the congregation. The reason was the decision of the Oktyabrsky District Court of Novorossiysk of September 17 of 2013 to recognize the translation of the Koran, made by Elmir Kuliev, extremist. In the speeches of Islamists in mosques there were curses against the Russian authorities, who allegedly banned the Koran (despite the fact that the decision was about one of the translations). Some of them came out with single pickets, where the charges were repeated on the posters. The Religious Board of Muslims of Tatarstan a few days earlier responded to this with a statement about the undesirability of such a measure on the part of the Russian justice, as this gives rise to the radicals accusing the country of state Islamophobia. For its part, the Tatarstan Muftiate proposed a canonical translation of the Koran into Russian under the leadership of the Muslim clergy .
From the Muslim clergy of Tatarstan, four people condemned the activities of Hizb-ut-Tahrir: the wives of the wahhabites who were killed by the wahhabis, theologian Valiulla Yakupov (1963-2012), the Muslim theologian Farid Salman, the imam of the Zakabannaya mosque of the city of Kazan, Said-Jagfar Lotfullin, and the current heading and the current 76-year-old and the current Zaman mosque of Kazan’s mosque Said-Dzhagfar Lotfullin and the current 76 . The latter accused the adherents of Hizb-ut-Tahrir of being marginal, and by their actions such a symbol of Islam as shahad (testimony of faith) in the form of takhlil (the words “There is no God but Allah”) “strive to turn into an element of extremist political discourse ”.
With regard to the number of Hizb ut-Tahrir members in Kazan, today, more than 140 people from the Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami  group are registered with the police. At the same time, it is not known whether at least some measures are being taken towards them. According to our estimates, the number of members and sympathizers of Hizb ut-Tahrir in the whole of Tatarstan is 400 people.
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