Military Review

Money for the dictatorship of the proletariat. How oligarch Nikolay Shmit became a revolutionary

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Money for the dictatorship of the proletariat. How oligarch Nikolay Shmit became a revolutionaryNikolay Pavlovich Shmit - Presnensky manufacturer, to put it in modern language, an oligarch who gave a lot of money to revolutionaries. His life is like a detective, and in this genre, as you know, there are plenty of question marks and dots.


In the Great Soviet Encyclopedia was given this version of the fate of the manufacturer:

Schmitt Nikolai Pavlovich (10 (22) 12.1883, Moscow, - 13 (26) .2.1907, ibid.), Participant of the 1905-07 Revolution. Member of the RSDLP, Bolshevik. Born in the family of the owner of a furniture factory. He studied at Moscow University. Having taken possession of a furniture factory on Presnya, from 1 in May 1905 introduced the 9 hourly working day instead of the 111 / 2hourly, raised the salary, opened an ambulance station and special general education courses at the factory. In 1905, the Moscow Committee of the RSDLP 20 thousand rubles. to arm the workers. He bequeathed his condition to the Bolshevik Party. 17 December 1905 Schmitt was arrested. During the suppression of the December armed uprising 1905 factory destroyed. On the night of February 13, 1907 Schmitt was killed in the solitary cell of Butyrka prison. His funeral turned into a political demonstration. ”

Previously, such an assessment seemed logical. Firstly, it was official, and therefore not questioned, and secondly, few people thought about the fact: for what such gingerbreads did other rich people like revolutionaries so much?

For various reasons, others became ideological, because it was fashionable. Others flirted with the revolutionaries "just in case" - hoping, so to speak, for a special attitude if they come to power. But there were also examples of a special kind: the most typical was the native uncle of Shmit, the famous Savva Timofeevich Morozov - the most famous and most generous Bolshevik sponsor. In the fate of both relatives in general there are many similar things.


Young Schmitt, indeed, "hit" in the revolution. But why, what did he lack? He had just everything in abundance!

Nikolai Pavlovich not only owned the best furniture factory in Russia on Nizhnyaya Prudovaya Street - now Druzhinnikovskaya, but also entered the famous textile dynasty of the Morozovs, who owned a huge factory in Tver, an even more impressive Nikolskaya Manufactory in Orekhovo-Zuev and a pair of smaller enterprises in the vicinity same city.

The rich Morozovs were "advanced" merchants, in no way resembling representatives of the "dark kingdom", traders from Ostrovsky's comedies. They wanted to give their money “godly use” to their money - they lent them to clinics and hospitals, presented them with culture, art and enlightenment. A vivid example is the creation of the Moscow Art Theater, whose "premiere" was paid for by Savva Timofeevich.

For money Morozova syto lived the liberal newspaper "Russian News" and the rebellious "New Life", "Struggle", "Iskra". The funds of the millionaire helped to establish the Prechistensky working courses, thanks to which ordinary people began not only to read-write, but also to reflect. The most audacious thoughts and then drove the people to the barricades ...

Probably, Morozov simply could not imagine what kind of animal he was feeding. After all, he had to deal with quite handsome gentlemen in bowlers, with ties declaring luminous goals, attractive ideas. And inspired, deciding to support the revolution. Of course, in money: on weaponillegal printing presses and even organizing the shoots of convicted rebels from exile. He hid revolutionaries in his apartment, in particular, Krasin and Bauman. And this is a real crime, a flagrant violation of the laws of the Russian Empire!

As you know, Morozov died in France under unexplained circumstances. The official version is suicide. But why?
Perhaps because of unhappy love, his passion, the actress of the Moscow Art Theater Andreeva, became the wife of Gorky, by the way, a friend. Or was Morozov buried under a crumbling ideals? Maybe he shuddered from his deed and was afraid of the future? After all, he was probably threatened with prosecution ...

There is another version about which Gorky wrote: “Savva Morozov complained about life. “I am very alone, I have no one! And there is one more thing that confuses me: I am afraid to go crazy ... Our family is not very normal, I really am afraid of madness. This is worse than death ... "But there were suspicions that it was not suicide, but murder ...

Schmitt was not only a relative of Morozov, but his soul mate. Nikolai Pavlovich read revolutionary pamphlets, imbued with their content, but much more influenced by his conversations with his uncle. He introduced his nephew to the already famous Gorky, who probably contributed even more to the unrest of the young mind. As you know, the writer was able not only to ardently and intelligibly inspire and explain, but also to artistically change his face and even throw a tear in time.

Fabrikant and student - Schmitt studied at a Moscow university, however, he did not confine himself to theories: he softened working conditions at his enterprise, began to let “illegal immigrants” into the house, not only Bolsheviks, but also Mensheviks, social revolutionaries. By the way, and later he helped money not only to Leninists. The young man had no firm and definite political and social convictions: socialist revolutionaries, Mensheviks made visits to him, with whom he probably did not just drink tea. It is known that the manufacturer gave money for the needs of a completely bourgeois - people's democratic party ...

When the revolution broke out, Schmitt did not hide which side he was on — in the territory of his factory on Presnya, nicknamed by the police “damn nest,” the military detachments gathered where they rested and were treated.
Of course, the weapon was purchased for the money of the manufacturer. According to some reports, he personally participated in armed actions against the legitimate authorities, commanding the combat squad.

Nikolay Valentinov, who at one time was an associate of the leader of the Bolsheviks, wrote in his book "Little-Known Lenin":

"During the suppression of the December uprising in 1905, the Schmit factory was completely destroyed by the cannons of government forces," In this act, something more appeared than the desire to suppress one of the main revolutionary bastions, it was revenge. The bombardment also went on after it became clear that no one from the factory offered resistance. Some workers were shot, many were arrested, and Schmitt was also arrested. ”

From Moscow homeowners and shopkeepers, whose buildings were hit by artillery fire, many petitions were sent to the authorities. Including, from Vera Schmitt, the mother of the furniture manufacturer, whose house was completely destroyed. She assessed it along with the looted property in 200 000 rubles and demanded damages, since she herself did not participate in the revolutionary movement. Meanwhile, the rebellious son of Mrs. Schmitt, was already in custody.

Nikolai Pavlovich spent two weeks in the Presnensky police station, and during this time the militants twice but unsuccessfully tried to free him. Then Shmit was transferred to Butyrka prison, where the investigation began, during which the gendarmes tortured him, as stated in “Memories of V.I. Lenin "his wife Krupskaya:

“... Nikolai Pavlovich was arrested, he was tortured in every way possible in prison, they were taken to see what they did to his factory, they were taken to watch the killed workers, then they killed him in prison. Before his death, he managed to convey to the will that he bequeathed his property to the Bolsheviks. ”
Krupskaya is categorically objected to all the same Valentinov, who believed that “the secret police would never have dared to apply to him, a member of the Morozov family, methods that have become a normal and common thing in the practice of the GPU and the NKVD. A gendarme officer from the Moscow security department who dealt with the Schmitt case processed it in a different way, ”he conducted heart-to-heart conversations with the defendant in a situation that looked more like a private office in the restaurant, because the table was richly served — even spirits were present. Nobody allegedly led the protocol ...

Schmitt, by the way, is a straightforward, honest man, and even naive, caught the bait of the cunning gendarmes. He told everything he knows, named the names, addresses, and appearances of the rioters. He talked about his and uncle's role in the rebellion. After that, the investigator told him something like: “My dear sir, Nikolai Pavlovich! Your game is over, you have fully exposed yourself and your comrades! Your fate is unenviable ... ”And he handed a pile of leaflets to the pale prisoner - a report of the very“ soulful ”conversations that the transcribers conducted behind the wall of the interrogation room ...

Nikolai Pavlovich stopped eating and sleeping. Perhaps, he was horrified at what he had done, what people he contacted. Or, on the contrary, he shuddered because he changed the business that was entrusted to him by his comrades. The second version is more correct, because during meetings with the sisters he spoke of the desire to transfer his fortune to the people, wanting at least partially to rehabilitate himself in the eyes of like-minded people.

Schmitt's moral sufferings were so strong that they passed into a nervous system disorder, and the doctors transferred him to the prison hospital.

Here is the certificate of Valentinov:

“The prison guards, who received from the relatives of Schmitt a very considerable bribe, carried out, on the sly, on his instructions, all the communications of Schmitt with the outside world. They said that the speeches that Schmitt holds for them are often such that nothing can be made out of them. Strange also seemed to them his attitude towards the sisters who came to visit him. Then he cried, that they were not around for a long time, then he said to the watchmen: “Throw them in the neck, do not allow me ...”

In the prison hospital, he ended his life - he broke the glass and cut his own throat with a fragment. However, it was rumored that he was killed ...

This version seems quite real. Not gendarmes, but the Bolsheviks themselves could well have been the executioners - Schmitt became a traitor for them. Well, he bequeathed the money to relatives. That is, it turned into a wager card ...

But the Bolsheviks, of course, blamed "the bourgeois government and the regime of Nicholas the Bloody" in the death of Schmitt. Later, this version became the official Soviet. It was confirmed by one of the two sisters, Nikolai Pavlovich, in whose hands the alleged death-worker of the factory revolutionary allegedly found herself:

“My dear sister Katya, in these moments of the life leaving me, you are dearer to me than ever ...

I feel my minutes are numbered. Last night, there were unusual signs and a strange attitude, the guards concealed something from me, and at the same time talked about various sinister cases for me ... It seems to me that they want to finish me as soon as possible, hurry and avoid publicity ... I say goodbye to you, with life forever ... "

Sister’s short, six-page memories were published in 1905’s Moscow December Uprising, published in 1940, at a time when history easily crossed out, retouched and rewritten, pushing to the party scheme.
After the death of Nikolai Pavlovich, a desperate struggle for the inheritance broke out, which was inherited by brother Alexey and two sisters. Then we have to assume more than argue - the whole story was muddled then, and now even more so.

The brother of big capital - either in 300, or in 400 thousand rubles - allegedly refused. Not himself, of course, but frightened by the quite obvious threats of the Bolsheviks. The juvenile Elizabeth was found by the “guardian”, of course, a Bolshevik, and the Schmitt money flowed to the party funds. As for her elder sister, Catherine, the assistant attorney Nikolay Andrikanis, also a member of the RSDLP, married her.

However, he did not want to part with wealth, despite Lenin’s obvious hints to send Caucasian militants to him for a “serious” conversation. In the end, Andrikanis, knowing the harsh temper of his comrades, went back down - he gave up a few thousand, but he concealed most of them. And yet, as Krupskaya recalled, the inheritance of Schmitt became for the Bolsheviks a "solid material base."
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  1. makarov
    makarov 6 January 2014 12: 12
    0
    "During the suppression of the December armed uprising of 1905, the factory was destroyed. On the night of February 13, 1907, Schmitt was killed in solitary confinement in the Butyrka prison. .."


    according to the info from Wiki: - According to the recollections of the participant of the December speeches at Presnya, the former working furniture factory Schmit Peter Yegorov, Nikolai Pavlovich Schmit was killed at the time of the attempt to release him by the factory workers.
    1. vladkavkaz
      vladkavkaz 8 January 2014 18: 07
      0
      makarov
      To this day, in Ukraine, believe the PEDI wiki?
      Madhouse for young undergrowth?
      The whole article, BIG FUFFLO, where 30% of the truth, 70% of LIES, which climbs out, despite the author’s efforts to hide it.
  2. Sour
    Sour 6 January 2014 13: 16
    -1
    The Russian government has always managed to make its enemies those whom it defended.
    It is very useful to read "Vekhi", smart people have expressed themselves there.
  3. Stinger
    Stinger 6 January 2014 15: 31
    +1
    And you, Brutus, have sold yourself to the liberals? Asked Kai Julius Zimmerman. After all, Nikolai Schmidt was the father of O. Bender. And then Nikolai Schmitt. Yes, even a furniture maker, like Serdyukov.
  4. konvalval
    konvalval 7 January 2014 00: 43
    +4
    We would now have such oligarchs.
  5. Hitrovan07
    Hitrovan07 7 January 2014 00: 52
    -2
    "If I knew the buy-in" - I would not invest in strange projects.
  6. valokordin
    valokordin 7 January 2014 05: 03
    +3
    Quote: Hitrovan07
    If I would have known the buyback "- I would not invest in strange projects.

    You have everything measured for loot
  7. Egoza
    Egoza 7 January 2014 10: 26
    +1
    Be that as it may, but the current oligarchs have a lot to learn, and in particular, where they can invest - in sponsoring theaters, helping orphanages, hospitals. If only someone remembered them later with a kind word. Even in the United States, a movement has now appeared, and Bill Gates was the first to respond, to give half of his fortune to the state during his lifetime or after death. And if, indeed, "ours" are so afraid that they will steal everything, then they would specifically invest and help those who need it.
  8. Snoop
    Snoop 7 January 2014 10: 43
    +1
    It was no match for the current oligarchs, he was ideological, therefore the author is perplexed as to how, why should people of that time be measured on their own?
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. Prapor-527
    Prapor-527 7 January 2014 13: 07
    -1
    In the first place, and this is important, in the list of Victor Marsden is Trotsky (Bronstein).
    In second place is Lenin (Ulyanov. At least a maternal Jew, Blank).
    In third place is Zinoviev (Apfelbaum. He wrote works for Lenin and edited them).
    Then in turn:
    Lurie (Larin),
    Krylenko (Nickname - “Abram”, later People's Commissar of Justice, and the first chairman of the USSR Chess Federation),

    Lunacharsky (Bailikh-Mandelstam), Uritsky (Moses Solomonovich),
    Volodarsky (Moses Markovich Goldstein),
    Kamenev (Lev Borisovich Rosenfeld. He is the husband of Trotsky's sister and also editor of Lenin's works).
    Smidovich (Smidovich Petr Germogenovich).
    Sverdlov (Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov).
    Yu. M. Steklov (Ovshiy Moiseevich Nakhamkis).

    The Bureau of the First Composition of the Council of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies of the City of Moscow (all Jews):

    Three co-chairs:
    Chairman of the first Moscow Council after the revolution -Leiba Khinchuk.
    The chairman of the Council of Workers and Red Army Soldiers is Smidovich (Smidovich Petr Germogenovich).
    Chairman of the Council of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies - Moder.

    Members of the first Moscow City Council:

    Zarkh, Klamer, Gronberg, Scheinkman, Rothstein, F. Ya. Levenson, Krasnopolsky, Yu.O. Martov (Zederbaum), Rivkin, Simson, Tyapkin, Shik, Falk, Anderson (Lithuanian Jew), Wimba (Lithuanian Jew), Solo (Lithuanian Jew), Mikhelson, Ter-Michyan (Armenian Jew).
    The Secretary of the Bureau is Klausner.
    Head of the Chancellery - Rocenholtz.

    All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the Fourth All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies: (According to the constitution of 1918, formally, the highest authority).

    Of the 34 members of the CEC, not a single Gentile.
    The chairman is Yakov Sverdlov.

    Members: Abelman. Veltman (Pavlovich), Axelrod, Yu.O. Martov (Cederbaum), Krasikov, Lundberg, Volodarsky (Moses Markovich Goldstein), Cederbaum (Levitsky), Lenin, Zinoviev-Apfelbaum, Trotsky (Bronstein), Orphan, Sukhanov (Himmer), Rivkin, Tseybeyt Grig, Ratner (Ratner) (Solntsev), A. Goldenrudin, Haskin, Lander, Aronovich, Kamkov (Boris Davidovich Katz), Fishman, Abramovich (Rein Rafail Abramovich), Fritsche, Ilyin (Goldstein), Likhach M.A., Leiba Khinchuk, Berlinrut, Distler, Chernyavsky, Ben (Veniamin) Smidovich.http: //vidineev.wordpress.com/2009/01/10/marsden_jews_in_russia/
    1. dmb
      dmb 7 January 2014 17: 59
      +1
      And now, dear commentators, answer the question: "Why were many warrant officers called" pieces "in the SA?"
      1. Svyatoslavovich
        Svyatoslavovich 7 January 2014 20: 38
        0
        Bravo, although he might not understand))))
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. Prapor-527
        Prapor-527 8 January 2014 16: 01
        +1
        The ensign is the banner of the Russians. (If you are Russian) The ensign is the standard bearer. Once, a young Suvorov (it was painfully eager for awards) tried to raise a banner that fell out of the hands of the ensign ... for which he knocked out his teeth ... And if you are interested, I’m not an army ensign, I’m a policeman ... I’ve been working for 19 years and I respect my work very much.
        1. dmb
          dmb 8 January 2014 23: 13
          +1
          On points 1. Russian. 2. "Piece" of the department does not depend on this way of thinking. 3. Why was your comment written? I personally know one state that was enthusiastically engaged in national calculations; I still remember there that many were hanged (unfortunately, not all). If the ideas of this state are a role model for you, then the department in which you serve has been renamed correctly. If not, then answer one simple question, how did you personally and your loved ones suffer from the Soviet regime, which you so hate?
    2. Power
      Power 7 January 2014 21: 52
      -1
      1.1917 First Jewish coup (episode one) The Great October Socialist Revolution The destruction of the Russian monarchy.
      2.1991 Second Jewish coup (episode two) The collapse of the Union and the division of the fraternal peoples of the country (Belarus and Ukraine) into separate segments - chaos zones.
      3. The third Jewish coup (episode three) The collapse and dismemberment of Russia into separate regions and peoples.
      1. Power
        Power 8 January 2014 19: 22
        0
        I guess I was wrong and the separation from Russia of Belarus and Ukraine happened back in 1917 by Blank-Ulyanov Lenin.
  11. Svyatoslavovich
    Svyatoslavovich 7 January 2014 20: 46
    +2
    The dear author is strangling and sarcastically apparently from the fact that he can’t understand that not everything is measured by hard currency and sees a trick in everything. I tell you in secret - people still have a conscience, honor and bright ideas.