Professor Hugo Junkers
... Hugo Junkers was very surprised when the secretary reported that the Russian Mr. Dolukhanov was waiting for him at the reception.
“What does this gentleman need ... Do-lu-ha-nof?”
- He declares that he can sell your aircraft in Russia.
“Well, let him come in,” Hugo surrendered.
Respectable, with a military bearing, Mr. Dolukhanov, in decent German, explained to Junkers that he represented influential circles of Russian immigration in Germany. Soon the liquidation of the Bolsheviks in Russia is expected, and then he undertakes and guarantees the organization of the airline with twenty Junkers planes.
At first Hugo wanted to expel this gentleman immediately, but he pulled himself together and said with a smile:
“Thank you, sir ... Do-lu-ha-nof." I'll think about your offer and let you know. Please leave your coordinates with the secretary.
- But, Mr. Junkers, I would like to discuss in detail the business plan of this airline and provide you with evidence of my competence ... - the visitor did not let up.
“No, no, this is not yet necessary,” Hugo firmly retorted. - I wish you success, all the best.
This strange visit made Hugo think about organizing the production of his aircraft in Russia. Why not in Russia? This country is even bigger than America. With its endless spaces and in the absence of such a network of railways, as in Europe, air connections there are needed more than anywhere else. When negotiations were conducted in Western countries on the construction of its aviation plant, there they requested such a high percentage of loans that the cost of production turned out to be prohibitively high. Maybe in Russia it will be possible to agree on more favorable terms?
Hugo became interested in everyone the news from Soviet Russia. In the post-war fate, Germany and Russia had much in common. Both countries were outcasts in the eyes of the leaders of Western countries and did not deserve a good attitude towards them. Germany was crushed and humiliated by the prohibitions of the winners, and the RSFSR was excommunicated from the world community and progress by a severe blockade. This situation forced these countries to seek rapprochement. At the beginning of 1921, Hugo read in a newspaper that German-Russian negotiations on trade and industrial cooperation had taken place.
At this time, the decision came to him to glaze the cockpit on the F-13 and organize their passage through the door in the passenger compartment. The requirement of pilots for a better view in the open cockpit during the rain and in the fog Hugo did not consider sufficiently solid. After all, glass cabins can be supplied with heating and wipers, as in cars. But what huge advantages for the crew gives a closed cabin. In the face does not hit the oncoming flow, and without flying glasses review is better. The noise level is much lower, and the temperature in the cabin can be maintained by heaters. Crew members hear each other better when they exchange information in flight. All together it is comfort for people on whom flight safety depends. With an increase in flight duration and speed in the future, these factors will play an even more important role. Professor Junkers saw this clearly and boldly changed the prevailing stereotypes. As always, in his design decisions he was one step ahead of the rest. Junkers first abandoned the open cockpit, and all aircraft designers will follow suit. The first two F-13 in a modified layout with a closed cockpit already assembled in the shop.
Saxenberg fished for this news about Russia through his contacts with the military. It turns out that back in April, the German Reichswehr gave permission to Blom and Foss, Krupp and Albatros to sell their company secrets to Russians. The Reichswehr pushed Albatros as a state-owned company to expand the production of wooden aircraft through the organization of its aircraft factories in Russia. But the Russians showed no interest in the Albatross aircraft. Hugo listened to Sachsenberg with keen interest, inquiring about the details. A clear opportunity was brewing to avoid a ban on the production of aircraft in Germany, if they establish their production in Russia.
And right there the next day in the newspaper on the front page: “On May 6 of 1921, the German-Russian trade agreement was signed, according to which Germany had the opportunity to sell Soviet technical innovations and help the Russians to industrialize their country.”
This was already a signal, and Hugo began to work out options for his proposals in the upcoming negotiations. And the fact that such negotiations will begin soon, he had no doubt. And indeed, in a few months the Russians took the initiative. Negotiations began on the establishment of permanent air traffic on the Königsberg-Moscow and Königsberg-Petrograd routes. Junkers did not call there. The initiative was seized by the united German company Aero-Union. We agreed to create a German-Russian airline with equal participation of the parties. From the Russian side, the People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs became the official owner of 50% of the shares. Registration of the airline Deutsche Russische Luftverkehr, abbreviated "Deruluft", occurred 24 November 1921 of the year. The base was the airfield Devau near Königsberg. In Moscow, the Central Airfield, which was opened on Khodynka in October 1910.
And here the former partner of the Junkers in the Fokker production plant began to take off. He now settled in Holland and built a passenger vysokoplan there, almost the same as that of the Junkers, only wooden, F-III. He managed to sell ten of these aircraft to the Russian government, some of which were transferred to Deruluft against annual contributions. German and Russian pilots were going to fly from Konigsberg to Moscow and back on these plywood “Fokkers”. Permission to perform flights on this route for five years has already been signed by the Russian December 17. Hugo Junkers learned all this from the omnipresent Sachsenberg, but he firmly believed that his hour would come.
Factory in Fili
The real deal began in January 1922, when a representative of the German government came to Junkers in Dessau.
“Our preliminary talks with the Russians revealed their interest in building metal airplanes as part of military cooperation,” he began right off the bat. - Highly appreciating the success of your company, we recommend to take part in the negotiations in Moscow on the specific form of organizing the construction of German aircraft in Russia.
- If I understand you correctly, is it about the possibility of establishing the production of my aircraft in Russia? - involuntarily worrying, he asked naively Hugo.
- That's right. The army and government are extremely concerned about Germany’s prohibitions on aircraft construction. They will drop our Aviation a few years ago. Therefore, if we manage to agree with the Russians on the organization of our aviation plants with them, then this will be a great success. Our military cooperation with the Bolsheviks is now very important for Germany. We use their territory for our military bases. Reichswehr is inclined to finance this project.
- Mr. Adviser, and for how many years is this program designed? - I wanted to know more about Hugo.
- I guess not less than five years. If you are interested in this project, then we can send our delegation to Moscow in the coming days. You, Mr. Junkers, must appoint your representatives. Lieutenant Colonel Schubert will go from the Reichswehr, he will be the head of the delegation, and Major Niedermeyer.
Hugo promised tomorrow to inform the names of their representatives. He sent to Moscow the most experienced and well-versed - Gotthard Sachsenberg, director of the airline Lloyd Ostflug and director of the JCO plant Paul Shpalek.
Hugo exulted. His plants in Russia! If only it succeeded. And then an incredible blow - 12 January 1922, was not Otto Reiter. It was the largest diamond in its crown.
In a state of the utmost secrecy, without protocols, Moscow discussed the conditions for the construction of the Junkers aircraft factories in Russia and the aircraft production program. The Russians categorically demanded that the aircraft being produced be combat and their nomenclature was determined by orders from the Air Force and the Russian Navy. Sachsenberg and Shpalek on the telephone consulted with Junkers. After discussing all the proposals and wishes of the Russian side, the German delegation introduced a two-stage plan for the commissioning of the Junkers plants:
1. The rapid establishment of temporary production at the former Russian-Baltic car factory in Fili. Here, Junkers specialists will train Russian engineers and mechanics to build metal planes. This plant will also repair wooden warplanes, which the front-line units of the Red Army in Poland badly need.
2. Expansion of the plant in Fili for the production of various metal airplanes and the creation of a second Junkers aircraft factory in Petrograd on the territory of the Russian-Polish Automobile Plant. After commissioning of the second aircraft factory, the total production of aircraft by both Junkers factories in Russia should be one hundred machines per month. Funding for the entire program for the creation of Junkers aircraft factories in Russia worth a thousand million Reichsmarks is provided by the Reichswehr of Germany. The German Minister of Defense provides subsidies to the company Junkers.
This plan formed the basis of the Protocol of Intent between the Junkers Company and the Government of the RSFSR, which was signed on February 6 in Moscow by 1922. Junkers, the first industrialist in a capitalist country, was allowed to build aircraft manufacturing factories. Now Hugo in Russia can build his planes, but they must be combat. And he has been building civilian cars for three years now. We will have to raise again the drawings of his warplanes of the end of the war and think over their modification in the light of experience. These thoughts he voiced at the next meeting with his leading designers.
A week later, the military, in great secret, told Junkers that the Russians wanted a double naval reconnaissance. Hugo immediately thought of a seaplane on J-11 floats, which he developed at the end of the war for fleet. Then he just put his double shock J-10 on the floats, added a keel, and a rather successful seaplane turned out. The shape of its floats provided splashdown without large splashes, and their strength was tested in wind up to 8 m / s. At the same time, the anti-corrosion coating of duralumin was worked out with prolonged exposure to sea water. Two cars then managed to pass combat tests in the fleet, and the aircraft was assigned the military designation CLS-I.
Double seater reconnaissance and lifeguard J-11, 1918
Now Junkers gives the command to their designers Zindel and Madera to prepare a draft of the J-11 modification taking into account the accumulated experience under the J-20 index and wait for the specific demands of the Russians.
The preliminary tactical and technical requirements of the Red Army Navy to the naval scout on 27 sheets were on the table at Junkers very soon. It turned out that the already developed project J-20 is perfect. The Russians did not demand that the naval intelligence officer be armed, but they wrote down that it was necessary to ensure the possibility of installing one machine gun in the rear cabin. Compared to the old 11, the new 20 had a larger span and wing area. His keel was very similar to the keel of the 13, but was equipped with a larger rudder protruding from below. The floats remained the same shape with a smooth dural lining, flat-bottomed and single-edged. The rear cabin was also equipped with a turret ring for mounting a machine gun. A week later, the young Ernst Zindel brought Junkers a general view and layout of the multi-purpose seaplane J-20 in final version for approval.
Training "Junkers" T-19, 1922
The first departure from the water of the new seaplane J-20 successfully passed in March 1922, and subsequent flight tests confirmed that the characteristics of the aircraft comply with the requirements of the Russians.
Soon important events occurred in the political life of Germany that shaped its rapprochement with Soviet Russia. The German delegation indignantly left the Genoa Conference on a post-war settlement, because the victorious Western countries put up too enslaving and humiliating conditions. On the same day, a separate Rapallo Treaty was signed with Russia. Georgy Chicherin and Walter Rathenau freed the Bolsheviks from international diplomatic isolation, legitimized the nationalization of state and private German property in Russia and Germany’s refusal of claims due to the “measures” of the RSFSR bodies against German citizens. Article 5 of the contract announced the readiness of the German government to assist private German companies operating in Russia. Translated from the diplomatic language, this meant funding for programs by the German Ministry of Defense.
General view of the marine intelligence officer Junkers J-20, 1922
Behind the streamlined words of the most favored nation in economic relations, Germany got the opportunity to develop its military industry and armed forces in Russia.
The 1922 summer for Hugo Junkers was filled with important matters and events that inspired confidence in the future. Suddenly, in mid-April, the Control Commission lifted the universal ban on the construction of aircraft in Germany, which lasted almost a year. But allowed to build only light small machines with a payload of up to half a ton, and the F-13 fits into these limitations. Immediately showered orders from different airlines on this car. The assembly shop of the Junkers plant in Dessau was filled with airplanes. In subsequent years, German inexperienced airlines will be supplied 94 single-engine passenger "Junkers", most of which will then be in Lufthansa.
The civil aviation industry needed more efficient aircraft, and the Junkers design bureau is constantly improving their 13. Wingspan increases, more powerful engines are installed. In the summer of 1922, Hugo Junkers became pretty nervous when he sent the F-13 with the tail number D-191 on a trip across the Alps. The successful completion of this flight further raised the prestige of the aircraft designer. 13 th Junkers was the first passenger plane in the world to conquer these peaks.
Another joy Hugo Junkers brought in the summer of 1922 was the first departure of his new T-19 aircraft. The Junkers design bureau continued to develop light all-metal high planes. Now it was a triple training aircraft with one small engine.
The plane weighed a little more than half a ton without a load. Junkers immediately built three copies, hoping to supply them with different power engines. They no longer needed to hide from the Control Commission. But their cost was significantly higher than similar planes made of wood and percals. Therefore, Hugo did not count on an abundance of orders, but used these machines as experimental ones. After completing the flight test program, these aircraft found their buyers and, as sporting ones, participated in aviation races in their class.
Factory in Fili, which received Junkers, 1922
Meanwhile, Sachsenberg and Shpalek report to Junkers from Moscow that the negotiations have been concretized and the time for signing the agreement is near.
Finally, on November 26, 1922 was the agreed text of the agreement with the Russians on the Junkers table for signing. Hugo carefully read it several times. Due to the financial restrictions of the Reichswehr, the final agreement did not provide for the construction of a second Junkers aircraft factory in Petrograd. The agreement granted Junkers a pre-revolutionary plant on 30 for years, the right to rebuild the plant to produce aircraft and engines, to place a branch of its design bureau there, to establish its own airline in Russia for air transportation and air mapping of the area. Junkers undertook to produce at the 300 plant aircraft and 450 engines per year, to design and build several types of aircraft commissioned by the Russian Air Force.
Sachsenberg and Shpalek assured the chief that this was the maximum that they could achieve, and Junkers signed the papers.
At the same time, he was given a preliminary order for twenty reconnaissance seaplanes and Russians. Tactical and technical requirements for them. There was nothing fundamentally new there, and Hugo, with a clear conscience conveying these requirements to Mader, gave the command to prepare blueprints for the launch of mass production of an offshore aircraft for Russians under the symbol Ju-20.
The government of the USSR 23 January 1923 of the year approved an agreement with Junkers, and on the western edge of the capital, inside the northern semi-circle of the Moscow River, on its high bank near the village of Fili, some unusual revival began. The abandoned territory of the Russian-Baltic railcar plant began to transform. Now it was a secret aviation plant Junkers. In the next four years, Germany will invest huge money in this plant - ten million gold marks.
Former Air Force Attache of the German Embassy in Soviet Russia in 1918, Lieutenant Colonel Wilhelm Schubert is now appointed by Junkers as Chief Financial Officer at Fili. When Schubert arrived at the aviation plant entrusted to him, an extremely ordinary-looking picture opened up before him.
This plant was built in the spring of the year 1916 for the production of cars. But the revolution and the subsequent civil war prevented him from starting work. So he stood until he waited for Junkers. Officially, it was now called State Aviation Plant No. 7. Plant management under the guise of Junkers Zentrale Russland is located in two buildings in Moscow on Petrogradsky Highway, d. 32, and Nikolskaya Street, d. 7. There you could easily find Dr. Schubert, his deputy Dr. Otto Gessler and technical director of the plant Paul Shpalek.
Soviet military aircraft Junkers
Hugo Junkers was impressed with the volume of the upcoming release of his aircraft. In a signed agreement between him and the USSR government, the Russians pledged to annually order him 300 aircraft and 450 aircraft engines. Now he has to organize the production cycle at the factory in Fili in such a way as to ensure the release of this huge program. We need a powerful blank production, modern mechanical shops and several assembly lines. We need a large hangar of the flight test workshop, a motor test station and a factory airfield. Hugo approved the detailed plan for the reconstruction of the factory in Fili prepared by the technical director Shpalek.
Junkers seaplane for the USSR Navy, 1923
From Dessau to Fili began to arrive containers with machines, production equipment, accessories and tools. The construction of the runway of the factory airfield, which lay on the peninsula from the western bank of the Moscow River to the east, began. Several hundred skilled mechanics and engineers at Junkers from Dessau went on a business trip to snow-covered Moscow in order to transform what was in Fili into a modern aviation serial factory. Next to the closed area, a factory village began to grow, with comfortable high-rise buildings. In October, 1923, the plant has already worked more than five hundred employees, and a year later their number doubled.
But for now, the Junkers had an order for only twenty seaplanes for the Red Army Navy. Until the reconstruction of the plant in Fili is completed and the work of its procurement workshops begins, it connects the plant in Dessau to manufacture parts of the J-20 seaplane and sends them to Moscow. At first, the factory in Fili only collected the ordered U-20 seaplanes. The first in November, 1923, took off from the surface of the Moscow River and headed for Petrograd. There, in Oranienbaum, he was eagerly awaited by the commander of the squadron unit Chukhnovsky.
These seaplanes Junkers flew in the Baltic and the Black Sea. Part of the machines were operated from the ships, they were lowered and raised from the water with the help of an arrow and a winch. They were the first in the fleet, built by his order. The first order for twenty Yu-20 was completed in April 1924 of the year. Then came the order for another twenty, and all. This circumstance somewhat disappointed Junkers. Using the right to sell 50% of Fili aircraft in the free market, recorded in the agreement, Junkers sells several J-20 seaplanes to Spain and Turkey. Yu-20 proved to be very reliable and durable. After they were written off from the Navy, they flew from polar explorers and in civil aviation. Pilot Chukhnovsky became famous, working in the Arctic on the "Junkers" and based on Novaya Zemlya.
The development of a seaplane for the Russians had successful consequences for the plant in Dessau. The first J-20 instance built there, sparkling with new paint, Hugo exposes 1923 in May at the air show in Gothenburg. Now this is a civil Junkers aircraft on the floats - type A. Interest in the car was great, and Hugo decides to market a modified car with a more powerful engine under the symbol А20 in the sea and land versions. These planes with different engines in versions A-20, A-25 and A-35 will be built about two hundred. They will buy for the transport of mail and aerial photography.
It was still snowing in Dessau when it became known that the Russians also wanted a ground reconnaissance for their air force. Their February 1923 claims were not excessive. It should be double and keep in the air for at least three and a half hours. Only the required maximum speed was too big. Junkers decided that for a scout the effect of increasing the aerodynamic quality of a highly advanced scheme is very important, and the review down is better. He ordered Zindel to begin designing the J-21, using the groundwork for the high-performance T-19 training plan.
Now Ernst Tsindel became in fact the chief designer of the company and developed the project of the intelligence officer for the Russians. The long duration of the flight required a lot of fuel. He was placed in two sleek tanks on the sides of the fuselage, which could be reset in an emergency. Zindel helped new designers: Bruno Sterke designed the chassis, Iehan Hazlof - the fuselage and Hans Frendel - tail.
Experienced reconnaissance Junkers J-21, 1923
On the warm summer day of 12 June 1923, test pilot Zimmerman took off at the first prototype and confirmed the good handling of the car. The plane looked unusual. It was a wing with a fuselage suspended from below on thin rods.
Because of the bans in force in Germany, flight tests of a scout had to be organized in Holland. He could fly at low speed, and this property, according to Hugo, was the main thing for a scout. The observer from the second cockpit should see the smallest details of the facilities and equipment of the enemy. But the Russians demanded a high maximum speed so that the scout could escape from the fighters. It was impossible to combine these conflicting demands, and Hugo compromises by removing and modifying the wing, reducing its area by a third. The plane began to fly faster, but not as fast as the customer wanted. With the existing motor, the Junkers could no longer fulfill this requirement. Two prototypes were disassembled, packed in containers and brought to the plant in Fili. Russian pilots flew there, and these cars served as benchmarks for the series. Despite the low-speed intelligence, the first order of the Red Army Air Force was 40 aircraft.
Then the Junkers serial scouts for the Red Army, the U-21, were supplied with the most powerful BMW IVa engine in Germany, two fixed machine guns from the pilot and one on the turret from the observer. The plant in Fili worked for two and a half years on the order of the intelligence officers and fully executed it.
In the summer of 1923, the Lord God dealt a terrible blow to the Junkers family. Hugo read with horror the message that the X-NUMX of June in South America crashed during a demonstration flight of an F-25 aircraft, the airborne number D-13, in which his eldest son Werner was killed. Five days before Werner’s death, 213 was one year old. It was difficult to survive, but with this we now have to exist. His first thought, piercing the heart, was: "How to tell your wife and children about this?"
Everything then went somehow upside down, nothing went wrong. And with the order of fighters for the Russian there was an embarrassment. Zindel with its designers has developed quite a decent project at the level of the world's best designs. Compared to the Fokker and Martinside biplanes, its monoplane looked better. The wing was located exactly in the same place as the upper wing of these biplanes - in front of the cockpit. The forward-up review was bad, but it was no better for all competitors, and the lack of a lower wing even improved the review down. But these competitors had one advantage - their engines were much more powerful.
Many design decisions in the project of the J-22 Siegfried fighter are taken from the previous reconnaissance aircraft J-21. The same wing, only the rods on which the fuselage is suspended from it, became shorter and the wing sank lower. The same two machine guns from the pilot and side dumped fuel tanks, the same chassis. And most importantly, the same engine. He was the Achilles heel of the new Junkers fighter. At the time of designing and building two prototype machines in Dessau in the second half of 1923, the Junkers could not get a more powerful engine than the BMW IIIa. Zimmerman flew around the first experienced fighter on the last day of November. Even with this engine, the fighter showed a good maximum speed of 200 km / h and basically corresponded to the recorded requirements of the customer.
Junkers fighter J-22 for the Air Force of the USSR, 1923
Hugo Junkers knew perfectly well that his fighter needed a more powerful engine, and for the second experienced tried to get a BMW IV. But it did not work out, and the fighter took off in Dessau 25 June 1924, with the same BMW IIIa. Then both experienced fighters were transported to Fili, where they collected and sent Russian pilots to trial. And they have already flown on the English "Martinside" and the Dutch "Fokker".
Back at the start of 1922, the Soviet representatives of Vneshtorg bought the first twenty Martinside F-4 fighters in England, and in September the 1923 of the same number. All of them were operated in the Moscow Military District. This English wooden biplane with the same take-off weight as the Siegfried Junkers had twice the wing area and engine power of the Hispano-Suiz 8F. This gave him a clear advantage in maneuvering.
Just at the same time, the Soviet trade mission in Berlin bought Fokker D.XI fighters in the Netherlands with the same engine, which were used by pilots of the procurement commission. Therefore, having relocated from the Martinside to the Junkers, the Russian fighter pilots did not feel anything but disappointment. The metal monoplane on the aerobatic maneuvers was clearly inferior to the maneuverable biplane. They categorically objected to the launch of the Junkers fighter in the series at the factory in Fili. The order of the thirty Ju-126 fighters was canceled and another eighty Ju-22 ground reconnaissance aircraft were ordered instead.
Already in the first year of operation of the Junkers plant in Fili, the 29 of its passenger planes under the Ju-13 index was released in the variants of a military transport aircraft and a light bomber. The latter had a machine gun mounted behind the cockpit. Details and components for these aircraft were brought from Dessau, and at Fili the aircraft were only assembled. In the following 1924 – 1925 years, only six cars were produced. Some of them, under the PS-2 index, were bought by the Soviet airline Dobrolet, and some were sold to Junkers.
In the summer of 1924, the Junkers Design Bureau began designing a bomber for the Red Army. It should produce a factory in Fili. Satisfying the highest demands was made possible by installing two BMW VI-25 HP engines on the monoplane J-750 monoplane at that time in Germany. But the German military did not want to arm the Russians with such a machine and opposed this project. And the Russians, through their own channels, did not exert any stubborn pressure either.
Then Hugo offers the Soviet Air Force as a heavy bomber the military version of its three-engined passenger aircraft under the symbol R-42 (inverted G-24 index). He organized the production of a combat aircraft banned in Germany at a factory in Sweden. In the summer of 1925, such a bomber flew to the Central Moscow airfield to demonstrate its characteristics and made an impression on the command of the Red Army air force. Despite the fact that the first Soviet heavy bomber of the TB-1 Tupolev design bureau has already begun flight tests, Junkers are ordered more than twenty of its R-42.
This combat aircraft was born in a single copy in Dessau under the secret name Kriegsflugzeug K-30 in the deep autumn 1924 of the year. According to the documents that the Control Commission could verify, it passed as an ambulance plane converted from a passenger one. It was necessary to modify the center section and the nose of the aircraft, from the top of the fuselage to round two cutouts for the open cockpit of shooters with machine guns, to install a retractable rifle installation and bomb hole on the bottom of the fuselage, to install under-wing bomb racks for small bombs and to seal a part of the passenger cabin windows. Total plane could deliver one ton of bombs. But no weapons and military equipment were installed on it. In this form, he flew to the plant in Limhamn, where he was fully developed, completed flight tests, became the benchmark for mass production of the R-42 and flew to Moscow to the bride.
Bombers in Sweden were assembled from parts and assemblies sent from Dessau, and were also reworked from the passenger G-23 that had flown in from there. All combat vehicles were powered by Junkers L-5 310 HP engines. They could be operated on wheels, skis and floats. From the factory in Limhamn the aircraft in containers were transported by sea to Murmansk, and from there by rail to the factory in Fili. Here the aircraft were armed, tested and sent to military units called SOUTH-1.
The first Junkers bombers received the Black Sea Fleet aviation. It was the last order that was occupied by the Junkers plant in Fili. By the end of 1926, fifteen SG-1 was supplied, and the next year the remaining eight. They were in service with a bomber squadron in the Leningrad Military District and the sailors of the Baltic Fleet. After the cancellation of these aircraft, the Junkers had long served in the Civil Air Fleet of the USSR.
The excerpts from Leonid Lipmanovich Antseliovich's book "Unknown Junkers" are given.