In 1976, within the framework of measures for the further development of the complex, a decision was made to equip the Tu-22М2 with aeroballistic missiles in various versions.
In the course of work on this topic, one of the serial Tu-22М2 was reequipped for an experimental complex with airballistic missiles.
The new complex was successfully tested and was recommended for adoption, but later it was decided to introduce this missile system for a more advanced modification of the carrier plane Tu-22М3, which was successfully completed in the first half of the 80-s.
In the 1977 - 1979 years, joint state tests of Tu-22M aircraft with X-22MP and X-28 missiles with passive homing systems were carried out, designed to destroy working ground and shipborne radar systems.
In 1979, the SGS of the K-22MP complex with the X-22MP missile was successfully completed and the complex was also recommended for acceptance for armament.
Ensuring the requirements set by the Air Force for the Tu-22M were given to the design bureau and enterprises engaged in the creation and improvement program of the aircraft and the complex, it is not easy - especially to achieve the necessary parameters for maximum range and maximum speed, as well as to further increase the reliability of the elements of the complex.
First of all, it was necessary to solve the problem with the engine. Given the current situation with powerful economical TRDDF for heavy supersonic combat aircraft, OKD ND Kuznetsova at the beginning of 70-s, after several attempts to improve NK-22 (for example, work on NK-23), created a new TRDDF NK-25 ("E"), made according to the three-shaft scheme and equipped with the latest electronic automation systems, which allowed to optimize as much as possible engine operation in various modes.
Maximum takeoff thrust NK-25 reached 25000 kgf, specific fuel consumption in subsonic mode decreased to 0,76 kg / kgf h.
In 1974, the experienced NK-25 engines were tested on the serial Tu-22М2, which received the designation Tu-22М2Е. In the next two years, the new engine went through a large amount of testing and development on flights at the Tu-142LL flying laboratory.
Simultaneously with the work on the NK-25 TRDDF, the Kuznetsov Design Bureau began work on the prospective NK-32 TRDDF with much better efficiency in cruising subsonic flight. In the future, this engine was to become a unified type of turbofans for shock long-range, multi-purpose aircraft of our Air Force - both for the strategic Tu-160 and for the long-range Tu-22М (originally, the Tu-160 project was based on the NK-25 power unit).
In addition to the introduction of new engines, the Design Bureau continued to work hard to further reduce the mass of the empty aircraft through constructive and technological measures. There were also reserves to improve the aerodynamics of the aircraft.
These and some other very promising areas of work on the further development of the aircraft led to the creation of the most advanced serial modification of the Tu-22M - Tu-22М3 aircraft.
In January, the 1974 of the year a decision is made on further modification of the Tu-22М2 for the NK-25 engines. During the study of possible ways of modifying the design bureau, based on their experience, it proposes not to be limited only to the replacement of engines, but to make additional improvements in the design and aerodynamics of the aircraft. As a result, 26 June 1974 of the year issued a government decree defining the development of the Tu-22M with the NK-25 engines, with improved aerodynamics of the airframe, with a reduced empty mass of the aircraft and with improved tactical and operational characteristics.
The new modification of the Tu-22M received the official designation Tu-22М3 ("45-03").
In addition to the use of NK-25, the OKB conducted the following design measures that significantly changed the aircraft:
* Replaced the air intakes with a vertical wedge in the Soviet air intakes with a horizontal wedge.
* Increased the maximum deflection angle of the wing turning part to 65 degrees.
* Introduced a new elongated nose of the fuselage with a modified fuel rod.
* Replaced twin twin-gun aft installation on a single-gun with improved aerodynamic contours.
* Improved the removable knots, sealed the gap, replaced the fairing, etc.
They took measures to reduce the mass of an empty aircraft: they lightened the main landing gear (switched to another type of copes, abandoned the sliding system of the middle pair of wheels), introduced a lightweight stabilizer and a shortened rudder, the design of the middle part of the wing was made permanent, switched to titanium in the fireproof partitions and tail skaters, changed the type of insulation and sealants, replaced the nipple pipe joints with soldered ones, replaced the hydraulic pumps and introduced stable frequency generators in the power supply system AC, switched to contactless generators in the DC system, removing heavy bulky electric converters from the board, switched to more heat-resistant electric wires, facilitated the SCR units, elements made by punching and casting began to be made with minus tolerances. All measures to reduce weight, even taking into account the increased mass of new engines, should have provided a general reduction in the mass of an empty aircraft on the 2300-2700 kg.
Conducted changes in the elements of the navigation system. They considered the issues of expanding options for strike weapons and upgrading avionics and REP. The question was raised about the introduction of a new PrNK, a Obzor-type on-board radar, a REB complex instead of scattered units of REB equipment, new types of missiles, including aeroballistic and cruising subsonic, on the Tu-22M.
As a result of all the improvements made in the design of the aircraft, its flight characteristics finally had to reach values that met the requirements of the 1967 ordinance of the year.
The new modernization project has aroused great interest on the part of the customer - a real opportunity has appeared to significantly improve the flight and tactical characteristics of the aircraft and expand the capabilities and effectiveness of the entire aviation strike complex.
Considering the expected qualitative leap in the development of the Tu-22M, the customer at the initial stage of the existence of the Tu-22М3 gave the new design a new designation Tu-32.
In the future, due to the delay in the development of many promising modernization areas of the complex, the usual designation Tu-22М3 was left.
The well-coordinated work of the OKB and the serial plant allowed in the shortest possible time to carry out a deep modernization of the aircraft and to prepare for flight tests the first experienced Tu-22М3, which made the first 20 junction on June 1977 of the year (test pilot AD Bessonov). After completing the flight test program, the Tu-22М3 from 1978 of the year is launched into serial production. Until 1983, the Tu-22М3 is built in parallel with the Tu-22М2, and since 1984, only Tu-22М3 has been in the series. A total of several hundred Tu-22M type aircraft were built at KAPO. Serial production of the aircraft was discontinued in 1993 year.
Tests of the first Tu-22М3 showed that, in terms of their tactical performance, the aircraft of the new modification are significantly superior to the Tu-22М2. Practically according to the flight characteristics, it was possible to reach the requirements of the 1967 of the year, with a significant increase in the combat capabilities of the aircraft and the entire complex. Joint state tests of the Tu-22М3 ended in 1981, and the aircraft was recommended for use.
From 1981 to 1984, the aircraft passed an additional set of tests in the version with enhanced combat capabilities, including in the version equipped with aeroballistic missiles. New weapons systems required additional time for their refinement and testing, so in the final form, the Tu-22М3 was officially accepted for service only in March of the 1989 year.
The prospects for the development of the Tu-22М3 complex are connected with the modernization of the onboard equipment, the re-equipment of promising high-precision weapons systems and the provision of the necessary resources and service life of the aircraft carrier's glider, its systems and equipment.
The main objectives of the modernization are:
* expansion of combat capabilities of the complex;
* increase the defensive capabilities of the aircraft when performing combat missions, navigation accuracy, reliability and noise immunity of communication;
* ensuring the effectiveness of rocket use weapons a new generation of bomber weapons, both guided and unguided.
In terms of upgrading the avionics on the Tu-22М3, it is necessary to install a new multifunctional BRLS with enhanced capabilities and increased noise immunity. In the avionics and equipment units, a transition to a new modern element base is required, which will allow reducing the size and weight of the avionics and should also reduce the power consumption of the equipment.
The proposed measures for the modernization of avionics in conjunction with the ongoing work on the extension of resource indicators will ensure the effective operation of this aviation complex to 2025 - 2030 years.
The OKB constantly conducts all these activities, improving and developing the basic design of the Tu-22М3 complex, having designed several variants of its development since the creation of this complex.
As noted earlier, in addition to the main variants of a long-range bomber-carrying bomber armed with X-22H bombs and missiles, a variant was prepared, armed with anti-radar missiles based on X-22H missiles and aeroballistic missiles.
By the beginning of the 80-s, the Design Bureau prepared and transferred into production several modifications of the Tu-22M, which differed from the basic ones in the composition of weapons and equipment.
The introduction of reconnaissance and target designation sighting equipment allowed the Tu-22M to be equipped with anti-radar missiles, and then with various types of aeroballistic missiles. First, these works were applied to the Tu-22М2, and then to the Tu-22М3. In 80-s, these works were crowned with success - the serial Tu-22М3 also received a variant of missile armament with aeroballistic missiles on the intra-fuselage MKU and, however, wing ejection installations.
To replace the Tu-22PD jamming aircraft in 70-s, an attempt was made to create a director based on the Tu-22М.
In the course of these robots, the serial Tu-22M2 was converted into a production director. The aircraft, which received the designation Tu-22MP, passed the tests, but was not transferred to the series and into service because of the lack of knowledge of the REB complex. In the future, the idea of a specialized group REB aircraft was abandoned and relied on equipping the serial Tu-22М3 with new effective REB complexes of individual and group protection, which began to be installed on the Tu-22М3 from the second half of the 80-s
As noted above, it was intended to install the HK-22 engines on the Tu-3М32, thereby improving its performance and unifying its powerplant with another aircraft design bureau - the strategic Tu-160.
To test the new power plant, one of the serial Tu-22М3s was re-equipped, but it didn’t come to the installation of new engines, later on this machine was used as a flying laboratory for testing new equipment and weapons.
In 1992, the OKB, in conjunction with LII and TsAGI, based on one of the first production Tu-22М3, created the flying laboratory Tu-22ML for a wide range of in-flight aerodynamic research.
In addition to the listed built Tu-22M variants, the OKB worked on several projects of modifications and modernizations of the aircraft, the work on which did not leave the initial stages of design. In 1972, the Design Bureau for aviation The Navy has prepared a technical proposal for a radical modernization of the Tu-22M. The project received the designation "45M".
According to the project, "45M" was to be equipped with two engines NK-25 or HK-32 and have an original aerodynamic layout, somewhat similar to the layout of the American intelligence officer SR-71, combined with a variable sweep wing.
Impact armament was assumed from two missiles of type X-45.
However, this project was not accepted for further implementation due to the difficulties with a radical restructuring of mass production and with a corresponding loss of the rate of production and rearmament of the Air Force with new aircraft, which the USSR could not afford at that time.
There were projects on the basis of various modifications of the Tu-22M long-range interceptor Tu-22DP (DP-1), capable of fighting not only with strike aircraft at large distances from protected objects, but also with DRLO planes, transport aircraft connections, and also perform shock functions
In addition to these, several other Tu-22М development projects existed and exist based on the use of upgraded engines, new equipment systems and weapons, for example, the Tu-22М4 and Tu-22М5 projects. Work on the Tu-22М4 complex began in the middle of the 80-s (until 1987, this topic as a deep modernization of the Tu-22М continued to bear the designation Tu-32)
The project presented a modification of the serial Tu-22М3 in order to further increase the combat effectiveness of the complex by equipping the aircraft with new equipment and weapons
First of all, a new sighting and navigation complex was introduced, which included a modern navigation system created on the basis of the latest element base; a new on-board Obzor type radar, a modernized REB complex, and a new aiming optical system were being introduced; separate units of external and internal communication equipment were replaced by a single complex, a system of pressurization of fuel tanks using liquid nitrogen, etc. was introduced.
The new composition of the equipment ensured the use of both standard missiles and high-precision bomber and missile weapons in the missile complex. According to the program for creating the Tu-22М4, by the beginning of the 90-s, an experienced aircraft was built, but in 1991, for financial reasons, the work on the topic was practically curtailed in favor of a cheaper program of "small modernization" of the serial Tu-22M3 under the upgraded flight-navigation complex and missile control system
The prototype Tu-22М4 was used to carry out work on the further modernization of the complex.
In 1994, in the Design Bureau, as a proactive approach, a project was developed to further modernize the serial Tu-22М3 and develop the theme Tu-22М4. Increasing the combat effectiveness of the complex was supposed to increase the range and update the composition of weapons systems with a focus on high-precision weapons, further upgrade of the avionics; reduce signatures of aircraft visibility, improve the aerodynamic quality of the aircraft (modification of wing contours, improvement of local aerodynamics and the quality of external surfaces).
The planned composition of the missile complex was supposed to include promising high-precision anti-ship tactical missiles and air-to-air missiles (for self-defense and performing a complex of escort aircraft and raider functions), modern free-fall and guided (corrected) weapons were introduced into the bomber weapon system a) bombs.
The structure of the upgraded avionics was supposed to include: the newest aim-navigation system, the upgraded weapon control system, the Obzor radar or a promising new radar, a modernized communications complex, a modernized REB complex or a new promising complex.
According to the aircraft's glider, the following were subjected to refinement: the nose of the aircraft; socks of the middle part of the wing and the turning part of the wing, the fairings above the nodes of rotation of the wing; rear end of the fuselage, rudder.
The export version of the Tu-22М3, a Tu-22М3Е aircraft specifically developed for deliveries abroad, has some differences in armament and equipment, taking into account the latest improvements of the serial Tu-22М3 in the composition of the avionics, the requirements of potential foreign customers, and the international obligations of the USSR and Russia Federation. Such countries as India, China, Libya, etc.
In addition to these works on the development of the Tu-22M, the design bureau in the conversion programs in the second half of 90 considered the draft ATP of the administrative class Tu-344 on 10-12 passengers, the creation of which was supposed to be based on Tu-22М2 or Tu-22Х3 aircraft.
The Design Bureau is considering the possibility of creating a promising aerospace system (AKS) on the basis of the Tu-22М3 carrier aircraft.
It should be noted that in the field of aerospace systems in the Design Bureau, two directions are considered as the most appropriate and having the prospect of implementation and further development.
The first direction is the creation of commercial systems based on existing Tu-160 and Tu-22М3 aircraft for the operational launch of relatively small payloads into Earth orbit.
The second direction is the development and flight tests of experimental complexes for testing elements of future hypersonic aircraft, including the ACU and HVAC, primarily the hypersonic ramjet WFD.
The use of the Tu-160 as a carrier aircraft allows for the introduction into the low-Earth orbit of a payload with a mass up to 1100 - 1300 kg. This topic has been deeply developed in the experimental design bureau within the framework of the AKS Burlak project. In contrast, an aerospace complex based on the Tu-22М3 carrier aircraft can provide a payload of 250-300 kg into orbit, this design bureau, according to its developers, has more prospects for practical implementation than ACS based on Tu-160, due to the greater number of potential aircraft carriers and the larger possible network of airdromes based
Recently there has been a clear worldwide tendency of transition from heavy and expensive multifunctional spacecraft to using small satellites created on the basis of recent advances in microminiaturization of onboard equipment of payloads and service systems of satellites. Due to this trend, the cost of space technology put into orbit is reduced by 20 -30% per year, and the time it takes to create new satellites are reduced from 8 - 10 years to 2- 3 years, the costs of creating them quickly pay for themselves In the class of small satellites, annual launch Up to 20 units weighing up to 250 kg. In this class, spacecraft of the following assignments are created: KA of mobile communication systems (mass 40-250 kg); Earth remote sensing spacecraft (mass 40-250 kg), technological and university spacecraft (mass 10-150 kg).
Currently, the main launch vehicle for small satellites continues to be one-time ground-launch launch vehicles. Switching to the AKS, and in particular to the AKS based on the Tu-22М3, will significantly reduce the cost performance of payloads and provide a number of operational and tactical advantages over launches with the help of ground launch missile carriers. According to the estimates of the Design Bureau, an aerospace complex based on the Tu-22М3 can be created and brought to the stage of commercial use in 3 - 4 of the year.
In the second direction (creation of VKS and work on hypersonic aircraft) but the basis of the aircraft carrier Tu-22М3 can be created flight-experimental complex for testing the accelerator hypersonic flying laboratory "Raduga-D2" developed by GosMKB "Raduga", which can provide the launch the trajectory of the experimental apparatus with scramjet operating on conventional hydrocarbon or cryogenic fuel
A modified version of the serial Tu-22М3 in the export version of the Tu-22М3Е, taking into account the specific requirements of the customer, is offered to foreign customers with a slightly different set of strike weapons. The complex, in addition to using the export version X-22МЭ, has advanced capabilities for the use of various types of missiles, including those used in these countries, for example, Bramos, developed jointly by Indian and Russian enterprises.
The first of the combat units in the Long-Range Aviation Tu-22M received the 185-th Guards TBAP in Poltava. The personnel of the regiment were retrained on Tu-22М2 with Tu-16. The regiment quickly mastered the new machines and complex. In the same year, the 1974 Tu-22М2 began to arrive in the combat units of naval aviation. During the 70-x and 80-s, several more regiments of the DA and naval aviation switched to Tu-22М2 and Tu-22М3. After the collapse of the USSR, the Tu-22М remained only as part of the Air Forces of Russia and Ukraine (the last Tu-22М3 was split in Ukraine last year). The Tu-22М2 and Tu-22М3 airplanes participated in combat operations during the Afghan war, and limitedly Tu-22М3 took part in anti-terrorist operations in the Chechen republic.
Currently, long-range aviation and naval aviation continue to operate a significant number of Tu-22М3, all remaining in the ranks of Tu-22М2 at the beginning of 90-s were removed from the Air Force and disposed of as surplus for the modified structure of the Russian Air Force.
The long-term successful operation of the Tu-22М3 complex, its high modernization potential, as well as the flight and tactical characteristics achieved during its many years of development allow us to speak of it as a unique means of struggle in land and maritime theaters of military operations, including as an effective means combat aircraft carrier strike groups, as well as a means of delivering modern aviation weapons to destroy a wide range of targets in the operational and tactical depth of combat as in the case of local conflicts, and in the case of a global conflict with the use of weapons of mass destruction, in the conditions of use of modern air defense systems.
All this became possible not only due to the many design features incorporated in the basic structure and developed during the development of the complex, but also the high performance characteristics obtained both on the aircraft and on the entire complex as a whole. For example, in operation, the Tu-22М3 can be used with more than ten weapon variants. Moreover, the transition from one version of weapons (missile, bomber, or mixed) to another is provided in operation as soon as possible.
Conducting tactical flight exercises using Tu-22М3 in various regions of the country showed that the aircraft can be operated from operational aerodromes with minimal expenditure on the preparation of equipment and weapons. This was clearly confirmed during the participation of Tu-22М3 in the hostilities in Afghanistan and the North Caucasus.
The successful use of the complex Tu-22М3 was promoted by a proven system of operation, which included:
* logistics, whose main task was to supply technical equipment, ground support equipment, fuel and lubricants, spare parts, consumables and ammunition for all types of work on the aircraft and its combat use;
* radio equipment that allowed aircraft to fly in the airfield and at large distances from it;
* other types of material and technical support, allowing effective use of the Tu-22М3 complex.
The aircraft (aircraft connection) can be prepared in the shortest possible time for redeployment to an operational aerodrome located at a distance from the main airfield in 5000-7000 km. Means of destruction for carrying out the first combat departure are usually transported aboard a self-made vehicle. The presence of the Armed Forces of Ukraine allows you to prepare for combat operations immediately after landing on the operational airfield. The sophisticated system of operation of the complex allows the aircraft to be prepared at the base aerodrome using stationary ground support facilities, and at operational airfields using available mobile service facilities and technical kits used by ITS when relocating.
All this makes it possible to effectively use the complex in any theater of operations, in various latitudes and climatic zones, both on the base and on the operational airfields.
Considering the large residual life of the existing Tu-22МNNXX planes and the fact that the Russian Air Force has a fairly large number of Tu-3М22 planes, the OKB continues to work on further upgrading the Tu-3М22 fleet. As noted above, the aircraft must receive high-precision armament, the updated composition of the avionics. The Design Bureau also carries out ongoing work to increase the resource indicators of the complex and its component parts. Modernization programs for the Tu-3М22 should significantly increase the strike potential of the aircraft and the complex, ensuring its effective operation for at least another 3-20 years. Thus, the Tu-25М22 with modernized on-board equipment, equipped with high-precision armament, for many years will be a significant part of the combat strength of the strike forces of the Russian Long-Range Aviation and Naval Aviation.
Brief technical description of the Tu-22М3.
According to its layout and design scheme, the Tu-22М3 is a twin-engine all-metal low-wing with two turbofans mounted in the rear part of the fuselage, with a variable sweep wing and a swept tail launch, with a three-bearing chassis with a front support. aluminum and titanium alloys, high-strength and heat-resistant steels, non-metallic construction materials.
The wing consists of a fixed center section - the middle part of the wing (SCHK) and two turning parts (PTS) - consoles having the following fixed positions on the sweep angle 20, 30 and 65 degrees. The angle of the transverse "V" wing - 0 degrees. Swivel console has a geometric twist, twist angle - 4 degrees. Sweep SCHK on the leading edge - 56 degrees. Two-spar center section with rear wall and bearing trim panels. Rotary consoles are attached to the center section with the help of hinged pivot points. The wing mechanization consists of three-section slats and double-slot flaps on consoles and a rotary flap on the center section. Provided for blocking the release of flaps and slats at sweep angles more than 20 degrees. The consoles are equipped with three-section interceptors for roll control (there are no ailerons on the plane). The wing consoles are rotated by means of an electro-hydraulic system by hydraulic actuators with ball screw converters connected by a synchronizing shaft.
The fuselage of the semi-monocoque design, reinforced with powerful longitudinal beams (beams) in the area of the cargo compartment. The radar, crew cab for four people (ship commander, assistant ship commander, navigator and navigator operator), equipment compartments, front niche landing gear. Crew jobs are equipped with ejection seats KT-1M. In the middle of the fuselage are fuel tanks, niches of the main landing gear, cargo compartments, air intake ducts. At the rear of the fuselage are the engines and the brake parachute compartment
Vertical tail consists of forkil and technologically detachable keel and rudder. Sweep keel 57 degrees Horizontal tail consists of two one-piece rotary consoles with sweep 59 degrees Control hydraulic consoles using steering gears.
The tricycle landing gear, two-wheel nose support, retracts along the flight. The main supports are three-axle six-wheeled, retracted into the wing and partially into the fuselage. The wheels of the main supports are equipped with hydraulic disc brakes and anti-skid automatic devices. The wheels of the main supports are 1030x350, the front wheels are 1000x280
The power plant includes two two-circuit turbofan engines with afterburner chambers NK-25; adjustable multimode air intakes with a horizontal controlled wedge and sash makeup and bypass; onboard auxiliary installation; fuel and oil systems; control systems and control units of the power plant. TRDDF has a maximum afterburner take-off thrust of 25000 kgf and maximum take-off after-ride -14500 kgf. The auxiliary power unit TA-6А provides the starting of engines on the ground, the power supply of the on-board AC and DC networks on the ground and in the failed cases in flight, the supply of the aircraft systems with air on the ground and in some specified cases in flight. The fuel is located in the fuselage and wing (center section and console) of the protected fuel sides, equipped with a filling system with a neutral gas, as well as a tank in a forquille. Air inlets of the soviet type with a horizontal wedge are equipped with makeup and bypass flaps, as well as an automatic control system for air intakes.
Digital flight-navigation complex of the aircraft with inertial navigation systems provides: automatic solution of navigation tasks; manual, automatic and semi-automatic route flight in the horizontal plane with the provision of pre-landing maneuver and landing approach; the issuance of the necessary information for the automatic exit of the aircraft in a given area at a specified time; issue of necessary information to the aircraft crew, as well as to the systems of the complex
The aircraft is equipped with airborne long-range and short-range navigation (RSDN and RSBN), automatic radio compass, aim-navigation radar PNA type, interfaced with the X-22H type missile control system. The aircraft is equipped with a blind landing system, high and low altitude radio altimeters. Communication with the earth and aircraft is carried out using VHF and KB transceiver stations. In-flight communication between crew members is carried out using an aircraft intercom.
The missile armament of the Tu-22М3 aircraft consists of one (under the fuselage in a semi-submerged position), two (under the wing) or three (reloading option) UR X-22Н (or MA) intended for the destruction of large marine and radar-contrast ground targets at long distances 140-500 km. The launch mass of the rocket 5900 kg, length 11,3 m, the maximum speed corresponds to M = 3.
The bomber’s armament was supplemented with hypersonic (M = 5) short-range X-15 aero-ballistic missiles designed to destroy stationary ground targets or enemy radar. Six missiles can be placed in the fuselage on a multi-position drum PU, four more missiles are suspended on external nodes under the wing and fuselage.
The X-22H type missiles are located: in the semi-submerged fuselage position in the fuselage cargo compartment on the pull-down beam holder of the DB-45F, wings on pylons, on the beam holders of the DB-45К. Aeroballistic missiles - but the ISU and ejection wing installations.
Bomb weapons, consisting of conventional and nuclear svobodnopadayuschih bombs total weight up 24.000 kg, it is located in the fuselage (up 12000 kg) and four nodes external suspension on devyatizamkovyh beam holders MBDZ-U9-502 (typical embodiments bomb load - 69 FAB-250 or eight FAB-1500). In the future, it is possible to arm the Tu-22М3 aircraft with precision-guided bombs, as well as new CUs to destroy land and sea targets.
Aiming during bombing is performed using radar and optical bomber sight with a television set-top box.
The defensive armament of the aircraft consists of a cannon system with a gun of the GSH-23 type (with a shortened block of barrels installed vertically and having an increased rate of fire to 4000 rpm) with a telepresenter and a WB-157-5 computational unit, coupled with a shooting radar sight. The aircraft is equipped with an advanced REB system and an automatic passive jammer.