Military Review

B-12 (Mi-12): the world's most heavy-lift helicopter

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The B-12, also known as the Mi-12, although the machine was never officially renamed (according to the NATO codification Homer), is the most heavy-lifting and heavy helicopter ever built in the world. A distinctive feature of the helicopter was the lateral arrangement of screws on the wings, having a reverse narrowing. The screws were driven with X-NUMX-x D-4WF engines. The B-25 was originally created as a super heavy transport helicopter, which was supposed to have a payload capacity of 12 tons. The helicopter was planned to be used for transporting ICBM components in the interests of parts of the Strategic Missile Forces, as well as creating positional areas in places where there were no paved roads.


Despite its outstanding performance, the entire 2 helicopter was assembled. In part, this was due to the fact that over time, lighter rocket complexes appeared in the country, and all the needs of the national economy and the military were met by mass-produced Mi-6 and Mi-10 helicopters. Both helicopters B-12 preserved. One of them is located on the territory of the Moscow Helicopter Plant, which is located on the eternal station, the second helicopter was transferred to the Air Force Museum, located in Monino.

In the early 60s of the last century, the design team of the Mil Design Bureau was tasked with developing a helicopter that would be able to transport more than 80 types of military equipment weighing up to 25 tons - tanks, self-propelled guns, air defense systems, ballistic and cruise missiles, including the UR-500, which was the "predecessor" of the Proton launch vehicle.

After a number of design options were considered (single-screw models with a different number of engines, a twin-screw longitudinal scheme both with a wing and without a wing), the Mil Design Bureau stopped at a transverse circuit with two rotor power plants, each with an 2 engine . To do this, they needed to design a rigid and lightweight design that could carry heavy enough nacelles with engines located at the ends of the consoles. The result of careful calculations of engineers has become a unique aircraft, possessing a “wing of reverse contraction”.

B-12 (Mi-12): the world's most heavy-lift helicopter

To reduce development costs, as well as to make the process of building and deploying a helicopter faster, the designers decided to create a machine by doubling the motor groups of the existing and manufactured Mi-6 (power plant, main gearbox, main rotor, control system).

The project of the giant helicopter, designated B-12, was a four-engine helicopter, made according to a twin-screw transverse scheme. At the edges of each wing wing truss, gondolas were installed, in which the D-2ВФ gas-turbine engine with 25 hp each was installed on 6500. each. Inside the wing was a transmission shaft, which synchronized the revs of both machine screws. The fuel was located in the wing and outboard fuel tanks.

The fuselage of the helicopter was made in the form of a huge semi-monocoque. In front of the fuselage was the crew cabin (2 floor). In the central part of the fuselage there was a huge cargo compartment with the following dimensions: 28,15 × 4,4 × 4,4 m. In the tail section there was a power ramp equipped with side flaps, when opening these flaps formed an aperture that was intended for loading various cargoes and entering self-propelled vehicles. To facilitate the loading process were used hoists and electric winch.

Designers tried to reduce the size of the helicopter, which led to the location of screws with overlap. This decision was the reason for the increase in the noise level in the cockpit of the helicopter, in order to reduce its level it took a lot of time, which took to choose the direction of rotation of the screws. The handling characteristics of the machine also depended on it. Also, the designers of the Mil Design Bureau paid great attention to reducing the level of vibration of the helicopter, a huge amount of work was done in this direction.


The power plant of the helicopter, as originally planned, consisted of two pairs of GTE D-25VF. The lift of the helicopter was changed by adjusting the total pitch of the rotors. The transverse and longitudinal control of the helicopter was carried out using the pilot's handle by tilting the thrust vector of the helicopter rotors in conjunction with changing their differential and cyclic pitch.

All combat and civilian equipment was to be transported in the fuselage of the helicopter, for its loading / unloading was used a hatch in the tail of the aircraft. The crew compartment of the helicopter was a two-story, but unlike the cockpit of the An-22, the cockpit, flight attendant and flight engineer were located downstairs, the navigator was located on the second floor.

A special feature of the helicopter B-12 was tail, which was implemented on the aircraft type. The deflection of the rudder increased the effectiveness of the track control, and the deflection of the elevators, produced synchronously with the change in the overall pitch of the rotors, increased the efficiency of control in the longitudinal channel.

To reduce the level of load on the command controls of the machine, the deflection of the swashplate, the change of the pitch of the rotor, the deflection of the rudders and the height of the rudders was made using hydraulic boosters. Also on the helicopter was installed AP-34B1 - a four-channel autopilot, as well as a system for automatically maintaining the specified turns of the screws. Aerial operation was greatly facilitated by the installed radar station called Lotia.


The systematic ascent of the helicopter into the air began in December 1967, the entire program of factory tests of the machine took only a month, and no complications were noted. In the autumn of next year, the first B-12 built was sent to LII at the 1 stage of joint state tests, which were completed by making a long-haul flight Moscow-Akhtubinsk-Moscow, the flight was carried out in 1970 year. In the same year, in October, the State Commission recommended starting the mass production of the heavy cargo helicopter B-12.

In May-June 1971, a new Soviet helicopter was demonstrated at Le Bourget at the 29th International Salon aviation and astronautics, here this car was recognized as a "star of the cabin." This was followed by a series of shows. The helicopter was shown in Paris, Berlin, Copenhagen. Assembled in 1972, the second instance of the helicopter stood for a year on the factory floor, waiting for the delivery of engines. This helicopter made its first flight on March 28, 1973, and the very next day the B-12 was transferred to the flight station, where it was to begin the state test program. From the first instance, the helicopter was distinguished by reinforced tail supports and more rigid controls. At the same time, the customer unexpectedly refused to take the car to the second stage of state tests, and in 1974 all work on refining the helicopter was stopped.

The heavy B-12 helicopter successfully passed all the tests, but was not put into mass production. In total, 7 world records were set on this rotary-winged machine, including the helicopter capacity record (the machine managed to lift 2250 tons of weight to 40 meters). This outstanding achievement was marked by the award of the Mil Design Bureau (the second time in stories) international prize named after Sikorsky.

Flight technical characteristics of the helicopter В-12:
Dimensions: main rotor diameter - 35 m, length - 37 m, width - 34 m, height - 12,5 m.
The mass of the helicopter: empty - 69 100 kg, normal take-off - 97 000 kg, maximum take-off - 105 000 kg.
The power plant - 4 GTE D-25VF power 4х4847 kW.
The maximum speed of the helicopter is 260 km / h, cruising - 240 km / h.
Practical ceiling - 3 500 m.
Practical range - 500 km, distillation - 1000 km.
Crew car - 6 people.
Passenger capacity - 196 people.
The normal payload is 20 000 kg of cargo, the maximum load is up to 25 000 kg.

Information sources:
http://www.airwar.ru/enc/ch/mi12.html
http://www.popmech.ru/article/13767-sverhtyazhelyiy-vertolet-v-12-mi-12
http://www.arms-expo.ru/056057054049.html
http://www.vertolet-media.ru/helicopters/mvz/v12
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43 comments
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  1. niksup
    niksup 25 December 2013 09: 34
    +8
    Huge and beautiful car. The fighters standing next to him in Monino seem crumbs :) It is a pity that the helicopter did not go into the series.
    1. LaGlobal
      LaGlobal 25 December 2013 09: 39
      +4
      Tryndets, what a giant fellow
      1. alone
        alone 25 December 2013 19: 20
        +4
        All the same, they knew how to do things in Soviet times. It is a pity that only 2 copies were made. Thank you, at least they were saved. You could have pushed it like scrap metal. You can expect anything from our D .. effective managers.
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    3. Siberian German
      Siberian German 25 December 2013 20: 25
      0
      why it’s a pity - in the USSR they didn’t do planning - if they finished on 2 then probably they were enough, but what good fellows saved
  2. avt
    avt 25 December 2013 09: 54
    +3
    It is a pity Miles did not have time to start the series. Awesome aggregate good
    Quote: niksup
    The fighters standing next to him in Monino seem crumbs :)
    Yes ! Really inserts the first time you see.
  3. Blad_21617
    Blad_21617 25 December 2013 09: 57
    +12
    it feels like we slipped 50 years ago ... we created such masterpieces and now there is nothing new. they are trying to modernize everything old. some kind of "armature" for 5 years have been developing SHAME!
  4. And Us Rat
    And Us Rat 25 December 2013 10: 13
    +9
    Interior Mi-12


    Download and take off


    And the story of creation

    1. 0255
      0255 25 December 2013 12: 27
      +1
      Quote: And Us Rat
      Interior Mi-12

      the interior of the Mi-12 could still be brought into a human form, like the helicopter itself recourse
      Quote: And Us Rat
      Download and take off

      I want to see him flying live! Majestic sight good ... Only the takeoff and landing of the An-225 Mriya is more majestic.
  5. ramsi
    ramsi 25 December 2013 11: 46
    -26%
    what a freak! .. And then did not try coaxial screws yet? ..
    1. klimpopov
      klimpopov 25 December 2013 12: 56
      +4
      And where does the coaxial screws? By the way, we didn’t just try ...
      what a freak!

      The taste and color. But for me it’s such a beautiful giant, with a thoughtful fuselage.
      1. ramsi
        ramsi 25 December 2013 13: 00
        -6
        because one coaxial screw with a large diameter would be clearly more efficient;
        the fuselage may be nothing, but if you place the propellers in this way, then the wings are definitely harmful, they interfere with the static thrust, and when the "flying crane" is flying, they are of little use - an ordinary round beam, as small as possible, would be more practical
        1. klimpopov
          klimpopov 25 December 2013 13: 08
          +3
          Can you imagine the load on the gearbox? What would be the resource? At the same time, the task was not just to develop a "wunderwaflu" but to develop a helicopter for the units available in production (by the way, time-tested).
          Gracefully Miles solved the problem.
          because it would be clearly more effective

          What is more effective? By the way, not quite a flying crane.
          1. ramsi
            ramsi 25 December 2013 13: 12
            -2
            the gearbox is there anyway
            1. klimpopov
              klimpopov 25 December 2013 13: 17
              0
              This is understandable))))))) But its construction
              Moreover, the skew of such large blades.
              1. ramsi
                ramsi 25 December 2013 13: 30
                -2
                oh come on! Well, they would spend on extremely strong steels in a limited amount ... In addition, flight modes are very sparing
                1. klimpopov
                  klimpopov 25 December 2013 13: 36
                  0
                  To reduce development costs, as well as to make the process of building and deploying a helicopter faster, the designers decided to create a machine by doubling the motor groups of the existing and manufactured Mi-6 (power plant, main gearbox, main rotor, control system).

                  Probably the main thing)))))
                  Plus Miles specialized in cargo helicopters - and he was assigned. Kamov was busy with others and did not have the necessary experience. Plus a global trend and so on. In general, we found the best solution .....
                  And the helicopter was planned all the same in a series.
                  1. ramsi
                    ramsi 25 December 2013 13: 42
                    +1
                    okay, let me give it one more time, if we do so, is it not better to fly a wagon? ..
                    1. klimpopov
                      klimpopov 25 December 2013 13: 50
                      +2
                      Better))) but depending on what, again, the payload ...
                      History has proven and put everything in its place. The giant still did not go into the series. Limited Mi-26 which is enough.
                      And then it was not obvious as it is now.
                      I will also make concessions))))

                      By the way, Yakovlev had experience on the topic of a flying car, but for some reason, all the same, Miles ...
                      1. ramsi
                        ramsi 25 December 2013 13: 57
                        -1
                        and yet with the car, not everything is so simple: the cargo compartment could be loaded from both sides
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                      3. shishkin7676
                        shishkin7676 10 February 2016 19: 29
                        0
                        Dial Yak-60 and be surprised, even more.
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        2. rolik
          rolik 25 December 2013 16: 21
          +1
          Quote: ramsi
          because one coaxial screw with a large diameter would be clearly more efficient;

          Well, of course, after all mediocrity worked for Mil. They would, deuce, to listen to your wise advice.
          1. ramsi
            ramsi 25 December 2013 18: 02
            -1
            the screws in the center of the structure are clearly better, this is clear even to such an ignoramus like me, but in the presented version the most efficient blade ends are forced to blow wings and fuselage in addition. The fact that the circuit is vicious is also evidenced by the absence of analogues
        3. Pashhenko Nikolay
          Pashhenko Nikolay 25 December 2013 18: 22
          +1
          It is clearly written-used ready-made propeller group from Mi-6 to speed up the construction.
        4. alex86
          alex86 25 December 2013 18: 25
          +1
          I will apologize for the amateurish opinion, but for large-diameter coaxial propellers the probability of propeller overlap increases - look at the Mi-26 propellers in flight and imagine that there are two of them - the deflections of the blades upward are very large. The wings of the reverse expansion (correctly said? Well, you get it) are quite logical. The direction of rotation of the rotors is not entirely logical - "breaststroke", but Mil considered that this was more effective for handling. In my opinion, the car is scary, but the design logic led to this appearance. The term "carriage" is rather arbitrary, loading from both sides is possible here, just for what?
          1. alex86
            alex86 25 December 2013 18: 52
            0
            These are the longitudinal options
          2. alex86
            alex86 25 December 2013 18: 52
            0
            These are the longitudinal options
            1. alex86
              alex86 25 December 2013 18: 57
              0
              But inside ...
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              3. alex86
                alex86 25 December 2013 19: 11
                0
                "vertotel"
                1. VADEL
                  VADEL 26 December 2013 01: 54
                  0
                  It would be cool to build such a "vertomach" for the AN-225 "Mriya". laughing
              4. alex86
                alex86 25 December 2013 19: 11
                +1
                Imagination is not mine and in general "not ours" - "vertotel" - do you recognize?
                Here is much more and more interesting http://masterok.livejournal.com/447335.html
                Excuse me, if confusion - something didn’t get inserted ...
                1. ramsi
                  ramsi 25 December 2013 19: 56
                  0
                  okay, then there’s still a question for connoisseurs minusers: why do not the profile of the blades be made variable — narrow at the sleeve, then expanded — and at the ends — as it is?
                  1. not main
                    not main 25 December 2013 22: 34
                    0
                    have you heard anything about centrifugal force?
                  2. alex86
                    alex86 25 December 2013 23: 22
                    +1
                    I am neither a connoisseur nor a minuser - on the Mi-4 the blades narrowed from the sleeve to the ends (I won’t lie about others - I don’t know). In the early development of helicopters it was so - at Cheremukhin, for example. However, the complexity of the design does not justify the effect of mass reduction - the point is only that.
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  6. alexbg2
    alexbg2 25 December 2013 12: 20
    +4
    What a great time it was !!! What a lift !!! Aviation!!! Space!!!
  7. kp-95062
    kp-95062 25 December 2013 13: 24
    +1
    Able to work then. Rather, have not forgotten how.
  8. datur
    datur 25 December 2013 15: 35
    +1
    and you say Opprey repeat
  9. Technologist
    Technologist 25 December 2013 16: 06
    0
    I saw him through the fence, you can be stunned.
  10. Forest
    Forest 25 December 2013 16: 22
    0
    In our school I stood at the checkpoint, of course the layout)
  11. propolsky
    propolsky 25 December 2013 17: 41
    +2
    It is a pity that such stars fade away without giving up the warmth and power that people put into it ...
  12. voliador
    voliador 25 December 2013 18: 03
    +2
    The main thing is that technological developments that always appear in the process of designing such a complex technique would not be lost.
  13. kind
    kind 25 December 2013 20: 16
    +1
    The helicopter’s systematic ascents into the air began in December 1967, the entire program of factory tests of the aircraft passed in just a month, and no complications were noted.

    Here is the deadline !!! And modern cars have been brought to mind for years.
  14. realist
    realist 25 December 2013 21: 46
    +1
    I saw this handsome man in monino, I did not understand - why I did not go to the series
    By the way, with modern technologies and engines - does it make sense to resume the project?
  15. not main
    not main 25 December 2013 22: 42
    +1
    Handsome man! But MI-26 performs the same tasks with less labor and financial costs! That's the whole story! And the car is impressive even after decades!
  16. invisibility
    invisibility 25 December 2013 22: 53
    0
    Once in helicopter engineering we were second to none. Neither in quality nor in quantity.
  17. Midshipman
    Midshipman 26 December 2013 15: 24
    0
    http://www.membrana.ru/particle/2052 От брехуны - уже и билеты продали
  18. Robertos
    Robertos 8 January 2014 15: 40
    0
    And why put coaxial screws, if you can do ordinary ones, all the more there was no problem of scope, because the screws worked overlapping.? Again, the complexity of the design of the gearbox, to transmit such nonsense,
  19. baluru72
    baluru72 15 February 2017 23: 21
    0
    I’m not sure, but I read somewhere that someone made calculations on a computer and according to these calculations he should not fly)))) And people calculated everything in their heads in due time ... and set records on it ...