From the first days of the war, Zoya constantly came to the district Komsomol committee, asking how she could help the front. After all, she knew how to shoot well, swim, run fast. After numerous appeals to give her the opportunity to fight the enemy, her request was granted. She became a partisan. This is the official version. But to be precise, Zoya has never been a partisan.
UNDER THE BEGINNING OF ARTHUR SPROGIS
Let's start with the fact that its presentation to the award was written by the Special Representative of the State Defense Committee on the Western Front for the sabotage work of Arthur Sprogis. The fact is that Zoe acted in the enemy's rear as a fighter reconnaissance and sabotage group. In 1941, the Chekists of the Moscow Region threw 5,5, thousands of fighters as part of such groups, across the front line to the rear of the enemy 7,5. And all of them were then prepared 1904 thousand. Contributed to their preparation and made a major (later colonel) Arthur Sprogis (1980 – 1918). Former border guard, member of the Civil War in Russia (1920 – 1936) and in Spain (1939 – XNUMX).
In the Komsomol Central Committee, Zoya and other volunteers were personally interviewed by the secretary of the Moscow City Committee of the Komsomol, Alexander Shelepin (the future head of the KGB) and the leaders of the intelligence schools. Total selected about 2 thousand people. Since October 30 1941, Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya became a cadet of a special school located in the Kuntsev district (the code name is the military unit 9903).
The cadets of the school carried out special tasks of the headquarters of the Western Front on the Mozhaisk direction in accordance with the stern order of the Supreme Command Headquarters No. 0428 from November November 17 1941. The order prescribed to deprive the German army of "the possibility of settling in villages and cities, expelling the German invaders from all the settlements into the cold in the field, smoking them out of all the rooms and warm shelters and making them freeze in the open." Specifically, it was prescribed to “destroy and burn down all settlements in the rear of the German troops at a distance of 40 – 60 km in depth from the front edge and 20 – 30 km to the right and left of the roads”.
On November 20, 1941, Boris Krainov’s group also received another task: to penetrate the front line “with the task of burning the enemy’s military facilities in several settlements occupied by the Nazis”, including in the village of Petrishchevo. The headquarters of the 332th regiment of the 197th Wehrmacht infantry division was located in the village. In the fall, the forty-first division participated in the German offensive against Moscow as part of the 4th tank Army of the German Army Group Center.
But the real reason for sending the Kraynov group to the Petrishchev district was not previously reported. The fact is that not only the headquarters of the German regiment was stationed there, but also the army’s radio intelligence unit, which monitored the Soviet troops' radio exchanges day and night. And then our command was just planning a large-scale counterattack. It was necessary to identify the location of this part and disable the radio center.
For Zoe, this was the second battle exit. On the night of November 26, Krainov and Zoya, who had made their way to the village separately, set fire to four houses in which communications workers and officers were located. Boris returned to the conditional place to cover Zoya’s retreat from there with fire. Taken aback by the fires, the occupiers rushed in and fired indiscriminately. Zoya again returned to Petrishchevo to set fire to the German stable, where there were more than 200 horses, and neighboring buildings. Watering kerosene on an armful of hay, Zoe bent down to strike a match. But then the watch fell on her. He was rushed to the aid of two more.
After the first interrogation, the undressed and ragged girl under escort was transferred across the square to the Voronin house, where the headquarters were located. This time, the interrogation was perpetrated by the commander of the 332 Infantry Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Ruderer. I answered all questions about comrades, the commander and commissioner of the detachment, about the partisan base: no, I do not know, I will not say. The enraged regiment commander ordered the soldiers to beat the girl with belts. She was hit almost 200, but she was silent. In the next house, the soldiers continued mockery. And in the morning Zoya was taken to the square to the place of execution. Before execution, Zoya turned to the executioners:
- I'm not alone. We are 200 millions, all not hang. You will avenge me. Soldiers! Before it is too late, surrender; all the same, victory will be ours!
From the testimony of the German prisoner of war non-commissioned officer of the 10 th company of the 332 th infantry regiment of the 197 th division of Karl Beyerlein:
“It was on the Russian front in November 1941 of the year. Fields and forests covered with snow. Our battalion departed this night to the village of Petrishchevo, which lies a few kilometers from the front. We were happy to rest and soon fell into the hut. In a small room was crowded. Russian family put up for the night on the street. Only we took a nap as the guards raised the alarm. 4 huts around us were ablaze. Our hut was filled with soldiers left homeless.
The next night, a roar of noise swept through the company and at the same time a sigh of relief — they said that our guards had detained the partisan. I went to the office where two soldiers brought the woman. I asked what this 18-year-old girl wanted to do. She was going to set fire to the house and had 6 gasoline bottles with her. The girl was dragged to the battalion headquarters, and soon the regiment commander, Lieutenant Colonel Rüderer, who had been awarded the knight’s cross, arrived. Through a translator, he wanted not only to achieve recognition, but also to find out the names of assistants. But not a single word fell from the lips of the girl.
The regiment commander shivered with anger. He, accustomed to seeing slavishly obedient soldiers around him, was taken aback. In a sharp, uninterrupted voice, he ordered her stripped to the shirt and beaten with sticks. But the little heroine of your people remained firm. She did not know what treason was. Foam acted on the lips of our commander - was it the rage or its not quite subsided sadism? His voice convulsively interrupted: to bring her into the cold, into the snow. On the street, they continued to beat her until an order came to transfer the unfortunate person to the premises. They brought her. She turned blue from the cold. The wounds were bleeding. She said nothing. It was only in the morning, after she had spent the night in a cold, ice-cold room, when her half-frozen room was being carried to the gallows, she wanted to give a small speech to the tormented Russian people. A rough fist thump silenced her. A support was kicked out from under it ... ”
January 12 The 1942 of the year in Petrishchevo included units of the 108 th Infantry Division of the Red Army. The Germans hastily fled. Then Pravdist Peter Lidov learned about the feat of a girl. His essay was read in Pravda by Zoya’s combat friends, Boris Krainov and Klavdiya Miloradova.
After reading the essay and reading the reports on the massacre of soldiers and officers of the 332 Infantry Regiment above Zoya, Stalin ordered: not to take people from this regiment into captivity. Nevertheless, for a long time far from everything was known about Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya’s mission. Much clarified declassified already in our days the case number H-16440 on charges of Vasily Klubkov betrayal and treason. He was the third in the Kraynov group. He was captured by the Germans. During the interrogation, he lost heart and told about Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya and Boris Krainova.
In captivity, Klubkov was recruited by German intelligence and, after graduating from the sabotage school near Smolensk, was transferred to the front line. But was exposed. According to the verdict of the military tribunal of the Western Front of 3 on April 1942, Klubkov was shot for treason against the Motherland. But then the authorities decided not to cast a shadow on Zoe’s memory, and this история was not made public.
Who would have thought that the time would come when, on the wave of "democracy" in the late eighties, against the background of debunking, Zoya would try to defame the whole and all courage. One central publication, claiming to be objective, was especially distinguished. The “arguments” were the same: she, they say, was at one time registered in a mental hospital. And her brother is a whimsical fighter. But the “witnesses” were silent about the fact that Alexander was fighting, standing up for the weak and for his sister, who had a severe illness with meningitis. And such patients were then observed there. Supporters of speculation were not embarrassed even by the fact that she suffered from some kind of mental illness, she would not have been accepted to the intelligence school for anything. There were also those who himself Zoe simply denied the feat - they say, all this is propaganda.
Brother Zoe, Shura, swore revenge for the death of his sister. After graduating from the tank school in 1943, he even asked to be sent to the sector of the Soviet-German front, where the Wehrmacht 197 Infantry Division and the 332 th regiment were operating. The one commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Ruderer. Later, Alexander and the crew of his self-propelled guns distinguished themselves in battles for the liberation of Belarus and the Baltic states.
In the spring of 1945, the battery commander of the 350 Guards Heavy Self-Propelled Artillery Orsha Guards Regiment, Senior Lieutenant Kosmodemyansky died in battles during the liquidation of the Zemland enemy grouping. It happened on April 13. May 5 Alexander 1945 was buried at Novodevichy Cemetery next to her sister. 29 June 1945, he was posthumously awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
MEMORY AND MONUMENTS
The feat of Zoe and Sasha became the personification of the patriotism and courage of our youth. In the Zoe Museum in Petrishchev, I saw a rare photo: the mother of the heroes, along with Yuri Gagarin and German Titov. Lyubov Timofeevna motherly hugs them, and the star brothers, smiling, bow their heads to her shoulders. They, like their peers, grew up and were brought up on the feat of Zoya and Shura.
One day, Zoe's mom, who wrote a book about her children in the early fifties, received a letter from England: “Dear Lyubov Kosmodemyanskaya! My wife and I live in a small apartment near London. We have just read about your sweet, brave daughter. Her death words brought tears to us: how much courage, how much courage in such a young girl! At the beginning of next year, we expect our first child. If it’s a girl, we’ll call her Zoya. ”
Perhaps the most sincere and kind is the memory of fellow countrymen Zoya and Shura of Osinovy Gays in the Tambov region. Although here they installed a monument only to the 50 anniversary of the Victory. But the church in the village opened immediately after the war. She hardly suffered as if the Almighty had protected her. The villagers saved and returned to the church all the church utensils, including expensive silver candlesticks.
Over the grave of his grandfather Zoya and Shura - parish priest Peter - a cross towers, on which two angels bent over the ground. By the way, Peter Kosmodemyansky became the rector of the Church of the Sign in the village of Osinovye Gai in 1906. And on the paternal side of Zoya and Shura, all the ancestors were clergymen. This is also indicated by the very name of Kosmodemyansky - in honor of the holy brothers Cosmas and Damien (Kuzma and Demyan). They became famous not only for their medicinal talents, but also because they were absolute disintegrated.
Old men remember that before his death, Pyotr Ivanovich spoke of two angels who would come down from heaven to earth in order to reason with lost people. But they left her - people did not heed the little messengers of heaven. And the rumor says that a sign appeared to the village priest of the Znamensk church — the martyrdom of their grandchildren.
“She died in 18 years as biblical saints perish. According to all the canons, if our country were not at that time so harshly atheistic, it could have been recognized as a saint, having taken upon itself the martyr's death for the motherland and for the comrades. ”
These words belong to Vladimir Medinsky, the Minister of Culture and the Chairman of the Russian Military Historical Society, whose founders are the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Defense. And these words were said at the recent opening of the monument to Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya in the suburban town of Ruza. The sculpture was installed on the ground, which Zoya defended, on the initiative of the Russian Military Historical Society.
DOWNLOAD END OF THE HOB
We have already mentioned about Stalin's order not to take captive the fanatics from the 332 German Regiment. In February, the 43 regiment was defeated near Smolensk. And the second time, already with a new composition, in the summer of 1944, on the Belarusian land in Bobruisk “cauldron”. In the same place, the commander of the regiment, Rüderer, had an inglorious end. By the end of the war, of those who committed atrocities in Petrishchev in 41, virtually no one was left alive.
As for the commander of the 197 Infantry Division, which included the 332 regiment, Colonel Ehrenfried Oscar Beuge (1889 – 1965), he was lucky. On Victory Day, 9 in May of 1945, he was already in captivity in Latvia as the commander of the 18 of the German army and in the rank of infantry general. 12 January 1949, a military tribunal of the troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Moscow region was sentenced to 25 years in prison in the ITL. But at the request of the then German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, among other prisoners of war of 6 in October 1955 of the year was transferred to the West German authorities as a nonamnified criminal. And there he was quickly released.
It is said that Herr Beuge did not like very much when he was asked about the 332 regiment and its commander. And in every way I avoided recalling it.