Military Review

The legacy of Carpathian Rus for the benefit of Ukraine


History Carpathian Rus - the unloved child of the official Ukrainian historiography. After all, the Carpathian Rus was called the present-day Western Ukraine from Transcarpathia (Ugrian Russia) to Bukovina (Bukovina Russia) and Galicia (Galician Russia), which today is considered the center of Ukrainian nationalism.

The mutation of Carpathian Rus to Ukraine did not occur immediately. It took centuries, first of the gentry-Catholic, and then of the Austrian yoke, which took real terror during the First World Wide. In the Terezin and Talerhof concentration camps, the masses destroyed those who refused to accept the then new “Ukrainian” nationality. Austrian soldiers dragged specially prepared ropes in their satchels, and if a Galician peasant or teacher answered yes to the question “Rus?”, He was hanged on a nearby tree ...

There were many hanged, because then Galicians called themselves Russians or Rusyns. And not only they, but their blood brothers in the rest of Russia. So it was only a hundred years ago. The ancient Russians, who did not know the ethnonym “Ukrainians”, called themselves Rusins, which came into use in its modern meaning only in the twentieth century, and then only with the help of the Austrian punitive apparatus.

The legacy of Carpathian Rus for the benefit of Ukraine

The article by Ugrorus professor George Gerovsky “About the word“ Rusin ”in the magazine“ Free Word of Carpathian Rus ”(USA), 1971 year

It is characteristic that many descendants of the Galician and Transcarpathian settlers in the Serbian Vojvodina continue to call themselves Russians or Rusyns, where they founded in the 18th century. village Russian Kerestur.

The newspaper of voevodinsky Rusyns, “Ruski Novini” (1925)

The call in the “Russian News”: “Remember: who gives to the Russian Enlightenment - gives himself and deserves the eternal memory of the Russian people!”

The Carpatho-Russian idea carried in itself unifying senses, which consolidated the society of that time. Opponents of this idea from among Ukrainians, on the contrary, split the public opinion and called for the division of their compatriots into “right” and “wrong”. We see the fruits of their activities to this day: the Ukrainian society remains divided both ideologically and culturally and ideologically.

This impulse of separating into “our own” and “aliens” does not dry out, provoking regular attacks of ideological-political aggression. Will the Ukrainian state be able to withstand, if the rudiments of fragmentation and instability are laid in its ideological foundation? Has the time not come in the interests of Ukraine itself and its people to abandon historical insinuations smoldering under a bushel of official mythology? Is it not time to initiate a different scientific, social, political and philosophical discourse in which there would be room for a huge layer of the history of Ukraine, namely the history of Carpathian Russia? Moreover, this is not a propaganda line imported from Canada or the United States, but an integral part of Ukraine’s past as a state, these are the fruits of intellectual efforts and the patriotic activity of the ancestors of modern Ukrainians.

A fragment of a poem by a certain Mikhailo from Tsenyev (now Ternopil oblast) “Rozpuk” in the Lviv Galician-Russian magazine “Pchola” (1849) about the bitter share of Russia and its children

A poem in the Galician-Russian satirical journal Strakhopud (Lviv) for 1900 a year about the diplomatic noise raised by the idea of ​​creating an independent Ukraine. The newspapers Ruslan and Moloda Ukraine are mentioned - the mouthpieces of the then “independent criminals”.

It is not true that the Carpatho-Russian idea is an Ukrainophobic idea. The first Carpatho-Russian buddies were at the same time members of the Ukrainophile organizations and wrote their own essays, including in the Ukrainian language. So, the famous Isidor Sharanevich was in the organization "Prosvita." At that time, Prosvita itself had a different ideological turn: it did not come up with theses about Ukrainians as separate from the Russian people, didn’t stick out the peculiarities of the talk on which the people of Galicia were explained, considering the Ukrainian dialect of the literary Russian language. The radical nature of the activity "Prosvity" received with the arrival there of Ukrainians from politics, pushing aside Ukrainophiles from culture.

No need to introduce in the history of the people that which was not at its source. The origins of Carpathian Rus had the idea of ​​all-Russian unity, while preserving the cultural identity of each of the parts of the triune Russian people. Carpathorism is not a cultural treasurer, but a harmonious combination of regional originality in language and folklore with the all-Russian cultural tree.

Many today hope that in Carpathian Rus the shoots of this tree are cut down completely. In vain. The grandchildren and great-grandchildren of the prisoners of Talerhof and Terezin are still alive. Old files of Carpatho-Russian newspapers, decaying volumes of Carpatho-Russian books and memoirs of grandfathers and great-grandfathers are still kept in their home archives. These newspapers and books speak in a loud voice of truth, and it will be heard.

The Ukrainian nationalist ideology lost the intellectual battle to the Carpatho-Russian idea and was able to cope with the latter only with the help of a foreign boot and a gallows. From the very beginning, the controversies between the Carpathians and the Ukrainian-minded people last retorted, yielding the field of intellectual competition to supporters of all-Russian unity. Only by physically destroying the carriers of the Carpathian-Russian self-consciousness, did the then-Ukrainian Ukrainians get a numerical superiority in social, political, cultural and religious life.

In 2014, the 100 anniversary will be celebrated since the beginning of the First World War. Memorial events dedicated to this date will be held not only in Russia, but also in Europe. In Ukraine, they don’t like to remember the First World War, and for sure its 100-year anniversary will fly by unnoticed by the average Ukrainian. After all, if you recall the First World War, you will have to think of Talerhof and Terezin, the role of the then Ukrainian Ukrainians, who served on the premises of the Austrian gendarmes and gave their fellow villagers to the mercy, suspected of reading Russophile newspapers or loyalty to the Carpathian-Russian heritage of their fathers. From the Ukrainian national idea, the white clothes of political infallibility will fall and the naked truth that modern Russophobes fear so much will be exposed.
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  1. kp-95062
    kp-95062 25 December 2013 09: 42
    The photo shows the Kamenetz-Podilsky fortress, which is located on the RIGHT bank of the Dniester, i.e. in Podolia, which NEVER was part of Austria-Hungary, and where before the second section of Poland, everyone called themselves Poles (many still consider themselves to be such). So the author is clearly in trouble with geography.
    1. lukke
      lukke 25 December 2013 10: 46
      But essentially the article?
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Yun Klob
      Yun Klob 25 December 2013 17: 53
      The fortress is correctly called Turkish, although it is located in Kamyanets-Podilsky.
    4. Yun Klob
      Yun Klob 25 December 2013 17: 53
      The fortress is correctly called Turkish, although it is located in Kamyanets-Podilsky.
  2. borisjdin1957
    borisjdin1957 25 December 2013 10: 58
    from the Don.
    And it all started with Daniil Galitsky, who, after the Batu invasion, took the king’s crown from the hands of the Vatican!
  3. Astrey
    Astrey 25 December 2013 12: 32
    Whenever confronted with the mention of Carpathian Russia, I am surprised - how could we, Ukrainians, get so thoughtlessly into a meat grinder of a pan-European scale, simply not timely declaring our complaints.

    How many victims could have been avoided, and the establishment would have spoken much brighter and stronger at a more opportune moment. But, the dialogue with European leaders was not presented to the public, each participant came up with excuses, and as a result, there were no sensible intelligentsia in Western Ukraine, and young people, with all the education and goodwill, were just a lot of scandalous tricks. Sadness.
  4. Luga
    Luga 25 December 2013 13: 06
    The article, in my opinion, is so-so, but put the plus, despite some confusion in the presentation. Plus - for the general correct attitude and for the attempt to raise a forgotten, but interesting and important story.

    At the beginning of the century I visited the Transcarpathian region. We drove with a change in Lviv, in the evening on the forecourt, I almost got away from the local Natsik in white shirts for speaking Russian. Miraculously, they managed to break through to the station, where our guys pulled themselves up, they did not storm the station, but like wolves roamed around before our departure.

    The attitude towards us in Transcarpathia was absolutely friendly. We calmly walked the streets until late at night, spoke in Russian and answered us, everywhere, in shops and in cafes, we were greeted with a smile. The locals explained to us that they did not consider themselves to be Ukrainians and that they always had the entry “Rusyns” in their passports, and they had their own language and customs, different from Ukrainian. And their churches are Orthodox, not Uniate. But their language is really incomprehensible. At the very least, I understand Ukrainians, but Rusyns do not. Later, a literate person explained to me that they have a lot of Hungarian words in their language - almost a quarter, less than Romanian and Polish, and equally Russian and Ukrainian. I was surprised by the dismissive and even somewhat hostile attitude towards the "Westerners", i.e. to the Ukrainian Natsik. Of the Russian words in their characteristics, "fools" and "" prevailed. I left there "with a feeling of deep satisfaction."

    So Rusyns and Ukrainians are completely different people. I believe that earlier Rusyns lived on both sides of the Carpathians, just on the one hand, Poles and Austrians, intolerant of Orthodoxy and everything Russian in general, dominated in turn, and Transcarpathia was ruled by Hungarians, more tolerant of other people's customs. So a "Rusyn enclave" was formed there. What is going on there now - I don't know, I believe that "general Ukrainization" (ugh, what a disgusting thing!) Also got there in Yushchenko's times, but I am sure that the differences and originality of the Rusyns are still preserved.
    1. borisjdin1957
      borisjdin1957 25 December 2013 13: 55
      from the Don.
      In 80, we got a lot of girls from Transcarpathia married our lads, including my Eva! In August 91, during the coup, I traveled to Lviv. On this day, in front of my eyes, the crowd, throwing ropes, fell a monument to Lenin, who was standing in a wall niche! And, having arrived to my mother-in-law, my wife’s brothers started a bagpipe, de we feed Russia and live without it. And gas, gasoline?
      After 2 years of independence, when gasoline went up and there was practically none, their views began to change. Now, Ukraine will not live without Russia! Although they never had frenzied nationalism!
  5. BARIN
    BARIN 25 December 2013 13: 35
    Quote: kp-95062
    The photo shows the Kamenetz-Podilsky fortress, which is located on the RIGHT bank of the Dniester, i.e. in Podolia

    hear geographer :) Kamenetz-Podolsky is on the LEFT !! the bank of the Dniester !!! on the left :)
    The city is amazing and beautiful - I come from there. I invite you to come - you will not regret it, it is very beautiful here.
    This city displays all the best! The truth may have already "displayed" ...
    Kamenets - the city of five cultures! A city in which all these cultures coexist peacefully and harmoniously!
    - I'm sorry, but I don’t remember the fifth ...
    I lived in this city and NEVER !!! I never thought that Russian (of whom I am) and Ukrainian can be at war! The Poles are a little different, but NEVER thought they were enemies!
    We have two large districts of private houses "Russian Filvarki" and "Polish Filvarki" - aren't the names surprising? And there are just a lot of churches! and different cultures and trends.
    All get along well and never make national differences - only in terms of personal qualities.
    We all have to live like this, otherwise, having arrived in Kiev, I can only hear how hatred is incited between "Russians" and "Ukrainians" ...
    And I always considered myself not a zapadents but a polonyanyan :) I like it that way! It is not necessary to attribute Kamenetz to the Carpathians and Lviv - we are different and our culture, conversation and perceptions are different!
  6. officer29
    officer29 25 December 2013 14: 27
    Kamenets - the city of five cultures! A city in which all these cultures coexist peacefully and harmoniously!
    - I'm sorry, but I don’t remember the fifth ...

    I remind you - Jewish! I was born and raised in Donetsk region, in a small mining town. My first teacher was from Chernivtsi, came to our region after graduation from the institute, and so, in addition to Russian and Ukrainian, she also spoke FREELY in Romanian, German and Yiddish! I still don't know who she was by origin, and what's the difference, we all considered her RUSSIAN! And we did not notice any phobia in relation to ourselves. But the visitors from the Lviv region, from Chervonograd, some for work, some for practice (there are also mines there) kept themselves apart, spoke "mov", which we could hardly understand, although almost everyone knew the Ukrainian language. The impressions from them were the most difficult. My conclusion: already at that time their upbringing was different from ours and, accordingly, their worldview, i.e. "mentality". So what do we want from them today, when the wave of nationalism is at its peak ...
  7. The comment was deleted.
  8. datur
    datur 25 December 2013 15: 50
    yeah and they are the main maydauny! belay
    1. 3935333
      3935333 25 December 2013 15: 54
      the main maydaunas are the Galicians- Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk (Freedom Party), partially Khmelnitsky and Vinnitsa (Udar). Uzhhorod, Chernivtsi, Kamenetz-Podolsky and other cities of western Ukraine do not touch (just more deeply study the history of our western outskirts and realize that Lviv is a small fraction of western Ukraine, albeit the most nasty!
  9. 3935333
    3935333 25 December 2013 15: 51
    Article put a plus! The author is well done that he started this topic, but very superficially and with mistakes.
    Was in Transcarpathia and the Carpathians (Uzhgorod, Mukachevo, Mizhgirya), Predkarpatye (Chernivtsi) in 2012. The places (it was in winter) are beautiful. The locals, unlike the Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk ones, are really "different". Rusin - as the owner of the hotel told me means Rusi Son! But in some villages they don't understand Russian at all. It is not necessary to go to Switzerland and Austria, but to the Carpathians (and our Saratov Alps, etc. should not be forgotten), and then it is these regions of Western Ukraine that from century to century absorb the Russian spirit with mother's milk, and growing up fall into another world (cultural and spiritless), in which "European values" prevail, communicating with their historical relatives (Russians from the Russian Federation) will gradually integrate anew into the "Russian WORLD" already almost lost to them.
  10. xomaNN
    xomaNN 25 December 2013 16: 58
    Here on the topic of Subcarpathian Rus. This is in Uzhgorod, Transcarpathian region. Monument to Voloshin - the president of this strange formation of the late 30s., In the prewar years. The history of this person is a salad of nationalism and chauvinism, blood and collaborationism. And with the Nazis, he has a complicated and dark history of relations.
    It's just that "pocket historians" in Ukraine are blowing into the lacquered tune of "white and clean nenki" without excesses and dark spots. sad
  11. Keeper
    Keeper 25 December 2013 18: 03
    Transcarpathia is a tidbit! Beautiful mountain air, wonderful nature, bright aura.
    If you only knew how much "closed sanatoriums" cost in Transcarpathia ... They are waiting ... Either Russia ... Or someone else ...
    The people there are good, kind and not malicious!
    It is unlikely that they remember about the Austrians with ropes for the gallows ((most of the Transcarpathians earned money in the EU ...
    But a piece of this earth, stuck like a dagger into a soft spot in Europe - I would not want to lose !!!
  12. alone
    alone 25 December 2013 19: 56
    A beautiful landscape in the photo. It will be necessary in the summer during the holidays to anchor in Transcarpathia))
  13. nikcris
    nikcris 25 December 2013 20: 29
    Quote: 3935333
    (and our Saratov Alps

    Is it in Khvalynsk StoLi? You know that it’s a bit more expensive there than in the Swiss Alps for a similar one, except for dumplings, of course.
  14. bistrov.
    bistrov. 25 December 2013 21: 43
    Quote: 3935333
    the main maydaunas are the Galicians- Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk (Freedom Party), partially Khmelnitsky and Vinnitsa (Udar). Uzhhorod, Chernivtsi, Kamenetz-Podolsky and other cities of western Ukraine do not touch (just more deeply study the history of our western outskirts and realize that Lviv is a small fraction of western Ukraine, albeit the most nasty!

    Galicia is Lviv, Ternopol (partially), Ivano-Frankivsk (Stanislavskaya) region. Volyn-Volyn and Rivne regions. Khmelnitsky, Vinnitsa, Ternopol (partially) region-Podolia. The Nationalist Party (freedom), has a majority only in the councils of Lviv, Ternopil and Ivano-Frankivsk regions.
  15. Yurban35
    Yurban35 31 December 2013 14: 41
    Many lies. I have many relatives in Mukachevo. Everyone considers themselves Ukrainians. A handful of people call themselves Rusyns. The churches are mostly Greek Catholic. The language of communication is Ukrainian with the local dialect (which is inherent in many regions). 99% of the population (including Russians, of which there are quite a few left after serving in the SA) support European integration.
    1. Rusich51
      Rusich51 1 January 2014 13: 57
      Quote: Yurban35
      Many lies.

      Little Russians and Great Russians are one people. The rest Poles invested in the minds of the population.