110 years ago formed a grand conspiracy against our country. However, the Russian Empire was too powerful a rival of the Western world, and it is no secret that all the revolutionary and destructive movements were fed from the outside. The British financed the Caucasian mountaineers, sent them ships laden weapons. France organized the Polish uprisings time after time. Herzen, who emigrated to London, settled on the maintenance of Rothschild. Allocated funds were enough for the publication of "The Bell", on its transmission channels. In 1863, when another rebellion was inflated in Poland and thousands were slaughtered by Russians, Herzen choked on hysterical articles: “All of Russia has seized syphilis of patriotism!”. He called the West to a crusade against his homeland. Well, money is supposed to work out ...
There were sponsors and Plekhanov. And in 1895, for the first time young Ulyanov burst out abroad, he also found money to publish a newspaper. But these centers of opposition did not pose a serious danger to the state. The uprisings of foreigners were suppressed. Underground groups remained weak. For example, in 1898, the Petrograd Social Democratic Organization counted ... 4 people. In the same year, the First Congress of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party (9 delegates) gathered in Minsk (half from Bund). They took a "manifesto", and then they arrested everyone. True, the punishments were mild, the revolutionaries were soon released. But the Security Department kept them under supervision, easily returned to jail.
However, the rapid economic development of Russia, the increase in its international prestige worried Western countries too much. The catalyst for tension was the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway. Russian mastered Siberia, the Far East! The British, who considered themselves masters of China and shipping between East Asia and Europe, became overwhelmed. The Trans-Siberian Railway crossed out their monopoly, along which the carriage of goods would have gone three times faster and cheaper. Extremely worried about the USA, for them Russia became a direct rival. In the Russian began to incite Japan.
In general, it was very doubtful for her to fight. Too different “weight categories”. But ... some strange things began in the Russian government. Our army and the fleet loans were chronically cut for lack of funds. And at the same time, Minister of Finance (and Mason) S.Yu. Witte provided large loans to China. So that China can pay indemnity to the Japanese! And it was with this money that Japan took up arms. Enormous help was given to her by Western friends. In 1901 - 1902, Tokyo diplomats held talks with the Rockefellers, Morgan and Stillman on the placement in the US of their government bonds for $ 25 million. True, there were problems. Bankers may have personal likes and dislikes, but they are practical people. And investments in Japanese securities looked very dangerous. In the case of the Russian victory, you can easily burn out.
Head of the second largest US financial company, Kun and Loeb, Jacob Schiff, turned the tide. He was a very influential personality, family and business weaves associated him with the banking and industrial clans of the Rothschilds, Warburgs, Zeligmans, Goulds, Rockefellers, Harrimans, Vikkers, Oppenheimers, Goldenberg, Magnus, Canov. In addition, Schiff was one of the leading hierarchs of the Benite Brit. His biographer Priscilla Roberts reports: “His aversion to the policies of the tsarist government was so great” that he “did his best to convince American and European bankers to impose an embargo on providing loans to Russians,” and created special syndicates for the sale of Japanese securities. City Bank, National Bank of Commerce, British bankers were able to connect to operations. As a result, Japan was able to get 5 loans totaling $ 535 million. (At that time. At the current rate, more than 20 billion dollars) P. Roberts admits that these funds “covered more than half of the Japanese military expenses and, probably, became an important factor that ensured the victory of Japan”.
Politicians did not lag behind business circles. In 1902, England entered into a treaty of alliance with Japan. I was so eager to push Tokyo into war, that for the first time in stories the tradition of British diplomacy was violated - not to assume specific obligations, in all previous agreements the British preferred to maintain “free hand”. In the anti-Russian alliance London was dragging France, Turkey. Germany and Austria-Hungary came to life, saw an excellent opportunity to fish in troubled waters.
But once again let us return to the question - were the bankers not risking too much, relying on Japan in the upcoming fight with a huge, and still invincible Russia? Did England risk too much when it assumed allied obligations? She had just defeated African Boers with colossal work and losses, where could she get involved with the Russians? No, the organizers of the conspiracy were sure - they are certain. Russian obviously will not be able to win. For this, not only Japanese divisions and squadrons were trained. A stab in the back was designed in advance.
Of the loans received by Japan, at least 10 million dollars (about 400 million current) was sent to sabotage work. To fuel the revolution. But the funds were allocated not only by the Japanese. Direct organizational support has begun. Just at this time, in 1900-1903, the very nature of the revolutionary movement in Russia changes dramatically. Instead of the former grouping and the helpless fuss of amateurs, it goes to a completely different level. Professionals from foreign special services obviously had a hand in establishing work.
For example, in these years, a system of escapes from Siberia is being created. The shoots are very simple. After all, the majority of revolutionaries were not kept in prisons or in penal servitude, but in exile. They lived in their designated place, and law enforcement agencies only looked after them. To escape, money and documents were required. It was necessary to quickly, until the local authorities were enough, to get to the railway, get on the train, and try to catch it! The fugitive in advance received a route, turnout, which city to go to, whom to contact. Create a system themselves revolutionaries could not. They were divided - the Social Democrats, the Social Revolutionaries, anarchists, the Bundists, the Polish and Baltic separatists, etc. But this system served everyone. Obviously, debugged it from the outside. The special services of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and possibly other states were clearly involved - they never detained Russian illegal immigrants when crossing the border, and later began to let in loads of illegal literature and weapons.
At the same time, a system for providing fugitives with documents was organized. Revolutionaries sometimes wrote in their memoirs as if they were getting clean blank passports. It's a lie. Forms were kept by the police under strict accounting. Even if they were able to steal them, they would have scattered warnings, prompting increased attention during the checks of documents. Pure forms were required to still properly issue, and indeed a brand new passport immediately noticeable. No, the truth was different. Documents were obtained through doctors and the administration of zemstvo hospitals. Kidnapped the passports of the dead. Nobody misses them. I lost the document, yes and good. There were no photos on passports, all the stamps and signatures were available. This system operated centrally throughout Russia, the documents were selected in such a way that the passport data of the old and the new owners coincided as much as possible, the rest was corrected by erasures. Thus, illegal immigrants turned into “the living dead”.
The revolutionary movement in Russia was essentially created anew. Victor Adler was one of the key figures in these operations. A prominent figure in the Austrian and international Social Democracy. At the same time - the “Rothschild man”. At the same time he was very closely associated with the intelligence and political police of Austria-Hungary. He became “unofficially” in charge of the processes in Russia, played the role of a kind of “personnel department”. He studied various Russian socialists, evaluated where and how they could be used, and gave appropriate recommendations.
Another important figure was Alexander Parvus (Israel Gelfand). The son of a major merchant from Odessa, he joined the Social Democracy, emigrated and settled in Munich. He worked for both English and German intelligence, belonged to the Masonic Order of the Illuminati. However, both revolutionary and intelligence activities at Parvus were intertwined with business, he made a profit from all the affairs in which he was engaged.
The former leading center of the Russian Social Democrats, Plekhanov's Union for the Liberation of Labor in Switzerland, was not suitable for new tasks. He was watched by the security department for a long time. And Plekhanov himself turned away from lively activity, from Russia, was buried in abstruse theories. But ambition was extraordinary. If someone tried to disagree with him, he was offended: “Your fathers and mothers walked under the table on foot, when I ...” Now Plekhanov was left the “banner” role, but Parvus began to create another center in Germany. Carefully concealed. Dozens of “mailboxes” were used in Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, and England. Transfers with Russia were carried out through several points. For example, the correspondence comes in the name of a German doctor, he sends it to the owner of a Czech beer house, he sends it on. Krupskaya describes what confusion arose because of a similar conspiracy among inexperienced Russian revolutionaries — like Shlyapnikov, Babushkin, herself, guided by the addresses of correspondence, drove into the wrong cities and the wrong states. In general, apparently, highly qualified intelligence specialists also participated in the organization of this network.
For the new center required new frames. One of those whom Parvus paid attention to was Ulyanov. In 1900, he was freed from exile in Shushenskoye. In the capitals he was forbidden to live, he settled in Pskov. But he stayed here only for a couple of months. All the data show that it was not he who found the necessary contacts, but it came from outside. Vladimir Ilyich somehow dramatically winged and gathered abroad. Before leaving almost got stuck. I looked into Petersburg to meet Martov, and the police detained them. Krupskaya writes that Ulyanov “had 2 thousands of rubles in a vest ... and records of connections with foreign countries written by chemistry on a piece of note paper on which something indifferent was written with ink”. As you can see, foreign "friends" supplied him with a very large sum, turnouts. But the gendarmes did not pay attention to the money and the "indifferent" paper. Money is not a crime. They scolded only because they violated the mode of residence. Warned not to do it anymore, and released.
Ulyanov left Russia legally. But then conspiratorial life was assumed, and he was provided with the passport of the deceased nobleman of the Vologda province, Nikolai Lenin. Hence the pseudonym, eclipsed the real name. The pseudonym, which was later captured in the names of cities, regions, squares, streets, on pedestals of monuments and marble of the mausoleum ... And the work for which Vladimir Ilyich was attracted was the publication of the newspaper Iskra. Plekhanov built projects that she would have to go out in Switzerland, under his authority. But Parvus was not going to adapt to this spent figure. Newspaper needed new, new leaders. Under the pretext of conspiracy Parvus placed the editorial office in Munich. And to argue with him was not necessary. Money shadow sponsors pumped through it.
He implemented exactly the project that was voiced by Lenin: the newspaper should become not only an agitator, but also a “collective organizer”. A network of Iskra agents was established in Germany, France, Switzerland, and Belgium. On their basis, a renewed emigre organization emerged - the Foreign League of the Russian Revolutionary Social Democracy. Channels of transportation of the newspaper to Russia were organized. And within Russia, a network of headquarters and correspondent points was formed. They became the "blanks" of future party structures.
In addition to Ulyanov, Parvus attracted to Munich Martov, Potresov, Zasulich, Innu Smidovich (Lehmann). All of them received very good salaries. For example, Lenin and Krupskaya rented a separate apartment in Schwabing, an elite suburb of Munich, where the mansion of Parvus itself was located. We went to visit him, were friends of families. True, in April 1902 was argued, and Lenin left for London. Perhaps due to Parvus's financial uncleanliness, part of the funds received “stuck” to his hands. But personal relationships in no way affected the revolutionary work! Where there! Sponsors demanded results, and orders were faithfully handled, regardless of personal friendship or enmity. The third center of the Russian Social Democrats, London, could argue with the Swiss and Munich in some way, but did not oppose them, but complemented them. He even received the benefits - after all, England at that time became an ally of Japan.
The search for new activists continued. By the revolutionary activities began to actively involve criminals (soon they will lead the militia groups). And in the Siberian exile in Verkhnelensk, the under-studied student Lev Bronstein was acquired. He worked as a clerk at a local merchant, worked as a journalist, published in the Irkutsk newspaper "Eastern Review". His articles were noticed and rated somewhere at a high level. In 1902, for him, as an unknown amateur journalist, they staged an escape. The organization was very clear, clearly focused. He quickly sped on a sleigh to Irkutsk. Someone (who is unknown) was waiting for him. Leo got the money, a decent suit, documents, a ticket. He got on the train - and remember the name. In his memoirs, he pointed out that he entered the name of a prison guard, Trotsky, in a blank passport form for a joke. But this is a lie. Writing with your own hand could be costly for any verification of documents. After all, an experienced eye will immediately notice the difference between the “professional” handwriting of a police clerk and an amateur. But, as already mentioned, a centralized system operated. Lev Davidovich got the passport of a retired colonel Nikolai Trotsky, who died in Yekaterinoslav.
The path for the next “living dead” was laid in advance. He drove to Samara, where the Russian headquarters of Iskra was located. Received from the local resident Krzhizhanovsky next batch of cash, further route and turnout. Went to Ukraine. In the Kamenetz-Podolsk area, they were waiting for him again. Transferred by chain across the border to the territory of Austria-Hungary. As it turned out, Trotsky-Bronstein met here. Some owners turnout provided all necessary, put on a train. A young runaway rolled into Vienna.
He came straight to the apartment ... already mentioned Adler. "Kadrovik" international socialists. For some reason, a prominent Austrian politician was not at all surprised at the stranger’s visit on Sunday. He cordially accepted, fed, talked. Apparently, I was satisfied. Trotsky considered a figure worthy of attention and usable. A prominent Austrian politician, as an ordinary spy organization chef, gave the guest a new set of documents! Stocked it with currency - and sent on. From Adler, Trotsky, already comfortably sent to London, to Lenin. Early in the morning, he rushes into the apartment rented by Vladimir Ilyich and Krupskaya, lifting them out of bed - playful, joyful. They become friends ...
In 1903, the atmosphere began to heat up, and various links of anti-Russian forces were tied together. On Easter, a provocation was arranged in Chisinau. Incomprehensible groups of people of Jewish descent suddenly made the roughest of antics, throwing mud and stones at the procession of the cross, into icons. This angered the believers, a clash occurred. As it turned out, the media for the incident were prepared in advance. Telegraph agencies instantly smashed around the world news of a pogrom, a massacre, hundreds of victims - which was not even mentioned. The Russian government has made explanations and denials. But the Western press did not seem to notice them, continuing to inflate the empty talk.
By the way, it was this hysteria that helped Schiff and his partners to complete operations on the sale of Japanese loans. The scandal helped the British to draw the French into the anti-Russian bloc. And for revolutionaries, the injection of anti-Russian “public opinion” helped recruit supporters. The steps to mobilize them for the upcoming tasks were also outlined.
In July, the II Congress of the RSDLP gathered in 1903, Brussels, where it was intended to merge the various social-democracy groups into a single combat party. Profit 44 delegate from different organizations. After all, for all and the documents needed, and substantial sums for travel, accommodation. True, there was a pad. Little neutral Belgium did not participate in international intrigues. Her police were extremely alarmed by the suspicious gathering. Well, never mind! The organizers had enough money for a general move to London. And here the territory was already “union”, anti-Russian, no one interfered with sitting.
However, ideas with the union failed. Disagreements arose on different occasions, but the true reason was one - the leaders did not want to obey each other. Martov accused Lenin of planting a "dictatorship", and the newly created party split into "Bolsheviks" and "Mensheviks." Although these names were more than conditional. The 20 of the 44 delegates did not join either one or the other. Plekhanov first joined the Bolsheviks. But Martov left the editorial board of Iskra in protest against the decisions of the congress, and Plekhanov changed his position, went over to his side - he considered Martov a more valuable employee than Lenin. But Trotsky suddenly from Lenin rushed to the Mensheviks. Both Vladimir Ilyich and Lev Davidovich during the polemics firmly turned to the individual, and in terminology both were not shy. From friends turned into enemies. But soon Trotsky and the Mensheviks gnawed. In general, instead of unity, they quarreled.
No ... this did not stop the plans for the preparation of the revolution! Trotsky took Parvus under his personal protection. And all the divided factions could quarrel, butt, call names. Nevertheless, they took up the work together! How else if customers demanded it? Do you want money - if you please put up and negotiate. Mobilized not only the Social Democrats. The liberal bourgeoisie, the freemasons of public figures, at the end of 1903 suddenly drew to Paris. It’s as if to hang out, take a walk on Christmas in local restaurants and cabarets. Along the way, there were meetings, conferences, and two illegal organizations were created — the future Octo-party and Cadet parties. Revolutionaries and anarchists became more active.
It will take a decade and a half, and they will violently exterminate each other. But while foreign forces rallied them into a united front. Soon the “Union of Liberation” was created in Geneva, which coordinated the activities of various revolutionary parties and distributed finances. In short, the game was a win-win. Now the Japanese could confidently strike.