Military Review

Brazilian tender FX2 ended in victory for the Swedish aircraft Gripen NG

On December 18, it was announced the completion of one of the longest tenders of recent times. According to the decision of the country's leadership, the Brazilian air force will receive Swedish-made Saab JAS 39 Gripen fighters over the next few years. The FX2 competition (previously called FX2), which won the Swedish company Saab, lasted 12 years. During this time, several leading global manufacturers aviation The technicians offered their latest developments to the Brazilian military, however, as a result, the contract was eventually awarded to the company, which initially few considered as a favorite.

The beginning of the tender for the supply of fighters for the Brazilian Air Force was announced in 2001 year. Then the tender was called FX. To replace the outdated French-made Dassault Mirage III aircraft, it was intended to acquire 36 fighters of the new model. The total cost of the equipment was estimated at no more than 5 billions of US dollars. The competition attracted the attention of several aircraft manufacturers and a list of its participants was formed. Depending on the decision of the commission, the Brazilian Air Force could be replenished with Dassault Rafale (France), Boeing F / A-18E / F Super Hornet (USA) or Saab JAS 39 Gripen (Sweden) aircraft.

Dassault Rafale

Boeing F / A-18E / F Super Hornet

The comparison of the proposed aircraft lasted until 2007, after which the tender was restarted with a new name. The FX2 competition differed from the previous one in several nuances of a financial and production nature, as well as in the number of aircraft required. In addition, after the restart, new participants joined the competition. In addition to the French, American and Swedish companies, the Russian organization Rosoboronexport with the Su-35 aircraft, the European consortium Eurofighter with the Typhoon fighter, and the American company Lockheed Martin with an upgraded version of the F-16 Fighting Falcon began to apply for the contract.


Typhoon Eurofighter

F-16 Fighting Falcon

According to the terms of the FX2 competition, the Brazilian Air Force, in total, must receive 36 aircraft of the chosen model, and in the future it is possible to start manufacturing equipment at Brazilian enterprises under license. According to some reports, Brazil wants to get help in deploying the production of new equipment and its components in their enterprises. It is supposed to master the production of engines and various electronic equipment.

In 2008, the Brazilian Air Force Competition Commission announced the list of tender finalists. A remarkable feature of the “short list” was the fact that all applicants for victory applied for another FX contest. By this time, however, the Swedish company Saab had time to offer the Brazilian military an updated version of its fighter Gripen NG. As for the rest of the bidders FX2, they dropped out of the competition for various reasons. For example, the Russian Su-35 project was at the time being refined, the Eurofighter consortium could not offer a plan for the development of its aircraft, and the American company Lockheed Martin refused to transfer all the required technologies to Brazil.

As expected, the winner would be announced at the end of 2008 or in 2009, but in 2009, the tender was broken. By this time, the military chose the Swedish fighter Gripen NG, motivating his decision at a lower price with comparable fighting qualities. However, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, who was then president of Brazil, held a different opinion. After several meetings with French President N. Sarkozy, he announced future purchases of Dassault Rafale fighter jets. Such plans of the president did not suit the military, and because of the disputes that began, the results of the competition were again postponed.

Brazilian tender FX2 ended in victory for the Swedish aircraft Gripen NG
JAS 39 Gripen

At the beginning of 2011, Brazil’s new president, Dilma Roussef, suspended FX2’s tender and requested review of bidding by participants. In the future, the timing of those or other stages of the tender was repeatedly shifted. After nearly three years of negotiations, analysis of the documentation and testing of the equipment, the final decision was announced: the Saab JAS 39 Gripen NG fighter produced in Sweden most fully meets the requirements. According to Jane's, the first batch of 36 aircraft will cost Brazil approximately $ 4,5 billion.

The result of such a long tender caused a corresponding reaction from the losing companies. Perhaps the most interesting is the reaction of the French company Dassault. In her official press release, the Brazilian approach to choosing the winners was criticized. According to representatives of the French company, this method of choosing the technique ignores its economic efficiency and technical level. In other words, in a press release, it is veiled that Gripen NG is cheaper than a French competitor, but it is unlikely to be able to compete with it in other characteristics.

Saab Lennart Sindal, vice president of Saab, responded to criticism from the French side. In an interview for the Brazilian publication Veja, he denied all the claims of the former competitors in the competition. According to Sindal, Gripen NG is able to carry more weapons, is equipped with electronic equipment with higher performance, and will also cost the Brazilian budget a smaller amount. The only real advantage of the French fighter Dassault Rafale is the ability to carry and use nuclear weapons. Since Brazil does not have such weaponsThis feature of the French aircraft cannot be considered a factor that can influence the decision of the commission.

The results of the FX2 tender did not come as a surprise to Swedish aircraft manufacturers. The Brazilian military chose the Gripen NG back in the 2009 year, and since then no events have occurred that could affect their decision. Seeing how the Brazilian Air Force reacted to the president’s statements about the purchase of French aircraft, the Swedish company Saab obviously understood what to do next. Back in 2011, Saab and the Brazilian Air Force opened an aviation center, whose responsibilities include conducting various studies and creating new projects. In addition, several Swedish-Brazilian joint ventures have been established to date. In the future, they will be engaged in the release of various units for aircraft Gripen NG.

Basic contract negotiations will begin only next year. Nevertheless, already now in the mass media there appeared information about the possibility of including certain clauses in the agreement. For example, the Brazilian Air Force and Saab can postpone payment for a contract for the future. In this case, the first money for the ordered fighters will be transferred only a few months after the transfer of the last of them. The payment period of the entire amount is still estimated at 15 In addition, Saab may invest in the Brazilian aircraft industry about 175% of the value of a future contract. Swedish aircraft manufacturers will help their Brazilian colleagues to master new technologies, and also receive a share in new enterprises. Thus, such a contract can be the first step in a long-term, long-term cooperation that will last several decades.

The first of the ordered 36 fighters JAS 39 Gripen NG will be delivered to Brazil only in a few years. Because of this, according to available data, negotiations between the Brazilian and Swedish Air Forces may begin in the near future. Their goal should be to lease a number of Gripen fighters from the Swedish armed forces. After the deliveries of the first vehicles under the contract, the rented fighters will return home. The details of such an agreement are still unknown, since at the moment everything is limited to only a few statements by high-ranking officials of the two parties.

There is every reason to believe that the cooperation of the Brazilian Air Force and Saab will not cease after the delivery of a batch of 36 fighters. It has been repeatedly claimed that in total the Brazilian Air Force intends to get 120 aircraft, most of which must be built at local facilities. Now Brazilian and Swedish aircraft manufacturers are planning to build an enterprise in the city of Saint-Bernardo, which will take an active part in the construction and maintenance of the Gripen NG fighter jets.

All available information about the results of the FX2 tender, as well as the prerequisites for making such a decision, clearly demonstrates the intentions of the parties. As you can see, the company Saab, unlike its competitors, not only offered the least expensive fighter, but also did not forget about the profitable “bonuses”. In fact, in the foreseeable future, Swedish aircraft manufacturers will invest more money in the Brazilian industry and defense than they receive themselves for the supply of 36 fighters. Nevertheless, the share in joint ventures and contracts for the construction of new aircraft, which may be signed in the future, will make it possible to fully recoup the investment and, as they say, get a plus.

It must be admitted that such plans for the next 10-15 years can be associated with great risks. However, the company Saab, apparently, took into account all the pros and cons and concluded that such cooperation with the Brazilian aircraft industry is worth the investment of effort and money. This is what explains all the steps taken by the Swedish side since 2011. Other companies that participated in the FX / FX2 tenders were not ready to make such offers, as well as the benefits and risks associated with them. As far as the right company Saab, offering the original method of payment for the ordered technology and the creation of several joint ventures, time will tell. The last of the 36 fighters JAS 39 Gripen NG will be delivered to the customer in the 2023 year and only after that will payments begin.

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  1. mirag2
    mirag2 24 December 2013 09: 01
    Yes, I think that the first violin was played by price.
    For Brazil’s real combat capabilities are needed, like New Guinea, because Brazil does not pretend to be a leader in the region — all that it has achieved lately owes only to its economy.
    And to lead in the region means to butt with the USA, and for what things like what Chavez muddied and continues Maduro-Brazil is not capable of.
    1. ShturmKGB
      ShturmKGB 24 December 2013 15: 55
      Swing too long ...
  2. Nayhas
    Nayhas 24 December 2013 09: 07
    The Swedes won fairly. All the insinuations about Super Hornet are nothing more than empty chatter, he had no chance, Grippen was the leader from the very beginning and if the French hadn’t put the canes in the wheels, the Brazilians would have flown on Grippen ... Once again I congratulate the Swedes, they created the perfect fighter which more than once will spoil the mood of both the French and Europeans with the Americans ...
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Ihrek
      Ihrek 24 December 2013 09: 16
      Why is Grippen better than our SU-35?
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 24 December 2013 09: 33
        Brazilians thought that 250 Gripen is better than 10 Dry. it’s hard to sell what we ourselves don’t have. more than 120 pieces
      2. Su-9
        Su-9 24 December 2013 09: 34
        Starting price, flight hour price and service system.
        1 in 1 in the air soo better.
      3. Basileus
        Basileus 24 December 2013 10: 55
        This is a different class. Need to compare with the MiG.
      4. Nayhas
        Nayhas 24 December 2013 11: 39
        Quote: Jamal
        Why is Grippen better than our SU-35?

        It is easier than more than twice in connection with which it can take the freeways, an engine with a very high resource, the ability to service in the field. Data transmission system CDL 39, radar with AFAR Selex Gallileo Vixen 1000E / Raven ES-05, the widest range of ammunition, hanging sighting containers. In addition, Brazil operates Embraer R-99 AWACS aircraft with the Swedish AFAR from Saab Microwave Systems, i.e. purchased aircraft do not need to integrate with them.
        1. EvilLion
          EvilLion 24 December 2013 15: 26
          Landing on the motorways in Russia is actually even practiced, there is nothing of the sort, they put the Su-27 without any problems.
          For the rest, it is simply pointless to compare cars with empty weight in 7.1 t and 18 + t, no AFAR can block the power of a huge radar, or 11 tons of kerosene with a monstrous flight range without any hanging tanks, but with 12 rockets.
          1. bif
            bif 24 December 2013 17: 14
            I agree. Empty weight 6,6t, and the combat radius at low altitude 300km, this aircraft is for the Vatican or Monaco Air Force, but not for Brazil with its vast territories and vast borders, a short-sighted choice ... then you will regret it yourself.
          2. Nayhas
            Nayhas 25 December 2013 07: 02
            Quote: EvilLion
            Landing on the motorways in Russia is actually even practiced, there is nothing of the sort, they put the Su-27 without any problems.

            Surround yourself. We do not have freeways ... And with the landing of the Su-27 on the road, you obviously went too far. Exercises were carried out on Grippen, they put him on the freeway, removed the engine, carried out maintenance, put him back and he flew away.
            Quote: EvilLion
            Otherwise, comparing cars with an empty weight of 7.1 tons and 18+ tons is simply pointless, no AFAR will block the power of a huge radar

            A rather controversial statement. When working on air targets, it is better to rely on guidance from the side of the AWACS (or ground-based radar) receiving from him a picture of the air situation (namely, the picture with the CC indicated on it) without giving out its location by the work of the radar. In this regard, Grippen has a huge advantage, the CDL 39 data transfer system allows you to receive data from external sources within a radius of 500 km.
        2. bif
          bif 24 December 2013 17: 17
          Su-24 take the freeway ... weight has nothing to do with it, design features are more important.
      5. Alibekulu
        Alibekulu 24 December 2013 19: 43
        Quote: Jamal
        Why is Grippen better than our SU-35?
        Brazil is in the situation, and at the moment it is a regional power. A country that is rapidly developing and growing, there is the question of developing its own aircraft industry. Moreover, in civil aviation, everything is at the world level, remember "Embraer". It would be logical to have its own production of combat aircraft. It is clear that no one except the Swedes will transfer technology. Saab actually has no choice, so, by the way, the Turks turned to them in the development of their national combat aviation complex. Having your own aircraft production is too expensive for a small country like Sweden, which is a heavy burden on the country's budget. Remember the article on the topvar about the purchase of Swedish fighters by Switzerland - the Swedes were frankly happy about this, because it at least partially covered the costs of Sweden in maintaining its aircraft industry.
        Therefore, the "flu" is the best airplane for countries striving for self-development.
        Unfortunately, Kazakhstan, in view of allied relations with the Russian Federation, cannot yet afford it recourse
        1. Zymran
          Zymran 24 December 2013 22: 29
          Quote: Alibekulu
          Unfortunately, Kazakhstan, in view of allied relations with the Russian Federation, cannot yet afford it recourse

          Yeah why not? The thing is different. Will we pull our own production of such sophisticated equipment as combat fighters? Personally, I doubt it, although, of course, I would like it with all my heart.
          1. Alibekulu
            Alibekulu 25 December 2013 09: 25
            Quote: Zymran
            Will we pull our own production of such sophisticated equipment as combat fighters?
            The Kazakhs, it seems to me, have 2 extremes: on the one hand, an inappropriate ambition "Kazakh without show-off is a non-pontovy Kazakh", and on the other, to belittle oneself once again, for no particular reason.
            Quote: Zymran
            Personally, I doubt
            You have to start somewhere. Yes there will be problems, jambs, cuts, etc. But this must be treated as an inevitable evil. But, in any case, experience will be gained, even if it is negative. Once upon a time, Russia was bast and Yakovlev began with bed workshops.
            Quote: Zymran
            Yeah why not?
            Our leadership on such a "demarche" I think definitely not dare. The Kremlin, as if kondrashka will grab it, is breaking their monopoly in the field of aircraft construction by former shepherds .. belay
            Therefore, Moscow will make very large concessions so that the RK purchases Russian weapons. It is clear that Ak-Orda will act pragmatically and, in return for purchases, let Mig-Z5 be counted. 80 pieces and will squeeze out very large preferences from the Kremlin.
            Quote: Zymran
            Of course, I would like it with all my heart
            Similarly drinks I personally for any (reasonable) production in the territory of K-na.
  3. maratenok
    maratenok 24 December 2013 09: 09
    capitalism)) rules
  4. Cruorvult
    Cruorvult 24 December 2013 09: 31
    Su 35 inch is not better, but the trouble is that 35 is heavy and expensive. That would not hurt a cheap and small moment.
  5. Semurg
    Semurg 24 December 2013 09: 35
    competently the Brazilians held a tender, along with a good plane, they will receive investments and the production of which was not previously. Ours soon will have the same change of old technology and the Brazilian-Swedish experience must be kept in mind.
  6. cherkas.oe
    cherkas.oe 24 December 2013 11: 17
    Well done Swedes Made, though not outstanding, but a very good multi-purpose, light aircraft. And now they will make excellent money on it.
  7. hitech
    hitech 24 December 2013 12: 03
    Quote: Jamal
    Why is Grippen better than our SU-35?
    As already said they have different "weight" categories, Grippen is light, and Su is a heavy fighter. Brazil is inferior in area to Russia, they do not want to stay in the air for a long time, respectively, the range of the aircraft may be less. And the Swedes are great, yes, they have created a good light fighter.
    1. EvilLion
      EvilLion 25 December 2013 01: 38
      Do you know the area of ​​Brazil?
    2. SkiF_RnD
      SkiF_RnD 27 December 2013 19: 32
      Keeping in mind the size of Brazil, I would never have thought that they did not need a heavy fighter. Considering also the surrounding territories, where help to the allies may be needed, and the military presence in general (and the whole of South America can be considered such territories), the excellent performance characteristics of "Sushki" in terms of air combat and other "features", it can be argued that the choice was dictated economic considerations.
      Apparently, they are not going to fight, but to the average man all is one, that Rafal, that Grippen, that Typhoon. We bought what was cheaper (and not just cheaper, but divorced the Swedes according to the full program, who have nowhere to go with their plane. And deferred payment, and the price is lower, and transfer the technology, and we won’t buy the components from you, build factories in Brazil, divide profit fellow )
      It is obvious that Grippen took quality and functionality. Is not it so?
      In other respects, as in Switzerland (there the course of the tender was similar - the "Swede" lost to Typhoon and Rafal in all respects, and was bought laughing )
  8. Jurkovs
    Jurkovs 24 December 2013 13: 20
    Miser pays twice. Recently, it has been observed that supposedly neutral Sweden is almost the first to support all sorts of American sanctions against anyone. Now Brazil needs to be very careful with the United States, otherwise they will receive humanitarian bombings in response, and the Swedish fighters will not take off for some reason.
  9. Cruorvult
    Cruorvult 24 December 2013 13: 24
    Quote: hitech
    As already said they have different "weight" categories, Grippen is light, and Su is a heavy fighter. Brazil is inferior in area to Russia, they do not want to stay in the air for a long time, respectively, the range of the aircraft may be less. And the Swedes are great, yes, they have created a good light fighter.

    Point, ut the question is not what is better, but what is needed. With a developed missile defense and a small state that does not want to fight on foreign territory, they simply do not need heavy fighters, but the light fighter-bomber is the thing. Then a moment could participate if they had a ready-made modern solution.
  10. misham
    misham 24 December 2013 14: 11
    Drying is too heavy. And the mythical new MIG-POGHOSYAN is not ready (and is unlikely to be). And the Swedes fellows and Brazilians (and an inexpensive aircraft and their Embraer cope with licensed production). One of the bad engines on the plane is American. By the way, whose aircraft is avionics? and whose weapons?
  11. air wolf
    air wolf 24 December 2013 15: 35
    When will the MiG-35 appear?
  12. mango68
    mango68 24 December 2013 15: 40
    Quote: air wolf
    When will the MiG-35 appear?

    Well, let's say when Poghosyan and Co (and not only these) will be on the bunk
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Goodwin32
      Goodwin32 24 December 2013 20: 06
      And when will it be?
  13. xomaNN
    xomaNN 24 December 2013 15: 56
    For me, the main strangeness and illogicality is how in such an EXPENSIVE country like Sweden they managed to create an INEXPENSIVE aircraft competitive with eminent rivals in the tender wink Our defense industry needs to learn from this experience!
    1. Kir
      Kir 24 December 2013 17: 47
      Are you sure that it is so inexpensive? It’s just that there are often cases when the cost of equipment seems to be acceptable, but when you start to summarize everything and everything, it may turn out that it’s not so cheaper.
    2. kurare77
      kurare77 24 December 2013 18: 37
      Our defense industry needs to learn from this experience!

      Less need to cut. bully And so, I’m sure that this is possible. But, in Russia at the moment there is nothing similar and competitive. The MiG 35 is not a plane yet, and whether it will become such at all is not yet known. Although, it was he who had to be offered then, and not Su 35.

      In fact, a very risky deal in my opinion. Saab would never have accepted such a decision. This is a country's investment in a very fast and dynamically developing other country. Many talk about the Asian Dragon, and here is the South American Anaconda, which, it seems to me, is not much weaker. To win a portion of this cake for yourself, and when Brazil itself requires it - this can be a gift of fate. But! Like all developing countries, Brazil is rather unstable politically. This also shows the president’s decision to buy Rafal in defiance of the military. There really was a little scandal because of this. wink
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. Odysseus
      Odysseus 24 December 2013 23: 55
      Quote: xomaNN
      how in such an EXPENSIVE country like Sweden they managed to create an inexpensive airplane competitive with eminent rivals in the tender

      It’s not clear where the illusion came from that it’s not expensive. Just look at the amount of the contract and all questions will disappear by themselves ...
      It is not expensive only when compared with Rafal or Typhoon of the latest modification or with 5-generation aircraft.
  14. Takashi
    Takashi 24 December 2013 17: 34
    It seems to me that the author should have brought the performance characteristics of all the aircraft participating in the tender.
    in the table. In order not to climb sites and have an idea of ​​what the Brazilians wandered for so long
  15. Roman 1977
    Roman 1977 24 December 2013 20: 33
    The favorite was Boeing with its F-18, but Comrade Snowden crap all the raspberries with them, then everyone thought that there would be a dasso with his Rafal, who until recently managed to seduce politicians, but the Air Force resisted and chose Gripen, I also plan a naval version. Why "Grippen" won, the Swedes simply offered a lower price and the main organization of subsequent production in Brazil itself. That's all. And the French were also ruined by the fact that 2/3 of the Raphales in the Armée de l'air are in service at the same time and cannot fly, as well as its high cost, and even at low production rates.
    The same Swiss Air Force already in service with the F-18, also after long comparisons, chose the "Grippen".
    Yes, it can be inferior in terms of performance characteristics to larger competitors, but its electronics (avionics, radar) and weapons system are quite at a level that is somewhat superior to our MiG-35.
    For example, it can carry KEPD-150 / 350 TAURUS cruise missiles or Meteor airborne missiles.
    Plus, it has an advanced information exchange system (which allows you to get a tactical advantage in aerial combat) and for example there is a low-altitude flight mode with an envelope around the terrain, which is important for working against enemy air defense. It will have a better radar than the MiG-35, the hanging container is not even discussed.
    For your money - a decent choice. Aircraft level and dimension of the famous F-5E Tiger II. It was just in service with the countries of the 3 world as a mass fighter.

    Grippen trials in Brazil
  16. mcvdvlad
    mcvdvlad 24 December 2013 22: 26
    and it’s wonderful that ours lost, you read the conditions, the transfer of engine production technologies is just worth it ... And then they (technologies) will go to China, and then we’ll be clutching our heads and other places.
    1. Basileus
      Basileus 25 December 2013 08: 06
      Our technology without Brazilian link to China is excellently fused.
    2. Kir
      Kir 25 December 2013 16: 31
      I'm not sure about China, but the fact that Brazil is under the tutelage of "our friends" is for sure, look at least how much in the adult content of Brazil, and where are the headquarters and what e-mail addresses of the head divisions of these filmmakers, then remember the GMO products, and where are some Reich left, obviously with the knowledge of the United States, and so on.