Military Review

Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part of 2. Wehrmacht defeat plan in the USSR

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Let's sum up. In recent years, it has been possible to identify a large group of interrelated documents, gradually reflecting the development of operational plans of the Red Army at the turn of the 30-40-s. All these plans are plans for an offensive (invasion of the territory of neighboring states). Since the summer of 1940, all variants of the Big Plan represent a single document, changing only from insignificant detail from month to month.
No one else found any plans. Considering that there were a lot of people who wanted to find a “strategic defense plan” or at least the notorious “counterattack in response to Hitler aggression, and they had all the archives of the country at their disposal, it’s possible in 99,99% to say that there was simply NO other plan .

Mark Solonin


During the discussion in December 1940 of the year at a meeting of the commanders of the Red Army, the report of the commander of the Moscow Military District I.V. Tyuleneva, Chief of Staff of the Moscow Military District, V.D. Sokolovsky suggested the need to revise the attitude to defense, which, in his opinion, like an offensive, was capable of solving not only secondary but also the main task of military actions — defeating the main enemy forces. For this V.D. Sokolovsky offered not to be afraid of short-term surrender to the enemy of part of the territory of the USSR, to miss his strike groups deep into the country, to crush on previously prepared lines, and only then proceed to the task of mastering the enemy’s territory.

I.V. Stalin highly appreciated the idea of ​​V.D. Sokolovsky and in February 1941 of the year he appointed him to a specially created post of second deputy chief of the General Staff of the Red Army. Thus, in February 1941, the first deputy G.K. Zhukov N.F. Vatutin began to develop a plan for delivering a preventive strike in Germany, and the second, his deputy, V.D. Sokolovsky - to develop a plan for defeating the enemy deep in the territory of the USSR. Probably the creation of Churchill of the threat to the interests of Germany in the Balkans was approved by I.V. Stalin needed a preventive strike on Germany, in connection with which 11 March 1941, he approved a plan for a preventive strike on Germany 12 June 1941 (part 1, 10 scheme).

However, Germany’s lightning defeat of Yugoslavia and Greece in April 1941, as well as the second expulsion of the British from the continent and the extraordinary speed for the Red Army to prepare and implement the defeat of Yugoslavia and Greece by Germany, prompted I.V. Stalin abandon the already approved plan for delivering a preemptive strike against Germany and accept V.D. Sokolovsky. In April 1941, the new plan began to be implemented - to the commander of the ZOV D.G. Pavlov was given the directive of the People’s Commissar of Defense of the USSR and the chief of the General Staff of the Red Army to develop a plan for the operational deployment of the district’s armies, changes were made to the mobilization plan - the composition of the Red Army was replenished with 314 to 308 divisions, 10 anti-tank brigades and 5 airborne command corps, 13, 23, 27, and later 19, 20, 21 and 22 armies, the concentration of the Red Army in the West began.

The plan envisaged that the troops of the North-Western and Western fronts would cover the directions to Siauliai-Riga, Kaunas-Daugavpils, Vilnius-Minsk, Lida-Baranavichy, Grodno-Volkovysk, Ostrolenka-Bialystok from one side and the offensive of the Western and South-Western fronts on the river line Narew and Warsaw, as well as a concentric strike on Lublin with a further exit to Radom from the other. Obviously, from the area of ​​the Narew River and Warsaw in the future, coming to the coast of the Baltic Sea, it was necessary to surround the East Prussian group of Wehrmacht. To accomplish this task, border cover areas were created at the USSR-Germany border, and all mobile units were assembled in the 13 and 4 armies. The western front was to include the 61 division, including the 6 divisions of the RGC Army in the area of ​​Lida-Slonim-Baranavichy.

The main difference between the April plan for covering the border from all previous strategic deployment plans is the creation of cover areas, occupation of the Narew and Warsaw river areas, as well as the surroundings of the East Prussian Wehrmacht group with access to the Baltic Sea coast from the Warsaw area, and not Krakow-Breslau. The anti-tank brigades were supposed to prevent the breakthrough of Wehrmacht units to Riga, Daugavpils, Minsk, Baranovichi and Volkovysk, stopping the German army’s motorized corps at Šauliai, Kaunas, Lida, Grodno and Bialystok, and the airborne corps thrown to the rear of Germany were supposed to help the ground forces The army liberate Europe from the German occupiers (1 scheme).

Speaking of 5 in May of 1941, to the graduates and teachers of military academies, I. Stalin declared that he would not take a preemptive strike on Germany. In his opinion, the Wehrmacht is invincible only while leading the liberation struggle. Consequently, having attacked Germany, the USSR will inevitably be defeated by the invincible Wehrmacht leading the war of liberation, while allowing Germany to attack the USSR, the Soviet Union will turn the invincible Wehrmacht, forced to wage an aggressive, unjust war, into an ordinary mortal army, which will inevitably be defeated by the leading liberation, righteous war of the invincible Red Army.

Not the 6 of May 1941, the day after the Kremlin’s speech by I.V. Stalin, not the 14 – 15 of May 1941, the leadership of the Red Army ordered the border military districts to develop plans to cover the border exclusively with military districts, without any involvement of the RGK armies, and 13 of the 1941 of the year - to start concentrating the armies of the RGC at the Zapadnaya Dvina – Dnepr border. The KOVO leadership was instructed to adopt the operational group of the SKVO headquarters, the 34 th infantry corps, four rifle divisions and one mountain division. The arrival of units and connections was expected from 20 May to 3 June 1941. May 25 received an order of the General Staff to begin advancing to 1 on June 1941 in the area of ​​Proskurov, Khmelniki of the 16 Army.

As we already know 15 May 1941, I.V. Stalin refused to implement the proposed G.K. Zhukov of a preemptive strike plan in Germany (part of 1, 12 scheme). However, in the same package with the proposal of a preemptive strike on Germany, in case of failure of the plan to defeat the enemy on the territory of the USSR, May 15, 1941, G.K. Zhukov proposed I.V. To Stalin to approve his proposal to start the construction of fortified areas on the rear line of Ostashkov - Pochep, and if Germany does not attack the Soviet Union, then to provide for the construction of new fortified areas in 1942 on the border with Hungary.

Meanwhile, on May 27, the command of border districts was ordered to immediately begin construction of field command posts (front-line and army) in the areas outlined by the plan and force the construction of fortified areas. In late May – early June, the call from 793,5 to 805,264 to thousands of military servicemen for Large Training Campus (BEAD) was carried out, which made it possible to complete the 21 division of border districts to the full state of wartime, as well as significantly replenish other units.

In addition, probably everything was ready for the formation of several new army directorates and dozens of divisions with the onset of hostilities. Already in June, the 1941 and 24 armies were created in July 28, and in July the Red Army was replenished with the offices of the 6 armies (29, 30, 31, 32, 33 and 34) ), 20 rifle (242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 254 , 256, 257, 259, 262, 265, 268, 272, and 281, and 15 cavalry (25, 26, 28) 30 th, 33 th, 43 th, 44 th, 45 th, 47 th, 48 th, 49 th, 50 th, 52 th, 53 th, 55 th divisions . And this is in the conditions of disruption of mobilization in the Baltic States, Belarus and Ukraine. In addition to personnel in the first month of the war, divisions of the people's militia were also formed - 1, 2, 3, and 4, divisions of the Leningrad army of national militia (LANO), 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 17, 18, 21 divisions of the Moscow national militia (MNO), a significant number of which was later reorganized into personnel rifle divisions. Most of the new parts and connections went to the front in mid-July - early August 1941 of the year. Moreover, in August 1941, the process of the formation of new armies and divisions not only did not end, but, on the contrary, increased substantially.

Plans to cover the borders with the border military districts, the task assigned to the Army Group RGK, created by 21 June 1941, and the proposal of G.K. Zhukov on the construction of a new fortified area on the rear line of Ostashkov - Pochep makes it possible to restore the plan of defeating the enemy on the territory of the USSR, which was conceived by the Soviet military command. It was necessary, firstly, to reliably cover the flanks of the Soviet troops in the Baltic States, Belostok and Lvov ledges, as well as Moldova, placing anti-tank brigades on tank-dangerous areas. Secondly, in the weak center, letting the enemy go to Smolensk and Kiev, interrupt the supply lines of the German units with a concentric strike by the troops of the Western and Southwestern fronts on the Lublin-Radom and crush the enemy on the previously prepared lines in the Western Dvina-Dnieper region.

Thirdly, to occupy the area of ​​the Narew River and Warsaw. Fourthly, having finished the formation of new armies by blow from the area of ​​the Narew and Warsaw rivers to the Baltic coast, to encircle and destroy German troops in East Prussia. Fifth, by throwing the airborne corps ahead of the ground forces of the Red Army, free Europe from the Nazi yoke. In the event of a breakthrough of German troops through the screening of the armies of the second strategic echelon, the creation of a fortified area at the Ostashkov-Pochep line was planned (2 scheme).

This scheme is not only not something alien to Soviet military planning, but having its own direct analogues in it, it fits perfectly into it. In particular, during the Kursk battle of 1943, the idea of ​​defeating the enemy with a counter-offensive by the Red Army, which had been preliminarily exhausted by the enemy’s defensive actions, was brilliantly implemented. It should be particularly noted that in the Battle of Kursk V.D. Sokolovsky, apparently in tribute to his 1941 defensive plan of the year, carried out Operation Kutuzov, while N.F. Vatutin, in tribute to his offensive plan 1941 of the year, carried out Operation Rumyantsev. The blow to the Baltic coast from the Bialystok salient was worked out in the first strategic game of the General Staff of the Red Army in January 1941 (part of 1, 8 scheme). The encirclement of the East Prussian grouping of German troops from the Narew – Warsaw area to the Baltic coast was brought to life in May 1945.

From the end of May - the beginning of June 1941, the advancement of the armies of the GDK to the West began with a concentration time the end of June - the beginning of July 1941, on the Western Dvina – Dnepr line. The 19 Army (the 34, the 67 of the rifle, the 25 of the mechanized corps) were transferred from the North Caucasus Military District to the Cherkasy region, Bila Tserkva. The 20 Army (20, 61, 69, 41 and ICNMX) were advanced to the area of ​​Smolensk, Mogilev, Orsha, Krichev, Chausy and Dorogobuzh, 7-I Army (21) , 66 th, 63 th, 45 th, 30 th rifle corps) concentrated in the area of ​​Chernigov, Gomel, Konotop, 33 th army (22 th and 62 th rifle corps) advanced to the Idritsa, Sebezh, Vitebsk. 51-I army threw 16 May - 22 June in the area of ​​Proskurov, Khmelnik. In addition, the Kharkiv Military District received the task of pushing the 1 th infantry corps to the Lubny area to 13 in June to the operational submission of the commander of the 25 army. At the same time, the troops of the 19 and 24 armies were preparing for redeployment.

June 6, 1941 G.K. Zhukov agreed with the proposal of the leadership of the OdVO secretly, at night, to withdraw to the border the administration of the 48th Infantry Corps and its 74th Infantry Division, as well as the 30th Infantry Division to strengthen the 176th Division, whose forces were clearly not enough to cover the front 120 kilometers. On the night of June 8, all of these connections reached the area of ​​Beltsk. On June 12, 1941, NCO issued a directive on the nomination of divisions and districts located inland closer to the state border. On the same day, the command of the KOVO was notified of the arrival in the district from June 15 to July 10, 1941 of the 16th army army as part of the army command with service units, the 5th mechanized corps (13th, 17th tank and 109th Motorized Divisions), 57th Separate Panzer Division, 32nd Rifle Corps (46th, 152nd Rifle Divisions), and ZAPOVO command - on arrival in the district from June 17 to July 2, 1941, the 51st and the 63rd Rifle Corps.

13 June 1941 of the People's Commissar of Defense SK Tymoshenko and the Chief of General Staff G.K. Zhukov asked I.V. Stalin led the troops of the border military districts to combat readiness and deploy the first echelons according to the plan of a preventive attack on Germany, by redirecting parts of the second strategic echelon to the border with Germany (part 1, 13 scheme). Stalin took time to think, the fruit of which was the TASS message transmitted to the German Ambassador 13 on June 1941 of the year and published the next day. The report refuted the rumors about the presentation of the USSR of any claims and the conclusion of a new, closer agreement on the preparations of Germany and the USSR for a war against each other.

14 June 1941, I.V. Stalin, fearing the escalation of open mobilization into the war, from the implementation of the deployment plan from 13 June 1941, S.К. Tymoshenko and G.K. Zhukov finally refused and echelons 16-th army, according to the testimony of Lieutenant-General K.L. Sorokin, who was baptized in 1941 in the year by the Brigadier Commissar as Head of the Political Propaganda Department of the 16 Army, accelerated his movement towards his plan, V.D. Sokolovsky deployment line:

“Echelons rush westward past stations like ordinary freight trains, freight trains. Stops only on deaf stations and traveling. ...
On the way, we learned about the TASS message from 14 Jun. It disproved the rumors spread by foreign news agencies about the concentration of German troops on the western frontiers of our Motherland and preparing them for an attack on the USSR. The report emphasized that the German and Soviet sides strictly adhere to the non-aggression pact. Meanwhile, our echelons suddenly accelerated their movement, and now the area of ​​the future stationing of the army — Shepetovka and Starokonstantinov — has become apparent. “Is this a simple coincidence: the TASS report and the courier speed of movement of our trains to the old western border of the country?” I thought.

15 June 1941, the leadership of the border military districts received an order for the withdrawal of the deep corps to the border with June 17. According to the testimony of I.Kh. Bagramyan in KOVO The 31 rifle corps had to approach June 28 to the border near Kovel, the 36 rifle corps was to occupy the Dubno border area, Kozin, Kremenets by the morning of June 27, the 37 rifle corps needed by June 25 was to concentrate in the area of ​​Przemysl; The 55 th rifle corps (without one division that remained in place) was ordered to reach the border of June 26, 49 –– to June 30.

In the ZAPOVO, the 21th sk was nominated in the Lida region, the 47th sk - in Minsk, the 44-sk - Baranovichi. In Pribovo from 17 on June 1941, on the orders of the district headquarters, the 11-th sd of the 65-th sk. Following from the district of Narva by rail in the morning of 21.06.1941, she concentrated in the area of ​​Seduva. On 22 of June 1941 of the year, most of it was still on the way. The management of the 65-th sk and the 16-sd had the task of arriving by rail in the area of ​​Keblya (10 km north of Shauliai) and Prenaya, respectively, but because of the lack of wagons they did not break into loading. The national Baltic rifle corps remained in their places of permanent deployment.

On June 14, the Odessa Military District was allowed to allocate army control and 21 June 1941 g to withdraw it to Tiraspol, that is, to transfer the control of the 9 Army to the field command center, and the commander of the Kiev Special Military District was ordered to withdraw the control of the Southwestern Front to 25 June Vinnitsa. 18 June 1941 this deadline at the direction of the General Staff was postponed to June 22. The Directorate of the General Staff of June 18 was allowed to take 23 to the field command posts by June 1941 by the order of the General Staff from June and by the North-West (PribOVO) front. 20 June 1941 of the year began the withdrawal to the field command posts of the offices of the 9 Army, the North-Western and South-Western fronts. The control of the Western Front was not withdrawn from the Minsk field command center.

On June 18, Commander PribOVO gave an oral order to the 8 Army's first echelons to reach the state border field defense forces, to the 8 Army headquarters - to be deployed in the Bubyan region by June 19 (12 - 15 km south-west of Saulayai), and 3 th and 12 mu mk - on the transition to the border area. On the morning of June 19, parts of the 10 and 90 units of the 10 units and 125 units and 11 units began to go into their districts and turned around to cover areas during the day. 48-th SDN 11-th SK on the orders of the 17 district command on June 1941 began its marching order from Jelgava to Nemakshchay district, before 22: 00 21.06.1941 was in the forest in the south of Siaulia and continuing dark after nightfall. 23-sd from June 17, by order of the district command, made the transition from Daugavpils to its border guard area, where its two rifle battalions were located. On the night of June 22, the division marched from the Pageliydzhay district (20 km south-west of Ukmerge) to the Andrushkantsi area for further movement to the specified area. 126-I on the night of June 22 made from Ziezmoreyi to Prienai district. 183 sd 24 th cd went to the Riga camp and before nightfall 21 June was located in the area of ​​Soseni, Sobari in 50 km west of Gulbene. In KOVO, from the summer camp to its place of cover of the border, the 164-th subdivision departed, and the 135-I detachment began to relocate to its camp.

June 21 The Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU (B.) Decided to create the Southern Front as part of the 1941 and 9 armies. The control of the Southern Front was assigned to the headquarters of the Moscow Military District, and the 18 Army was assigned to the Kharkov Military District. The same decree G.K. Zhukov was entrusted with the leadership of the Southern and Southwestern Fronts, and KA Meretskov was entrusted with the Northwestern Front, and the 18-I, 19-I, 20-I and 21-I armies, concentrated in the reserve of the Main Command, were united into the heading C .M. Budyden group of reserve armies. The headquarters of the group was to be located in Bryansk. The formation of the group ended by the end of 22 June 25. According to M.V. To 1941 June 21, the main forces of the 1941 Army, except the 19 Mechanized Corps, which followed the railroad, and eight rifle divisions of the 25 Army (other 21 divisions were still on the way) were already in the designated areas of concentration. The 6 and 20 armies continued to advance into new areas. “The Army Group was tasked with: reproaching and starting to prepare the defensive line of the main line of the line along the Sushchevo, Nevel, Vitebsk, Mogilyov, Zhlobin, Gomel, Chernihiv, Desna rivers, the Dnieper River to Kremenchug. ... The group of troops was to be prepared by the special instructions of the High Command to go over to the offensive "(part 22, 3 scheme).

Ultimately, from the 303 divisions, the 63 divisions were deployed on the northern and southern borders, as well as in the forces of the Trans-Baikal and Far Eastern fronts, while the 240 divisions were concentrated in the West, with the Northern Front being assigned the 3 army and the 21 division, the North-West and The Western fronts are 7 armies and 69 divisions, and the Southwestern front are 7 armies and 86 divisions. Another 4 army and 51 division unfolded as part of the front armies of the RGC, and the 2 army and 13 divisions were to concentrate in the area of ​​Moscow with the outbreak of hostilities. Depending on the situation, the armies in the Moscow region were intended either to strengthen the troops north or south of the Pripyat marshes, in case of success of the plan to defeat the enemy at the Western Dvina-Dnieper border, or to cover Moscow at the rear of Ostashkov-Pochep, whose construction was G.K. Zhukov proposed starting 15 in May 1941, in case of failure of the plan to defeat the enemy at the turn of the Western Dvina - Dnieper. The 31 division was assigned to the Trans-Baikal and Far Eastern fronts, the 30 divisions were part of the forces of the Transcaucasian, Central Asian and North Caucasian military districts, and with favorable circumstances, with the start of the war, the 15 divisions, mainly of the North Caucasus military district go to the West.

If we compare the real deployment scheme of the Red Army on the eve of World War II and the scheme envisaged by the Red Army’s strategic deployment plan from 13 June 1941, then both the similarity and the difference between the two deployment schemes becomes immediately apparent. The similarity is that in both cases the 303 divisions were assigned to the West from the 240 divisions of the Red Army, the 31 division of the Transcaucasian, Central Asian and North Caucasian military districts - 30 divisions were assigned to the forces of the Trans-Baikal and Far Eastern fronts 15 divisions were decreasing from these districts to the West. The difference is in the different structure of the deployment of troops focused on the West - if in terms of 13 June 1941, the bulk of the troops concentrated at the border and in the front GDF, then in real deployment at the expense of the troops of the frontier group at the boundary of the Western Dvina-Dnepr the front of the GDR armies was created.

As we can see, both the concentration and the deployment of the Red Army to the West before the start of the Great Patriotic War were carried out in full accordance with the plan of V.D. Sokolovsky, not N.F. Vatutina — the units of the armies of the border military districts advanced to the border, and the internal ones — to the Western Dvina-Dnepr line. There are many parameters that would seem to unequivocally confirm the implementation of the VD plan. Sokolovsky. Note some of them. First, the RGK armies began their advancement to the West on 13 in May of 1941, after abandoning the March plan for a preemptive strike on Germany and before the proposal of G.K. Zhukov I. Stalin new plan 15 May 1941 of the year. Secondly, both proposed by G.K. Zhukov plans of a preemptive strike on Germany were I. Stalin rejected. Thirdly, the army group of the RGK at the turn of the Western Dvina – Dnepr was created at the expense of the grouping of the South-Western Front intended for delivering a preventive strike against Germany. Fourthly, for the reserve, intended to strengthen the border grouping of the Red Army, the RGK armies were withdrawn too far from the border, deployed not compactly, at railway junctions, for ease of transportation, but at a broad defensive line. Fifth, if the RGK armies were intended to reinforce the border grouping of the Red Army, they would not be united into a front, they would not create a front headquarters, and would not set the task of reconnaissance of the terrain with the aim of creating a defensive line.

Sixth, if in January 1941, I.S. Konev, receiving the troops of the SKVO, received from the People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR, SK Tymoshenko’s admonition that he is heading one of the armies of the group intended for delivering a preemptive strike on Germany, then “at the beginning of ... June, the People's Commissar, setting the task for the commander of the 19 Army, spoke already about the counterstrike:“ in the event of a German offensive in the South-Western theater of military operations, on Kiev, to deliver a frontal strike — to drive the Germans into the Pripyat swamps. ” Seventh, all the armies of the RGK were reinforced by mechanized corps. Everything except the 21 Army, although there was a possibility for this, because the 23 Mechanic Corps remained behind it in the area of ​​its permanent deployment. And it is clear why - if the 19-I army was supposed to drive the Germans into the Pripyat marshes, then the 21-I army should have destroyed the Germans in the Pripyat marshes, and there was absolutely nothing to do with the mechanized corps, unless it was bogged down. Eighth, after the start of the war, the RGK armies continued their deployment at the Zapadnaya Dvina – Dnepr border, and on June 25, with the directive of the USSR Butter Union, the need for the front of the GDH armies was confirmed. Ninth, only after the encirclement of the troops of the Western Front was abandoned, it became overnight unnecessary, Lviv ledge and the organization of the struggle in the territory occupied by the enemy began.

Tenth, I. Stalin reacted extremely sharply and negatively to the catastrophe of the Western Front: he yelled at the head of the General Staff of the Red Army G.K. Zhukov, pulled away for some time from the leadership of the country, and subsequently shot almost the entire leadership of the Western Front. Nothing like this has ever happened again. It is understandable, because I. Stalin did not lose his temper in defeating the front, near Kiev and Vyazma in the 1941 year, the Red Army suffered defeats and worse, and disrupting the strategic plan for defeating the enemy and liberating the whole of Europe from him. Eleventh, the Lepel counterattack exactly repeats the plan planned by the Soviet command for the defeat of the Wehrmacht troops that broke through in the Smolensk direction. As well as the creation in July 1941 of the year of the front of reserve armies at the Ostashkov-Pochep line: Staraya Russa, Ostashkov, Bely, Istomino, Yelnya, Bryansk. Twelfth, the plan of the Soviet command implied a short-term occupation of Soviet territory and therefore did not provide for a detailed guerrilla movement, which began to be created only in the month of July with the realization of the failure of the plan to quickly defeat the enemy and start a long war. Moreover, with the conduct of hostilities on Soviet territory.

Thus, before the war in the Soviet Union, a plan was developed to crush the Wehrmacht in the event of a German attack on the USSR, and its implementation began. Unfortunately, both the plan and its implementation had a number of drawbacks. The plan did not take into account the possibility of Germany entering the battle from the very first hours of its main armed forces, and therefore provided for a long time to mobilize the Red Army. If the lack of adequate cover by anti-tank brigades and mechanized corps of the Brest-Minsk and Vladimir-Volynsky-Kiev directions was planned, then the Kaunas-Daugavpils and Alytus-Vilnius-Minsk directions remained mistakenly open. Simply, the leadership of the General Staff of the Red Army could not have foreseen the strike of the Wehrmacht on Kaunas, bypassing the positions of the 10 anti-tank brigade and the 3 mechanized corps from East Prussia, as well as in Vilnius through Alytus. The decision of the General Staff of the Red Army to transfer anti-tank defenses from Vilnius – Minsk to Lida – Baranovichi and Grodno – Volkovysk directions was fatal for the fate of the Western Front. Striking a blow at Minsk through Vilnius, the enemy, firstly - three anti-tank brigades went round at once, and secondly - the counter-attack of the group I.V. Boldin in the direction of Grodno, even in principle, could not reach the shock group of the Wehrmacht, rushing through Alytus to Vilnius and further to Minsk, and at least somehow influence the fate of the Western Front.

In terms of deployment, it should be noted that the border was well covered in the strip of the Southwestern Front. As for covering the border in the strip of the North-Western and Western fronts, it should be considered unsatisfactory. In the Alitu direction, on the way of the 3-th German tank group, there was one 128 rifle division, while the 23-I, 126-I and 188-I rifle divisions were only advanced to the border by the 22 of June 1941. In addition, distrusting the three national Baltic rifle corps, the command of the North-Western Front was afraid to send them to organize a second echelon of troops on the border, deciding to use the 65 rifle corps for this purpose, which, however, due to the lack of rail transport, was on time were never delivered to the border.

In the cover zone of the border by the troops of the Western Front, the 6 and 42 infantry divisions should be left in the barracks of the Brest Fortress. When the war began, they were locked up in the fortress and could not fulfill their task of preventing the enemy from fortifying the fortifications of the Brest Fortress. According to LM. Sandalov “the main drawback of the district and army plans was their unreality. A significant portion of the troops provided for the execution of cover tasks did not yet exist. ... The most negative impact on the organization of the defense of the 4 Army was made by the inclusion in its strip of half of the cover area No. 3. ” However, “before the war, RP-3 did not have time to create. ... The command of the 13 Army did not arrive in the Bielsk area. ... All this had grave consequences, since on the first day of the war neither the 49-th and 113-th divisions, nor the 13-th mechanized corps received any tasks from anyone, they were not controlled by anyone, and under the blows of the enemy retreated to the north -East, into the band of the 10 Army. ” The control of the 13 Army was used to strengthen the defense of the Lida direction, however, since parts of the German 3 tank group broke through to Minsk through Alytus and Vilnius to prevent the catastrophe of the Western Front, this decision could not.

Let us dwell on the relation of the plan V.D. Sokolovsky with the Iranian question. Since March 1941, the General Staff of the Red Army, under the guise of command-and-staff exercises in the Transcaucasian and Central Asian military districts, began to develop a plan for the deployment of Soviet troops in Northern Iran. As we recall, in England in March 1941, the development of a plan for the entry of British troops into southern Iran also began. In April 1941, the year of development of the exercises was approved by N.F. Vatutin and in May 1941 years were spent in Zakvo, and in June 1941 of the year - in SAVO. The study of the entry of Soviet troops into Iran is indicated by the study by the General Staff staff of the border only with Iran from Kizyl-Artek to Serakhs - it is indicative that the border with Afghanistan, and this, incidentally, was the shortest route to India, did not interest anyone in the Soviet General Staff.

In March, the 1941 divisions were allocated to the border with Iran on the border with Iran - first, it was necessary to assemble a grouping of 13 divisions in the South-Western Front, and secondly, to collect the necessary number of troops on the border with Japan. The ambiguity of the USSR’s relations with Japan required a steady build-up of Soviet troops in the Trans-Baikal and Far Eastern fronts — 144 divisions in terms of 30 August 19, 1940 divisions in terms of 34 September 18, 1940 divisions in 36, October 14, and 1940, and 40 of 11, and 1941, XNUMX divisions in the plan from XNUMX, October, XNUMX, and XNUMX. plan from XNUMX March XNUMX of the year.

In April 1941, the Soviet Union concluded a non-aggression pact with Japan, which was immediately used to increase the troops on the border with Iran at the expense of the forces of the Trans-Baikal and Far Eastern fronts. In particular, if the 11 March 1941 of the Transcaucasian, Central Asian and North Caucasian military districts counted 13 divisions, then the 15 plan of May 1941 of the year is 15 divisions, and in the plan of 13 June 1941 of the year and the real concentration of the Red Army in May – June 1941 of the year - 30 divisions. All this testifies to the readiness of the USSR and England to enter their troops in Iran as early as June 1941.

Thus, we found that at the beginning of 1941, the development of two plans for the deployment of Red Army units began in parallel. At first, the plan of N.F. Vatutin, however, after the defeat of Yugoslavia and Greece by Germany, the plan of V.D. began to be implemented consistently and purposefully. Sokolovsky.

Plan nf Vatutina envisaged the creation of a grouping of more than 140 divisions in the South-Western Front for a preemptive strike on Germany, while the plan of V.D. Sokolovsky - the defeat of the Wehrmacht strike forces at the Zapadnaya Dvina-Dnieper border, where a powerful army group of the High Command Reserve was created. The new plan, possessing a number of unique qualities, at the same time contained a number of serious mistakes, which did not allow to realize it fully and condemned to long oblivion.

Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part of 2. Wehrmacht defeat plan in the USSR
1 schema. The actions of the troops of the Western Front in accordance with the April directive of the USSR Butt and the NGS KA to the Commander of the troops of the New World Defense Forces 1941. Compiled by the directive of the USSR Butt and the Space Forces Combat Command vehicle to the commander of the ZOVO troops. April 1941 of the Year // 1941. Collection of documents. In 2 pr. Prince 2 / Document No. 224 // www.militera.lib.ru


Scheme 2. The actions of the Armed Forces of the Red Army on the European theater of operations in accordance with the May plans for covering the border of the border military districts of 1941 and the task set in June 1941 for a group of reserve armies. Reconstruction of the author. Compiled from: Note on covering the state border on the territory of the Leningrad Military District // Militaryhistorical magazine. - No. 2. - 1996. - FROM. 3 – 7; Directive of the USSR BUT and NGSH to the commander of the Baltic Special Military District from May 14 1941 of the year // Military-Historical Journal. - No. 6. - 1996. - FROM. 5 – 8; The plan of covering the territory of the Baltic Special Military District for the period of mobilization, concentration and deployment of district troops from 14 in May 1941 from 2 in June 1941 in the year // Military-Historical Journal. - No. 6. - 1996. - FROM. 9 – 15; Directive of the USSR BUT and NGSH to the commander of the Western Special Military District of May 14 1941 // Military-Historical Journal. - No. 3. - 1996. - FROM. 5 – 7; Note on the plan of action of the troops in the cover on the territory of the Western Special Military District // Military History Journal. - No. 3. - 1996. - FROM. 7 – 17; A note on the defense plan for the period of mobilization, concentration and deployment of KOVO troops on 1941 year // Military History Journal. - No. 4. - 1996. - FROM. 3 – 17; A note on the action plan of the troops of the Odessa Military District in covering the state border from 20 June 1941 of the year // Military-Historical Journal. - No. 5. - 1996. - FROM. 3 – 17; a note of the NO of the USSR and the NGS KA to the chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR I.V. Stalin with considerations on the strategic deployment plan of the armed forces of the Soviet Union in case of war with Germany and its allies from 15 in May 1941 // 1941. Collection of documents. In 2 book. Prince. 2 / Document No. 473 // www.militera.lib.ru; Gorkov Yu.A. The State Defense Committee decides (1941 – 1945). Figures, documents. - M., 2002. - FROM. 13; Zakharov M.V. On the eve of great trials / General Staff in the pre-war years. - M., 2005. - FROM. 402 – 406; Zakharov M.V. General Headquarters in Pre-War Years / General Headquarters in Pre-War Years. - M., 2005. - FROM. 210 – 212; Command and commanding composition of the Red Army in 1940-1941 The structure and personnel of the central apparatus of the HKO of the USSR, military districts and combined arms armies. Documents and materials. - M .; SPb., 2005. - FROM. 10; Evseev A.I. Maneuver of strategic reserves in the first period of the Great Patriotic War // Military-Historical Journal. - No. 3. - 1986. - FROM. 9 – 20; Petrov B.N. On the strategic deployment of the Red Army on the eve of the war // Military History Journal. - No. 12. - 1991. - FROM. 10 – 17; Kunitsky P.T. Restoration of a broken strategic defense front in 1941 year // Military-Historical Journal. - No. 7. - 1988. - FROM. 52 – 60; Makar I.P. From the experience of planning the strategic deployment of the USSR Armed Forces in case of war with Germany and immediate preparation for repelling aggression // Military History Journal. - No. 6. - 2006. - FROM. 3; Afanasyev N.M. Roads of trials and victories: Fighting path of the 31 Army. - M .: Military Publishing, 1986. - FROM. Xnumx; Glantz D.M. Soviet military miracle 1941 – 1943. Revival of the Red Army. - M., 2008. - FROM. 248 – 249; Kirsanov N.A. At the call of the Motherland (Volunteer formations of the Red Army during the Great Patriotic War). - M., 1971. - FROM. 17 – 18, 23 – 27; Kolesnik A.D. Militia units of the Russian Federation during the Great Patriotic War. - M., 1988. - FROM. 14 – 18, 21 – 24; Military Encyclopedic Dictionary. - M .: Military Publishing, 1984. - FROM. 503 – 504; The combat composition of the Soviet Army. (June – December 1941 of the year). Part 1.
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Articles from this series:
Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part of 1. Counterattack and preemptive strike
Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part of 2. Wehrmacht defeat plan in the USSR
Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part of 3. The collapse of the plan for the defeat of the Wehrmacht in the USSR
Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part of 4. Collapse of the Barbarossa, Kantokuen Plan and Directive No. 32
Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part of 5. Battle of Bulgaria
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  1. avt
    avt 9 January 2014 10: 40
    +6
    “Tenthly, I. Stalin reacted extremely sharply and negatively to the catastrophe of the Western Front: he shouted at the Chief of the General Staff of the Red Army G.K. Zhukov, withdrew from the leadership of the country for some time, and subsequently shot almost the entire leadership of the Western Front. "----- Again, we will retell Khrushchev's jokes ?? With a clever look and a mantra -" Over the past years, it has been possible to identify a large group of interrelated documents , ". Why won't the visitation log of that time be published by the singers of Stalin's "retreat"? Especially since it was already voiced a long time ago and NONE of the faithful Svanizoids even attempted to say that it was a fake. Regarding the topic of the article, I will say this. Of course there is a desire to equate us and the Nazis, which is what the Marisolonins actually do. From the rezunoid versions about boots and sheepskin coats with felt boots, for the offensive on Germany, we switched to the cards on which the General Staff played out the scenarios - did their direct business. detail. Here, in addition to the marshal's plans in single copies, for the troops, the maps according to which real "Vanka-platoon" soldiers lead their soldiers were ordered by the General Staff to Smolensk. But further into the depths of the country, there were no massive maps for the Army.
    1. Prometey
      Prometey 9 January 2014 11: 56
      -1
      avt
      And here Khrushchev’s jokes. There was a fact that Stalin was at a loss. Otherwise, on June 22, not the Molotov, but the head of state would appeal to the citizens of the country.
      1. avt
        avt 9 January 2014 12: 17
        +3
        Quote: Prometey
        And here Khrushchev’s jokes. There was a fact that Stalin was at a loss.
        Quote: avt
        Why wouldn't the visitation log of that time be published by the singers of Stalin's retreat?

        Quote: Prometey
        Otherwise, on June 22, not the Molotov, but the head of state would appeal to the citizens of the country.

        This is your desire is a concrete fact! ?? But it does not come to the brain that at least until the situation was clarified, he took a break and then, having clarified the scale, gave a performance that became a classic, which even from his "bosom friends" they do not deny. There was no "seclusion" and "not picking up the phone." according to Radzinsky. He worked and received members of the Politburo and the military. As evidenced by the documents, which - the journal of visits
        Quote: avt
        they have already voiced it for a long time and NOBODY of the faithful Svanizoids even made an attempt to say that this is a fake

        So you do not have to be a Stalinist to understand this issue, since there are documents, except for the Khrushchev's chronicles-jokes.
        1. Prometey
          Prometey 9 January 2014 13: 28
          0
          Quote: avt
          But it doesn’t come to the brain that at least until the situation is clarified, he took a break and then, having clarified the scale

          The scale of the disaster has already outlined in his speech Molotov on June 22. Why didn’t the leader of the nation find the strength to turn to his people on the day the war began? Or at least the next day? Just humanly interesting?
          1. avt
            avt 9 January 2014 14: 56
            +2
            Quote: Prometey
            The scale of the disaster has already outlined in his speech Molotov on June 22.

            We now know the scale of the disaster on June 22, as well as the result of the end of the war, but with the then means of communication, and taking into account the sabotage, high-quality work of the Germans and the rechecking of data with an avalanche-like catastrophic development of events, especially in the western direction, the 22nd in the leadership is not no one knew, the more they could not evaluate and make an adequate decision, which is actually evidenced by the harassment arranged by Stalin for Zhukov. It was for such a case that the troops had packages of documents in case of war. Which were developed by the General Staff ahead of time. But how, in practice, foresight coincides with reality, concrete people on the frontline already feel on themselves. So everything was done correctly - Molotov announced the fact of the attack and the declaration of war quite quickly, Stalin made a qualitatively different speech - mobilization, already in accordance with the scale of the tragedy, as a political leader, as he actually was at that time. Everything else is already from the region - "but I would!" and frank accounts with the deceased, or for relatives as Svanidza - different Radzins, or under a specific order for a new reading of history, like rhesunoids-mariselonins.
          2. Moore
            Moore 9 January 2014 17: 36
            +1
            Or maybe not strength was found, but time?
            Dubovy example, but still. Imagine a border post of the 30s somewhere in Turkestan. Basmachi suddenly attacked the outpost. What does the chief of the outpost do? Goes to the wives and children of the commanding staff and explains to them the inevitability of the defeat of dushmans? Or commands the reflection of the attack, and sends wives and children non-combatant observer?
            In our case, the second person in the state was essentially speaking with the country. The first one was very busy ...
      2. badger1974
        badger1974 9 January 2014 12: 40
        +2
        But what about the Munich agreement? It is interesting to find out from you who sent the NSDAP to the east?
        1. avt
          avt 9 January 2014 13: 08
          +2
          Quote: badger1974
          But what about the Munich agreement?

          request Well, so what, but Munich is already very well lit, another thing is that "humanly" they do not like to remember about it, living according to the principle - your city ... does not smell, preferring, like Svanidze, to scream more that the USSR entered the war on the side of Germany, when he occupied the territory of Poland, without mentioning how the same Poles tore the Czechoslovaks after the Germans. True, here, too, Stalin complied with the legal formalities - he brought in troops when the Polish government fled the country. Well, Chamberlain's statements during the Munich Agreement about the same Czechs and the politicians of the then still Great Britain can be found in Leontiev's book and film, The Big Game, quite sensibly done.
      3. Ataman
        Ataman 9 January 2014 23: 54
        +2
        Quote: Prometey
        avt
        And here Khrushchev’s jokes. There was a fact that Stalin was at a loss. Otherwise, on June 22, not the Molotov, but the head of state would appeal to the citizens of the country.

        The head of the USSR from 1923 to 1946 was considered the chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
        1923 - 1924 - V.I. Ulyanov (Lenin);
        1924 - 1929 - A.I. Rykov;
        1929 - May 6, 1941 - V.M.Skryabin (Molotov), ​​combined with the post of People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs;
        May 6, 1941 - 1946 - I.V.Dzhugashvili (Stalin).
        Molotov, after his replacement by Stalin as chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, remained the first deputy chairman of the Council of People's Commissars and the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs. It was he who concluded the well-known Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, it was he who received the note of the declaration of war from Schulenburg, therefore, at a meeting with Stalin at 5:45 am on June 22, 1941, it was decided that he would make the radio address.
        I would change my mind about Stalin if, instead of giving orders to organize defense, he himself would run to speak on the radio. Everything is competent and logical. There is no need to draw false conclusions about the confusion of Stalin from the facts.
    2. Mikhail Zubkov
      Mikhail Zubkov 11 December 2018 19: 31
      0
      The GRU gave Stalin twice the number of tanks in Germany in September 1939, after the defeat of Poland - not less than 3500 in fact, and more than 7300. In 1940-41. The GRU regularly reported that the Germans had 10 airborne divisions, while they did not have a single (!), There was only a regiment of saboteurs "Brandenburg". Since 1940, in the reports of the GRU, Stalin had been sniffing about 10 Wehrmacht divisions in Bulgaria, while there were up to 10000 Germans in total throughout the war. In 1941, in the reports of the GRU, more than 10 enemy submarines scoured the Black Sea, while there was only one faulty Romanian submarine under repair in their port. There were also reports of 37 transports with an assault force to the Crimea, allegedly leaving the ports of Romania and Bulgaria. In Romania, there were 35 divisions in total, while the military maximum from there was 17,5. Instead of 3 German divisions in Norway and Finland, the GRU drew 7, instead of 3 Hungarian divisions, they scared the 7th, for Slovakia and Italy they also persistently overestimated the figures by two or three times. If you have such a RI, what plans could the future marshals Vatutin and Sokolovsky draw in our General Staff, having a party order for a war "with little blood on foreign territory" ?! One drew a counterattack on the border, and the other - a counterattack little in the depths. The result was the defeat of June 1941 as a result of the "conspiracy of generals and marshals of 1938". That year, by the way, there was also a poor harvest and famine in a number of regions of the USSR. What kind of "preventive war" and who could think in the General Staff of the Red Army in 1941? Only those who wanted the USSR to be defeated on foreign territory, and the most crushing defeat. Zhukov wrote these proposals in his secret notebook in the office of the People's Commissar of Defense Marshal Tymoshenko, literally under his dictation. One dictated, the other wrote, and knew for sure that if he didn’t write a dictation, he would be devoured with giblets on the “party affair” of 1938. That's the whole alignment of “professional strategic planning” in the General Staff of the Red Army.
  2. leks
    leks 9 January 2014 11: 51
    +3
    Hello everyone! Now there are a lot of such articles devoted to the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, and you understand it doesn’t lead to anything good, as people begin to get confused as everything actually happened, and in such a mess it’s easier to replace the truth, I read Dozens of articles devoted to this subject and each author has his own vision of those events and for some reason, each author has everything backed up by archival documents, from where they just get them.
    But for me, TRUTH alone, our GRANDFATES won the GREAT PATRIOTIC war, but it was hard for our FATHER and GRANDFUL to Defeat and even harder to VICTORY, the war brought a lot of grief, but they managed to lift the country from ruins.
    And in the Second World War, the USSR did much more for victory than all other countries combined.
    1. badger1974
      badger1974 9 January 2014 12: 47
      0
      there is nothing to add
    2. igordok
      igordok 9 January 2014 13: 33
      +2
      Quote: leks
      TRUTH alone, our grandfathers won the GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR

      Quote: badger1974
      there is nothing to add

      They started to win in 1941 year. True blood and sweat. Learned from their own and others' mistakes.
    3. Stas57
      Stas57 9 January 2014 16: 14
      +4
      Hello everyone! Now there are a lot of such articles devoted to the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, and you understand this does not lead to anything good.

      that's right, it’s better not to know anything about the history of your country, to sit yanking in vkontaktig and drink yaga.
      Maps, plans, heroes, strategies, tanks, fronts, trenches, awards, reports - Well, you can get confused !!!! You can break your head !!!!!

      You are absolutely right - it's easier not to think, "thank you for my victory", a ribbon and all that,
      And search engines, historians, archivists, in general, burn their lives in the fields and archives.
      Continue this way, and your children will no longer remember "thank you for my victory", they will say why rack their brains with some kind of victory that was 100 years ago ...
      Yegor Gaidar is proud of you, my friend))
      1. Prometey
        Prometey 9 January 2014 17: 43
        +2
        Quote: Stas57
        You are absolutely right - it's easier not to think, "thank you for my victory", a ribbon and all that,

        I agree with you. All those who shout - do not dare to touch the sacred - are hypocrites. I want and will seek the truth and have every right to do so. In 1941, cousins ​​of my grandmother died, my great-grandfather was surrounded near Vyazma and somehow escaped from the encirclement. About 1941, he talked all the time passing to the mat. And I want to know and have the right to know why such a catastrophe befell an army that was by no means armed with flintlock rifles and medieval bombers.
  3. predator.3
    predator.3 9 January 2014 14: 05
    +2
    The maps are certainly impressive, and the location and number of our armies, too, but considering all our Russian realities, there are a thousand reasons everywhere (yes they were!), Especially in the initial stages of the war, as the saying goes smoothly on paper, but the ravines prevented! For example: after the KMB at dawn they raised their first alarm to the emergency area with equipment, the platoon also had the first exit, the loading punt at Svalyava station, we arrived to drive the cars onto platforms, there was nothing to fix: wires, blocks, tools and those aren’t Already 5 -th hour went, well, essenno mat for the whole district, in the evening they just managed, but on the other exercises I wore everything in the car, and the cars were mounted on the railway platform for 30-40 minutes.
  4. msv
    msv 9 January 2014 15: 03
    0
    Quote: leks
    Hello everyone! Now there are a lot of such articles devoted to the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, and you understand it doesn’t lead to anything good, as people begin to get confused as everything actually happened, and in such a mess it’s easier to replace the truth, I read Dozens of articles devoted to this subject and each author has his own vision of those events and for some reason, each author has everything backed up by archival documents, from where they just get them.
    But for me, TRUTH alone, our GRANDFATES won the GREAT PATRIOTIC war, but it was hard for our FATHER and GRANDFUL to Defeat and even harder to VICTORY, the war brought a lot of grief, but they managed to lift the country from ruins.
    And in the Second World War, the USSR did much more for victory than all other countries combined.


    This is imaginary patriotism. I and many others are no less than yours, and maybe much more, are sure that the truth about which you said is fundamental. But I still have questions why it turned out, and not otherwise. After all, there were huge losses of our grandfathers. I am not satisfied with simple and traditional explanations for this (both urapatriots and liberals), because they do not fit with reality, with a closer and deeper study.
    Essentially the article.
    As in the previous part for the topic of the article "five". For the validity of theses and conclusions "two". The respected author did not convince either of the absence of Stalin's intention to inflict a preventive strike (if there was such a goal), or of the opposite (in any case, I didn’t get any new weighty arguments for myself).
    1. Motors1991
      Motors1991 9 January 2014 16: 15
      0
      I think the Red Army was preparing a preemptive strike only in the event of a German invasion of England. In the event of a British defeat, the Germans had only one enemy on the continent - the Soviet Union, so in this case there was no choice to attack, the USSR did not have, only attack, and until then, the concentration of Soviet troops on the western borders was a response to the concentration of German divisions. The Nazis planned to use 30-40 divisions against England, just in case they decided to place the rest on the borders with the USSR, under the pretext of shelter from bombing by British aircraft. the leadership also just in case decided to play it safe under the guise of BUSs, began to concentrate its troops on the border. At the same time, Comrade Stalin categorically forbade answering obvious or imaginary German provocations under pain of execution. At some point, Hitler himself realized that in the event of an invasion of England, Stalin would attack Germany, simply out of a sense of self-preservation, so as not to be left alone with the Germans later.In essence, Hitler was trapped from which neither him nor his Reich it wasn’t destined to get out alive. There is a good proverb everywhere you go, a wedge is everywhere. Start the Germans invading England, get a second front in the face of the USSR, attack the Soviet Union get a second front in the face of Great Britain and its allies, including the USA, which in reality happened. The rest of the details.
      1. avt
        avt 9 January 2014 17: 07
        +1
        Quote: Motors1991
        I think the Red Army was preparing a preemptive strike only in the event of a German invasion of England

        A variant of an attack on Germany could be talked about if the negotiations in Moscow with representatives of the Franks and the shaven were successful. But they sabotaged these negotiations - they sent secondary members of the delegations, and the shaved ones arrived without any documents to conduct them and sign any agreements.On Voroshilov's remark, the shaven one remarked phlegmatically that it was possible to send written credentials by the steamer - the witness was Admiral Kuznetsov. So the signing of the Molotov-Ribentrop Pact was quite beneficial to the USSR, especially since the zone of interests outlined in the protocol to the pact was fully consistent with the "Curzon Line", which the Naglo-Saxons and Franks cut to the Poles in our west - from the eastern border. So the secret protocol , which we are ashamed of. the invention is not of the "totalitarian regime of bloody Stalin", but quite a recognition by the Soviet government of the decision of the "civilized, democratic" states following the First World War. We have regained the territories that the "hyena of Europe" - Poland, again as one shaven leader put it, she was not one of the last, she captured it during an attack on the Soviet Republic, taking advantage of the fact that combat-ready units finished off Denikin's troops in the Crimea. This is how they brought the 1st cavalry from the Crimea to the Western, newly opened front. Well, then, after the "brilliant" strategist Tukhachevsky, having lost the Polish army, was defeated near Warsaw, as a result of the peace treaty, borders appeared that existed until the Second world.
        1. Motors1991
          Motors1991 9 January 2014 19: 43
          +1
          Actually, I wrote about the situation that happened in June 1941. By this time there was no France, and what remained of it was an ally of Germany, England stood with one foot in the grave. America was far away and while standing above the fray. In Europe it remained one state, one way or another independent of the Reich, the Soviet Union, and two bears, as you know, do not get along in one lair. The war was inevitable, the difference was that if England were defeated, the USSR would have to fight Germany and its satellites One. Clearly, Stalin wanted to delay the moment of entering the war during the German landing in Britain, in which case the British would have to fight for their island not for life but for death. Hitler, in order to protect himself from a blow to the back from the USSR, suggested the Soviet government to strike Iran in the direction of the Persian Gulf, Stalin reasonably suspected Hitler of the intention to withdraw the Red Army to Asia, and to remain the master of Europe and while the Red Army in the Indian Ocean boots It’s up to occupy the European part of the USSR. Whatever one may say, a war with Germany was inevitable, and in spite of the catastrophic beginning we came out with dignity.
          1. avt
            avt 9 January 2014 21: 12
            0
            Quote: Motors1991
            Actually, I wrote about the situation that developed in June 1941. By this time, there was no France,

            request And by that time, Stalin had no time for preemptive strikes at all. He was not an idiot, I think he had a certain shock from how quickly the Germans and the Franks got rid of it. That is why everyone, absolutely everyone, notes the fact that their military is being deterred, perhaps sometimes not right, limiting the combat readiness of the troops, all kinds of Foreign Ministry peace-loving actions and propaganda of the non-aggression pact. He was a realist, hence the supply of maps to Smolensk for the junior command personnel.
            1. Motors1991
              Motors1991 9 January 2014 21: 34
              0
              Here he is, as a realist and expected the invasion of the Germans on the British Isles, it would have pulled 30-40 divisions of the Wehrmacht from the continent and there was no talk of any peace between England and Germany. If we hit the first, then Anglo-Saxons with the Teutons would have concluded the world and the islands threw firewood into a bonfire so that it didn’t go out and America and Japan thought they should fight among themselves or share the skin of a Russian bear. So, I assert once again, Stalin had no options, just wait: or invade England , or to the Soviet Union, unfortunately Hitler chose the second option, because the victory went to us at that cost.
  5. SIT
    SIT 9 January 2014 16: 15
    0
    From the materials of both articles, it turns out that there were 2 plans - offensive and defensive. The preventive strike was abandoned after the Wehrmacht made Yugoslavia and Greece. The defensive plan fit into the same concept on foreign territory and with little blood and absolutely did not take into account the strategy of the blitzkrieg. Although the GSH had at its disposal a detailed report by the commander of the French army on the defeat of France, and his analysis showed what the German blitzkrieg was. It was clear that the operational plans for covering the borders, in which the defense lines of the divisions were 1.5-2 times longer than those laid down by the Charter, did not withstand any criticism. How the troops of the border districts were supposed to stop the tank wedges of the Germans is completely incomprehensible. Border cover plans were clearly not designed for this, and the district’s operational plans are still secret. Probably, having a complete analysis of Gelb’s operation on hand, one could understand that the only way to stop the German military machine was to exhaust the Wehrmacht with a breakthrough in deep defense, stretch and then cut off its communications with sabotage and aviation actions, as supply of the Blitzkrieg Achilles heel. In the tank divisions of the Wehrmacht, the transportable ammunition was for 5 days of medium-intensity battles, and in the infantry divisions for 3 days. It was realized only on the Kursk Bulge. The Red Army preemptive strike plan looks more elaborate. The German units pulled to our borders and assembled into shock groups were not ready for defense and would have rolled to Berlin, as we were to Moscow. Actually, it was enough to cut off Romanian oil and the war would end as soon as the Luftwaffe and the Wehrmacht ran out of fuel. No one could prevent 4000 Soviet tanks from being part of the southwestern front. In addition to the Black Sea Fleet, there was no other navy off the coast of Romania. The political situation is unlikely to change, because in fact, it would turn out that the USSR entered World War II on the side of Great Britain.
    1. Bigriver
      Bigriver 10 January 2014 03: 56
      0
      Quote: SIT
      ... The plan of a preemptive strike of the Red Army looks more elaborate. Drawn to our borders and assembled in shock groups German units were not ready for defense и would ride to Berlinhow are we to Moscow ...

      Et hardly No.
      It would have turned out, most likely, according to the "Kharkov-42" pattern. When three German armies, prepared for the "Blau", met our strategic offensive by Tymoshenko. And it turned out an operation to encircle the "Fridericus" with the subsequent exit to Stalingrad.
      Given the general condition of the Red Army on the 41st, it would be a disaster worse than those that we had in reality.
  6. leks
    leks 9 January 2014 16: 19
    0
    Quote: msv
    Quote: leks
    Hello everyone! Now there are a lot of such articles devoted to the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, and you understand it doesn’t lead to anything good, as people begin to get confused as everything actually happened, and in such a mess it’s easier to replace the truth, I read Dozens of articles devoted to this subject and each author has his own vision of those events and for some reason, each author has everything backed up by archival documents, from where they just get them.
    But for me, TRUTH alone, our GRANDFATES won the GREAT PATRIOTIC war, but it was hard for our FATHER and GRANDFUL to Defeat and even harder to VICTORY, the war brought a lot of grief, but they managed to lift the country from ruins.
    And in the Second World War, the USSR did much more for victory than all other countries combined.


    This is imaginary patriotism. I and many others are no less than yours, and maybe much more, are sure that the truth about which you said is fundamental. But I still have questions why it turned out, and not otherwise. After all, there were huge losses of our grandfathers. I am not satisfied with simple and traditional explanations for this (both urapatriots and liberals), because they do not fit with reality, with a closer and deeper study.
    Essentially the article.
    As in the previous part for the topic of the article "five". For the validity of theses and conclusions "two". The respected author did not convince either of the absence of Stalin's intention to inflict a preventive strike (if there was such a goal), or of the opposite (in any case, I didn’t get any new weighty arguments for myself).

    Are you respected who you are? To question my patriotism, do you know that you served me or you are my old friend. I wrote in Russian your opinion about those events. As for your questions about why the events happened in this way, and not in another scenario — which you like best, I’ll say so from the top at 72 you can easily judge and talk about past events, and at that time it wasn’t up to reasoning how to do the right thing, you had to act, you probably sit and fantasize about an alternative stories where Stalin does everything for you, because you need where the command of the Red Army is not mistaken, you start writing or reading books, according to an alternative story, everything can come together and all the events will happen exactly as you want.
  7. I think so
    I think so 9 January 2014 16: 31
    0
    Some nonsense in the article and, most importantly, NO references to REAL documents ... Laughter ... Sokolovsky (!) Was developing a STRATEGIC defense plan ... It’s impossible to come up with more nonsense ...
  8. leks
    leks 9 January 2014 16: 35
    0
    [quote = стас57] [quote] Hello everyone! Now there are a lot of such articles devoted to the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, and you understand this does not lead to anything good [/ quote]
    that's right, it’s better not to know anything about the history of your country, to sit yanking in vkontaktig and drink yaga.
    Maps, plans, heroes, strategies, tanks, fronts, trenches, awards, reports - Well, you can get confused !!!! You can break your head !!!!!

    You are absolutely right - it's easier not to think, "thank you for my victory", a ribbon and all that,
    And search engines, historians, archivists, in general, burn their lives in the fields and archives.
    Continue this way, and your children will no longer remember "thank you for my victory", they will say why rack their brains with some kind of victory that was 100 years ago ...
    Egor Gaidar is proud of you, my friend)) [/ quot
    FIRST. I'm not your friend.
    SECOND. I know the story perfectly that which was taught at school, the History of Russia is my favorite subject and believe me my children will study it just as well as I do.
    THIRD-Dear you have not read my proposal to the end !? for especially gifted people like you, I repeat my words were like "Hello everyone! Now there are a lot of such articles dedicated to the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, and you understand that this does not lead to anything good, as people begin to get confused, how everything really was , but in such confusion it is easier to substitute the truth, I read dozens of articles devoted to this topic and each author has his own vision of those events and for some reason, each author has everything backed up by archival documents, where they come from ". Where is at least one word written here about not studying the history of your country, DO WORK EXPLAIN ?, it is clearly written that there are too many of those who write complete nonsense about those events, for example, Vladimir Rezun pseudonym Viktor Suvorov why let's say the same young man after reading him won't say that The USSR was the first to start a war and Germany struck a preemptive blow.
    And you don’t need to speculate on phrases you cut out of context, if you don’t have enough brains to think about what I’m writing, these are your headaches !!!
    1. Stas57
      Stas57 9 January 2014 16: 42
      +1
      yes, everything is clear, people will get confused, he’s stupid, people ....
      Whoever wants to and since he finds one, who doesn’t need to, will drive the tanks, and whoever needs to, will move his head himself, and if not, he will understand everything as it should, but if nothing helps.
  9. leks
    leks 9 January 2014 17: 06
    0
    Quote: Stas57
    yes, everything is clear, people will get confused, he’s stupid, people ....
    Whoever wants to and since he finds one, who doesn’t need to, will drive the tanks, and whoever needs to, will move his head himself, and if not, he will understand everything as it should, but if nothing helps.

    Stas57 you understand no one thinks people are stupid. You ask the older generation, let's say age 25 and older, I’ll say almost everything that we won the war like that. But ask the same people if they’re crawling into historical textbooks and are interested in the history in more detail of that time the majority will say no, you wrote correctly for the majority it’s easier to take the tape, thanks to the grandfather for the victory to write and remember the war of the 9th. May and God forbid the 22nd. June.
    But there are the youngest, that is, children and adolescents who can get anything you like and he will believe in this nonsense, so I wrote that there are too many different scribbles who write complete nonsense and unfortunately you believe in this nonsense and believe it prove that it was different.
  10. EvilLion
    EvilLion 9 January 2014 17: 56
    +1
    The author does not understand what he is writing about, Zap. constituencies shot for a completely obvious betrayal, but it just so happened that the planes burned down at the airfields, and the soldiers woke up from shelling.
    The rest of the actions are quite obvious, there is a threat of war, we are letting down the troops and doing everything to be "good" if something happens, or we are not doing as Hitler did. And there is no plan for a "defensive" or "offensive" war, there is simply a war in which both sides seek to impose their will on the enemy, which can only be done by a decisive offensive.
  11. msv
    msv 9 January 2014 19: 14
    +1
    Quote: leks

    Are you respected who you are? To question my patriotism, do you know that you served me or you are my old friend. I wrote in Russian your opinion about those events. As for your questions about why the events happened in this way, and not in another scenario — which you like best, I’ll say so from the top at 72 you can easily judge and talk about past events, and at that time it wasn’t up to reasoning how to do the right thing, you had to act, you probably sit and fantasize about an alternative stories where Stalin does everything for you, because you need where the command of the Red Army is not mistaken, you start writing or reading books, according to an alternative story, everything can come together and all the events will happen exactly as you want.


    Don’t @ dust @, dear Leks, I did not want to offend you or blame you for anything. But the question of the causes of the defeats in 1941 is important and I do not agree that there is no need to deal with this. I am not a supporter of an alternative story. But the liberals’ version doesn’t suit me: Stalin was preparing for the attack and not preparing for the defense, so we were not ready for the German attack. The official version is not happy: Stalin did not believe in the outbreak of war and the troops were taken by surprise. Shito is all white thread.
    Lies give rise to lies. None of the young (or yours or my children) will believe in some version if it is easily destroyed by the first careful study. And under this and real feats can be forgotten.
  12. Falcon5555
    Falcon5555 10 January 2014 21: 54
    0
    Quote: Motors1991
    At some point, Hitler himself realized that in the event of an invasion of England, Stalin would attack Germany, simply out of a sense of self-preservation, so as not to be left alone with the Germans.

    This version has been discussed for a long time. Suvorov also expressed it. And it has long been clear to everyone who is interested that there is no evidence of its validity. Hitler never expressed this before the war with the USSR in front of witnesses. There were no documents left either. On the contrary, there is ample evidence that Hitler reasoned differently. He, in particular, Molotov just got stupid behavior at the negotiations in November 40. After France, Hitler forgot the word "impossible" and generally did not consider the USSR a serious enemy. By the way, they say there is a talk about this in "Main-Kaipf".
  13. Falcon5555
    Falcon5555 10 January 2014 22: 27
    +1
    Speaking on May 5, 1941 to graduates and professors of military academies, I. Stalin announced his refusal to take a preemptive strike against Germany.

    Really? This statement has long been discussed by historians. As far as I remember, the essence of the discussion was that we should not consider our strategy defensive. The Red Army, they say, is the most advancing army in the world, etc. etc. Anyway - Hitler said what he thought, not Stalin.

    Funny list of links under diagram 2. In part one, I criticized him for giving false links, which do not contain what he is referring to. So now he gave several dozen links in one array. Go check it out! It is clear that it is harder to catch him in a lie this way. Some of them are articles in the Military History Journal. All historians probably read it. Was this defensive plan really there, and they, the blind, did not notice it? 12 arguments, one funnier than the other. Like "someone said something to someone."

    Read the real story from other authors. Solonin, for example. Meltiukhov is also useful to read.
  14. carbofo
    carbofo 12 January 2014 23: 19
    0
    It seems to me that there are several facts:
    1- incomplete deployment of border cover units at the time of the attack.
    2- errors in determining the direction of blows.
    3- incomplete operational readiness of the command and troops for an organized retreat to reserve lines, including the weak operational initiative of unit commanders.
    4- unpreparedness for tactical techniques of the German troops for the development of the offensive.
    5- related problems:
    Imperfect management of units, especially due to communication failures with units and units as a result of sabotage, sabotage or betrayal.
    Loss of part of the collateral property - repair shops, fuels and lubricants, food depots, weapons and ammunition depots.

    Yes, preparation was conducted on a large scale, but not perfect, and mistakes cost us so much.
    As I see it, the leadership has not lost the essence of what is happening and took steps quite adequate to the situation, but the scale of the tragedy was too great.