Military Review

Rzeczpospolita and "Drang nah Osten"

43
To the 75 anniversary of the preparation of the Polish-German campaign in Ukraine


Rzeczpospolita and "Drang nah Osten"

The unprecedented arrogance and pressure of the Western powers on Ukraine to draw it into the European Union has a long-standing history. The very geographical position contributed to the fact that from time immemorial, various tribes invaded here, seeking to plunder these lands and enslave their population.

Often these efforts were accompanied by attempts to find support among the locals. Even before the First World War, under the auspices of Germany and Austria-Hungary, the Union for the Liberation of Ukraine was created from Ukrainians. Soyuz also appealed to the Ottoman Empire for help declaring the struggle for an independent Ukraine as the goal of the hostilities of the Turkish government. The Polish Legion, created by Germany and Austria-Hungary, led by Social Democrat J. Piłsudski, who later headed the new Polish state, also supported the central powers in subversive activities in Ukraine.

The signing of the 9 in February (27 in January) of the 1918 peace treaty in Brest by representatives of the Central Powers with the delegates of the Ukrainian Rada, which had been overthrown in Kiev by the Ukrainian Ukrainian troops, opened the way for the intervention of Germany and Austria-Hungary, which lasted until the end of 1918.

But the Entente powers had their own views on Ukraine. In accordance with the secret convention concluded by 23 of December 1917, French Prime Minister Jean Clemenceau with a representative of the British General Staff, Ukraine and the Crimea entered the zone of military-political actions of France. Immediately after the surrender of Germany in November 1918, the troops of Great Britain, France, Romania, Greece, Serbia began the occupation of Ukraine.

In the spring of 1920, Polish troops invaded the Ukrainian lands. The interventionists were accompanied by the army of S. Petlura.

In the future, Poland continued to make efforts to take revenge for the loss of Ukraine in the XVII-XVIII centuries and "restore" its borders from sea to sea.
This showed a lack of political realism and a penchant for adventurism, always characteristic of the ruling circles of Poland.

Fragile peace on the Polish-Soviet border

The end of the Polish-Soviet war on the basis of the Peace of Riga signed in 1921 did not lead to the establishment of good neighborly relations between the two countries. From Poland constantly carried out military attacks on Soviet lands. The Polish government more than once carried out foreign policy measures hostile to the USSR. One of them was the signing of the 17 March 1922 of the Warsaw Pact (33 year before the agreement of the same name that united the socialist countries of Europe). The 7-I article of the treaty obliged its participants (Poland, Finland, Latvia and Estonia) to act as a united front in the event of an attack on one of them from another state. In a secret memorandum of 22 on April 1922, it was stated that "the 7 article meant Russia". Latvian Foreign Minister Meyerowitz emphasized that this memorandum must remain secret, "so that the Russians have no reason to believe that the Warsaw Pact is directed against them." The fact that the treaty was not defensive, but offensive in nature was testified to by the words of the French envoy in Estonia, Gilberte, after the signing of the Warsaw Pact: "Now is the time for the guns to start talking ... Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Finland are strong enough to overthrow Bolshevik power in Russia. "

Proposals for mutual disarmament and the signing of a non-aggression treaty, which the Soviet Government introduced, were rejected by Poland from the very beginning. At the same time, the Polish government intensified tensions with our country. Poland’s provocative actions caused concern in a number of Baltic states. October 25 The newspaper Latvijas Sargs 1925 wrote: "To contact Poland is to go along with it to a future war."

In 1926, Poland made efforts to strengthen the military-political bloc with the Baltic countries, but they were supported only by Estonia. Tallinn and Warsaw exchanged visits of government delegations during which plans for an attack on the USSR were discussed.

The unwillingness of Latvia and Lithuania to support Poland was promoted by statements by Polish leaders about territorial claims against these states.
(In Warsaw, they did not consider it necessary to limit themselves to the seizure of Vilna and the Vilna region.) At the same time, the Western powers put pressure on these two Baltic countries to force them to join military cooperation with Poland. Latvian envoy to France Schumann reported 19 on November 1930 from Paris to Riga: "France would very much welcome the conclusion of a strong military bloc between Poland and the Baltic states."

In turn, the USSR made efforts to thwart the creation of such a bloc. Despite long delays, the USSR achieved in 1932 the signing of non-aggression treaties with the Baltic states and Poland.

In alliance with Hitler

The coming to power in Germany of Hitler, who had long proclaimed expansion to the East as the central foreign policy task, first alarmed Warsaw. Therefore, in July 1933, Poland signed a convention on the definition of aggression with the Soviet Union. 13 December 1933 in Warsaw supported the proposal of the USSR to publish a joint Polish-Soviet declaration, which would indicate that both countries are determined to protect the peace and inviolability of the Baltic states. However, Poland soon considered the publication of the Soviet-Polish declaration unnecessary.

The signing of 26 in January 1934 of the Polish-German Treaty of Friendship and Non-Aggression opened a new stage in Warsaw’s foreign policy. During his meetings with the Polish ambassador in Berlin, former Kaiser’s officer Józef Lipski, Adolf Hitler assured that the resolution of questions about the Polish-German border should be postponed for the future. According to the ambassador, Hitler said to him: "Poland is the last barrier of civilization in the East." In response, Lipsky said that Poland "often played the role of a shield for European culture", citing as an example the battle of Warsaw in 1920.

And soon there was talk of a joint expansion of the two countries to the east of Poland.

Hitler's Minister of Economy J. Schacht said to Tanneri, the governor of the national bank of France: "Sooner or later, Germany and Poland will divide Ukraine together, while we will be satisfied with the capture of the Baltic states."

These plans were frankly stated by Hermann Goering during his hunt in Belovezhskaya Pushcha in January-February 1935. According to the Deputy Foreign Minister of Poland Count Shembek, Goering "offered us an anti-Russian alliance and a joint campaign against Moscow. At the same time, he expressed the opinion that Ukraine would become a zone of influence of Poland, and the north-west of Russia - a zone of Germany. "

But soon the question of the participation of Poland in aggression against Czechoslovakia became more relevant. In the course of the talks in February 1938, Polish Foreign Minister J. Beck in Berlin and G. Goering in Warsaw reached agreement on joint actions of the two countries on the division of Czechoslovakia.

Then Polish diplomats in Czechoslovakia received instructions from Warsaw to establish cooperation with the Sudeten Germans and at the same time actively come out in defense of the rights of the Polish minority. In March, 1938 of Warsaw demanded that anti-Polish propaganda be stopped there in Czechoslovakia. With the help of Polish agents, the Union of Poles was created in the Czechoslovak city of Tesine. In the city and the surrounding area, an area of ​​862 square. km., lived 80 thousands of Poles and 120 thousands of Czechs and Slovaks. Although the Polish population was a minority in the Cieszyn region, members of the Union demanded that they be granted the same political rights to national autonomy, which the Germans had already received in the Sudetenland. 4 May the Czechoslovak government agreed to meet these demands.

Meanwhile, the threat of a German attack on Czechoslovakia increased. 12 May The Soviet government declared its readiness to fulfill its obligations under the Soviet-Czechoslovak Treaty of 1935 and come to the aid of Czechoslovakia on the condition that Poland and Romania let Soviet troops pass through their lands. Warsaw and Bucharest immediately responded with a sharp refusal

Soon it became known about the intention of Poland to seize Teshin and the territory adjacent to it in case Germany would divide Czechoslovakia. In Poland, anti-Czech propaganda unfolded. At the same time, Warsaw informed Berlin that it would not let the Soviet troops into Czechoslovakia and demanded "the creation of a common Polish-Hungarian border," which would have been possible only if the Czechoslovak Republic was divided. On September 15, the Polish government officially demanded a plebescite in Tesin, but six days later it announced that Czechoslovakia should immediately transfer Teshin to Poland.

The Soviet Union tried to stop the Polish aggression. 23 September the Soviet government warned the Polish ambassador that the invasion of Polish troops in Czechoslovakia would force the USSR to denounce the Polish-Soviet non-aggression treaty. But Poland rejected the warnings of Moscow. A "Volunteer Corps for the Liberation of Teshin" began to take shape there.

The government of Czechoslovakia stated that it was ready to resolve the "Teshino question" within two months. But in its note of September 30, the Polish government demanded to accept his demand before October 1 noon. It was said that Polish troops will enter the October XIUMX Tesin.

Germany supported Poland. Goering personally told the Polish ambassador in Berlin that "in the event of a complication with Russia, Poland can count on the most effective assistance from Germany."
Tesin was captured by Polish troops. And on November 29 Poland demanded to transfer part of Carpathian Rus to it (about 200 sq. Km.)

Preparation of the Polish-German campaign

A month before the Munich deal, Goering returned to plans for a joint Polish-German campaign against Ukraine. The Polish ambassador in Berlin reported to Warsaw that, according to Goering, “after solving the Czech problem, the Russian problem will become topical. He returned to his thought that in the event of a Soviet-Polish conflict Germany could not remain neutral without providing assistance to Poland .. Poland, in his opinion, may have well-known interests directly in Russia, for example, in Ukraine. "

Polish ruling circles reacted positively to these proposals. In September, Soviet intelligence received a recording of a conversation between the Counselor of the German Embassy in Warsaw, R. von Shelia, and the Vice-Director of the Political Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Poland Kobylyansky. Discussing the question of the consequences of the upcoming partition of Czechoslovakia, Kobylyansky said: "The minister cannot speak as openly as I can. The question of Carpathian Russia is crucial for us ... If Karpatskaya Rus goes to Hungary, then Poland will later agree to speak at Germany’s side in the march to Soviet Ukraine. "

On October 24, during the meeting of the Reich Minister of Foreign Affairs of Germany I. von Ribbentrop with the Ambassador of Poland J. Lipsky, the question of a common policy of the two countries towards the USSR was discussed. Ribbentrop proposed Poland to join the Anti-Comintern Pact as a prerequisite for joint actions against the USSR.

Knowing the intentions of Germany and Poland to undertake a campaign against Ukraine, Great Britain sought to support him. 24 November 1938 British Prime Minister N. Chamberlain asked French leaders whether the Franco-Soviet agreement would be activated, "if Russia turns to France on the grounds that the separatist movement in Ukraine was provoked by Germany." Chamberlain advised the French to denounce the treaty of mutual assistance with the Soviet Union 1935, since "the future is still not clear."

But for nothing, Chamberlain was worried about the fact that France would remain faithful to its foreign policy obligations. According to the testimony of Hitler’s (and then historian) translator Paul Schmidt during Ribbentrop’s talks with French Foreign Minister J. Bonn in December 1938 in response to a request from Hitler’s Reich Minister Bonn, he said that France’s “disinterestedness in the fate of the East”. These days, the French newspaper Epoque wrote: “Hinting at the preparation of the march to Ukraine, Ribbentrop wanted to get at least tacit consent from France. And Mr. Georges Bonnet gave this consent. Both interlocutors understood each other perfectly and agreed perfectly.”

The winter of 1938 - 1939 of the year was marked by the preparation of a Polish-German attack on the USSR in order to seize Ukraine.
At the same time, the Carpathian Rus (or Transcarpathian Ukraine), separated from Czechoslovakia, was chosen as a springboard for the attack. The French ambassador in Berlin, R. Coulondre, wrote in December 1938 of the year: “As for Ukraine, all the National Socialists have been talking about it for the past ten days ... It seems that the ways and means have not yet been determined, but the goal seems to be , it is precisely established - to create the Great Ukraine, which will become the granary of Germany. To achieve this goal, it will be necessary to subjugate Romania, convince Poland, to seize land from the USSR. German dynamism does not stop before any of these difficulties, and in military circles they are talking about going on Caucasus and Baku. "

The issue of organizing the German-Polish campaign in Ukraine was discussed in January by 1939 at Hitler’s talks with Polish Foreign Minister Beck (see photo). Hitler demanded that for his

seizures in Ukraine after the victorious campaign Poland made some concessions to Germany. Hitler demanded the consent of Poland to the transfer to the Third Reich of the "free city of Danzig" populated by the Germans, which was under the jurisdiction of the League of Nations. In addition, Hitler raised the question of creating an extra-territorial road between Pomerania and East Prussia through the “Danzig Corridor”.

Thus, the territory of Poland would have grown "from sea to sea", but the German highway would pass through the Polish route to the Baltic Sea.

However, the Polish leaders did not intend to sacrifice something for future takeovers in Ukraine. Beck first declared that he should consider this proposal, and then rejected it.

The Polish minister did not know that, without waiting for his consent, Hitler had already 24 on November 1938. He had signed a secret order to prepare for the "counter-revolutionary seizure of Danzig" by the armed forces of Germany. True, the order emphasized that the seizure should be carried out in a "politically favorable situation, and not as a result of the war against Poland."

The gap between accomplices planned campaign

Poland’s refusal to agree to the seizure of Danzig and the creation of an extraterritorial road caused irritation in Berlin. 21 March 1939 Mr. Ribbentrop summoned the Polish Ambassador Lipsky. The Reich Minister blamed the ambassador for "anti-German" student demonstrations in Poland and "unfriendly" speeches against the Reich in the Polish press. Ribbentrop stated that Hitler was displeased that Poland had not given a positive response to his proposal. According to the ambassador, Ribbentrop said: "The Führer has always sought to settle relations and mutual understanding with Poland. And now he continues to desire it. However, he is more and more surprised by the position of Poland." According to Lipsky, Ribbentrop stressed that cooperation between Germany and Poland "must have a certain anti-Soviet orientation." The Reich Minister expressed his desire for Beck to come to negotiations with Hitler.

Although there had been no cooling in relations between Poland and Ukraine either in Berlin or in Warsaw, before Ribbentrop and Lipsky met in Moscow, it became clear that the Polish-German campaign against Ukraine would not take place. Soviet leaders noted that the Western powers did not hide their disappointment with this circumstance. On this occasion, in the report of the Central Committee at the XVIII Congress of the CPSU (b) I.V. Stalin said: “The noise raised by the Anglo-French and North American press about Soviet Ukraine is typical. The figures of this press hoarsely shouted that the Germans were going to Soviet Ukraine, that they now have in their hands the so-called Carpathian Ukraine numbering around 700 thousands of people, that the Germans will no longer be able to join Soviet Ukraine, which has more than 30 millions, to the so-called Carpathian Ukraine, this spring. It seems that this suspicious noise was intended to raise the fury of the Soviet Union against Ge to poison the atmosphere and provoke a conflict with Germany for no apparent reason ... It is even more characteristic that some politicians and press figures in Europe and the United States, having lost patience in anticipation of a “campaign against Soviet Ukraine,” themselves begin to expose the real motive of the policy of non-intervention. They directly say and write in black and white that the Germans cruelly “disappointed” them, because instead of moving further east, against the Soviet Union, they, you see, turned west and demanded colonies. You would think that the Germans were given areas of Czechoslovakia as a price for the obligation to start a war against the Soviet Union, and the Germans now refuse to pay a bill of exchange, sending them somewhere far away. "

In Moscow, they knew that the campaign to Ukraine together with Germany was going to Poland. This was evidenced by a speech at the same 13 congress in March 1939 of the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Ukraine N.S. Khrushchev.

He said from the rostrum of the congress: "From history we know of trips to Ukraine ... Polish moguls. But history shows what a shameful collapse these adventures ended in." The fact that in the past these campaigns were successful, that for several centuries Ukraine was under the rule of Lithuania and other states, that almost all Ukrainian lands were part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth for a century, the speaker apparently did not suspect.

However, this historical excursion, which testified to Khrushchev's weak knowledge of the past of Ukraine, he needed only to build a bridge to modernity. Khrushchev declared: “Fascist barbarians in a dream see the riches of the Ukrainian people and do not stop dreaming about going to Ukraine. In preparing their bloody intrigues, they sent and send us their scouts, they recruit traitors, they try to penetrate our factories, collective farms and state farms.” Khrushchev blamed these foreign agents for many troubles, including attempts to undermine Ukraine’s agriculture. He stated that "Polish intelligence and bourgeois nationalists did everything to destroy livestock and, first and foremost, destroy horse livestock." This emotional performance ended with a promise to give "in the face to the one who puts his pork snout in our Soviet garden".

And yet, despite the fact that the Soviet leaders openly declared the Polish-German campaign against Ukraine and the desire of the Western powers to provoke an attack by Germany and Poland on the USSR, the Soviet government, as the crisis in Polish-German relations intensified, appealed to the British Government to convene a conference of representatives of six countries (USSR, France, England, Poland, Romania, Turkey) in order to discuss issues of collective security in Europe.

However, the West did not want to create an effective system of collective security with the participation of the USSR. In his personal letter, N. Chamberlain wrote on March 26: "I must confess my deep distrust of Russia. I absolutely do not believe in its ability to ensure an effective offensive, even if she wanted to."

Not willing to cooperate with the Soviet Union and Poland. In a memo written by the USSR Commissar for Foreign Affairs V.M. Molotov described the position of Ambassador of Poland to the USSR V. Grzybowski, which he outlined in an interview with 11 in May of 1939 in May: "Poland does not consider it possible to conclude a mutual aid pact with the USSR because of the practical impossibility of rendering assistance to the Soviet Union from Poland."

Molotov wrote further: “At the same time, the ambassador, answering my question, said that Poland cannot be against the conclusion of a mutual aid pact between the USSR, Britain and France, believing that this is the business of these states themselves. My question is whether Poland is interested in such a pact, the ambassador responded evasively, re-reading the instructions received. When I asked whether Poland was interested in guaranteeing European states bordering the USSR, the ambassador replied that this should not apply to Poland. "

Meanwhile, already 3 April 1939 in Berlin was prepared by a directive on the preparation of an attack on Poland ("Weiss plan"). Attentive observers noted the hopelessness of the situation in Poland in the event of a war.

The British military attache in Warsaw, Sóuord, noticed that Poland was surrounded by Germany from three sides and was unlikely to survive. The attache emphasized that Poland had only 600 aircraft that could not be compared with German ones. He pointed out that the Polish land army was poorly equipped technically. Sword wrote that the Poles would not be able to protect the Danzig Corridor and would be forced to retreat to the Vistula. He stressed that "friendly Russia is vital for Poland."

However, as often happened in the history of Poland, its ruling circles preferred to live with illusions, ignoring the harsh reality. While in August 1939 in Moscow, there were tense negotiations on taking measures against the German aggression, the ambassadors of England and France in Warsaw appealed to the Polish government to obtain from him consent to the passage of Soviet troops through Polish territory. However, this proposal was arrogantly rejected by Foreign Minister Beck of Poland. 19 August, the English ambassador to Warsaw, at the insistence of British Foreign Minister E. Halifax, again appealed to J. Beck with a request to give consent to the passage of Soviet troops, noting that Poland was disrupting the talks in Moscow. 20 August Beck again refused, saying: "I do not admit that there may be any discussion about any use of our territory by foreign troops. We do not have a military agreement with the USSR. We do not want it."

Explaining this position of Poland, the Soviet historian I.D. Ovsyanny wrote that the Polish government "pushed away the only real help the country could receive. This meant that the Pilsudzhk clique did not abandon its adventurous anti-Soviet designs and continued to rely on Germany's aggression against the USSR. They were amused by the hope that Hitler would not want weaken the Reich war with Poland and even attract it to the "march to the East."

* * *

The events of recent weeks in Vilnius, Kiev and around Ukraine indicate that, as in former times, the West seeks to seize Ukraine. As before, the Western powers find allies in Ukraine. Many of them dream of "milk rivers in honey shores", on which they will settle "after moving to Europe."

As before, the Polish ruling circles are in the vanguard of Western efforts to enslave Ukraine, showing a century-old and indestructible penchant for arrogance and adventurism.

Therefore, it is not surprising that in recent days, leading political figures of this country often appeared in Kiev in the midst of tumultuous events and even marched through the center of the city at the head of anti-government demonstrations. It seems that the sad pages of history for Poland did not teach her leaders anything.
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  1. svskor80
    svskor80 26 December 2013 08: 41
    +8
    As you know, the smaller the mongrel, the more vicious, that Poland too. Germany defeated Poland in the case in 1939 - such an ally will come out to cost more.
    1. Canep
      Canep 26 December 2013 09: 22
      +10
      The battle for Ukraine is not over yet. Although a strategic advantage has been achieved, it remains to squeeze.
      1. Romn
        Romn 26 December 2013 09: 53
        +7
        Poland is always bad when others feel good, such is their mentality. And now they are one of the main supporters of the democratization of Ukraine, and it is the Poles who are the ones who pour the most dirt on Russia. Therefore, the main thing we do not forget, in the future, to thank Poland, Estonia, Latvia and their well-wishers ...
        1. washi
          washi 26 December 2013 14: 25
          +3
          Quote: Romn
          Poland is always bad when others feel good, such is their mentality.

          Why only Poland?
          This is question number 1
          Question No. 2: If the residents of the outskirts enter the EU, then who will switch from cattle to the owners?
          Question No. 3: Why do the Poles not recognize the Jagiellons as Russian?
          Maybe all the questions are for religion?
          Catholics do not recognize the Orthodox as full-fledged.
          1. ele1285
            ele1285 26 December 2013 15: 37
            +3
            Yes, they don’t admit that they are priests. Our priests don’t recognize them either, and the Germans don’t recognize them. And the Czechs hate them. Some metastasis is received in the center of Europe, which doesn’t suit anyone, but they tolerate it. How long they will endure, this is a question. No wonder all the sections of Poland passed in Europe with a bang, only the brazenly Saxons were bukhteli, they needed a splinter between Germany and Russia.
            1. invisibility
              invisibility 26 December 2013 22: 00
              0
              Hyena of Europe. That says it all.
        2. ele1285
          ele1285 26 December 2013 15: 31
          0
          Yes, just a flawed nation, as they believe, every Russian wakes up with the idea of ​​doing Poland bad. And this is presented in the central newspaper Rzeczpospolita. Someone who doesn’t believe can read translations. Poles are those who think I can take my eyes out my mother-in-law would have a curve.
      2. Corsair
        Corsair 26 December 2013 10: 22
        +2
        Quote: Canep
        The battle for Ukraine is not over yet. Although a strategic advantage has been achieved, it remains to squeeze.

        And "squeeze" immediately, not allowing the West to come to its senses and regroup the forces, which are pretty much involved ...
      3. RussianRu
        RussianRu 26 December 2013 10: 58
        +2
        The battle is not only for Ukraine, but as a whole against the Slavic east.
        Then Polish diplomats in Czechoslovakia received instructions from Warsaw to establish cooperation with the Sudeten Germans and, at the same time, to actively advocate "the protection of the rights of the Polish minority." In March 1938 Warsaw demanded that "anti-Polish propaganda" supposedly be deployed there in Czechoslovakia.

        How all this is similar to what is happening with us. The swamps were stirring something. Now the Muslims want to hold rallies. Someone lacks freedom of speech, etc. So are the Popazadovs unhappy.
    2. avdkrd
      avdkrd 26 December 2013 12: 23
      0
      in 1939 Poland was no matter how small a mongrel, yapping with a Basque and had ambitions instilled in Pilsudski. In principle, Poland had a good army and no one expected that they would blow so quickly with them.
      1. washi
        washi 26 December 2013 14: 30
        +1
        Quote: avdkrd
        in 1939 Poland was no matter how small a mongrel, yapping with a Basque and had ambitions instilled in Pilsudski. In principle, Poland had a good army and no one expected that they would blow so quickly with them.

        And you read the words of Pilsudski about the Poles.
        Everything is expected there.
        There are also the words of Hitler, Churchill.
        The saddest Ukrainians TAKE AN EXAMPLE FROM THEM, even stole the anthem.
        1. Impich
          Impich 27 December 2013 15: 11
          0
          I support .. a bunch of scum .... I hate this bunch of puffy Poles ... the country is a prostitute ... I have been there many times .... bastards and nothing else ... corrupt skins and slime dishes ...
  2. Humpty
    Humpty 26 December 2013 08: 48
    +5
    In 39, as before, the Poles got it right.
    1. Corsair
      Corsair 26 December 2013 10: 30
      -1
      Quote: Humpty
      In 39, as before, the Poles got it right.

      It is clear that according to "merit" and a whip, BUT ... Polish Poland then served as at least some kind of buffer between Nazi Germany and the USSR, if you want - a sanitary napkin.
      And having lost one, the USSR took a direct front line with Germany ...
      1. Humpty
        Humpty 26 December 2013 12: 29
        +4
        Poland, according to V. Rezun, was not a buffer.
        Because Until September 39th, she had thoughts about a joint attack on the USSR with Hitler.
      2. washi
        washi 26 December 2013 14: 39
        +4
        This gasket also selected Vilna. Prepared plans for an attack on the USSR. She had great agents in our territory, including the Caucasus (which was transferred to Germany and the Angles). The Psheks during the occupation actively cooperated with the Germans (they handed over Jews and Communists, actively worked for the Germans in production, provided agricultural products, organized export brothels). The army of Craiova actively destroyed partisans unrelated to them, i.e. with the angles.
      3. TS3sta3
        TS3sta3 26 December 2013 14: 57
        +2
        with such a gasket and a trap is not needed.
  3. sscha
    sscha 26 December 2013 08: 52
    +2
    The whole history of Psheks is the story of a Slavic tribe that the Saxons and Germans will never need, and does not understand that they are SLAVES !!! hi
    1. washi
      washi 26 December 2013 14: 43
      +2
      Quote: sscha
      The whole history of Psheks is the story of a Slavic tribe that the Saxons and Germans will never need, and does not understand that they are SLAVES !!! hi

      This is a story of corruption. Sold to Catholics. As a result, they became the advanced detachment of the struggle against Orthodoxy.
      The Germans are more Slavs. They partially escaped from the Roman folder (Protestants). Now (according to the Zadornov film) OUR values ​​are protected.
  4. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 26 December 2013 09: 07
    +5
    History teaches us that it teaches no one. wink
  5. Standard Oil
    Standard Oil 26 December 2013 09: 38
    +4
    Kaczynski, who had killed himself on the Smolensk birch, somehow, in a fit of Lyakhov's ecstasy, gave out that "Poland would have coped with the Third Reich itself, if it had not been for the treacherous" stab in the back "from the USSR," yeah now they would still be living in the General Government. in general, God created the Poles?
    1. Vladimirets
      Vladimirets 26 December 2013 10: 10
      +4
      Quote: Standard Oil
      Why did God create the Poles at all?

      Us in punishment.
      1. Standard Oil
        Standard Oil 26 December 2013 10: 46
        0
        Quote: Vladimirets
        Us in punishment.

        Looks like the Russian people are very, very, very much guilty of something.
        1. washi
          washi 26 December 2013 14: 51
          0
          Quote: Standard Oil
          Quote: Vladimirets
          Us in punishment.

          Looks like the Russian people are very, very, very much guilty of something.

          Whom I love, I punish him.
          Who can overcome the obstacles I appreciate.
          Us fuck..t, and we grow stronger (modern version)
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. washi
        washi 26 December 2013 14: 49
        +1
        Quote: Vladimirets
        Quote: Standard Oil
        Why did God create the Poles at all?

        Us in punishment.

        Not for punishment, but for edification.
        This is what can be with the Slavs if they follow the rules of the West.
        Even in the Middle Ages, Poles primarily valued PERSONALITY.
        And at us, for the time being, the community is appreciated (collective, collective farm, etc.).
        There will be no unity - it will be like in Poland - a bunch of sections of the territory and washing the toilet for the owners in the end.
      4. Gato
        Gato 26 December 2013 18: 04
        +2
        Quote: Vladimirets
        Kaczynski, who was killed about the Smolensk birch

        They even issued a commemorative coin on this occasion. True, the inscription on it is unsuccessful. It would be better to insert a quote from a Soviet film of the 80s:
        "I understand, Giacomo. All newcomers to Russia will perish near Smolensk."
      5. alex_valent
        alex_valent 26 December 2013 21: 17
        0
        Just so as not to relax.
    2. Bagatur
      Bagatur 26 December 2013 12: 19
      +3
      Dreams are not forbidden to anyone! After all, they are free ... But when a dream is taken for reality ... everything will come for UTB!
    3. avia12005
      avia12005 26 December 2013 13: 10
      -1
      Already Polska did not disappear, b, but how?
    4. avia12005
      avia12005 26 December 2013 13: 10
      0
      Already Polska did not disappear, b, but how?
      1. washi
        washi 26 December 2013 14: 53
        0
        Quote: avia12005
        Already Polska did not disappear, b, but how?

        And where is FREE POLAND?
        Another state?
    5. xan
      xan 26 December 2013 13: 49
      0
      Quote: Standard Oil
      Kaczynski, who killed himself on the Smolensk birch, somehow, in a fit of Lyakhov's ecstasy, gave out that "Poland would have coped with the Third Reich itself, if it had not been for the treacherous" stab in the back "from the USSR"

      Someone in the sky could not stand and arranged a meeting with a birch. The rest are also apparently sinners.
    6. invisibility
      invisibility 26 December 2013 22: 03
      -1
      Yeah. If they caught up with me, I would show them
  6. K.Shimada
    K.Shimada 26 December 2013 11: 12
    +1
    Apparently the Poles will never calm down. So they will rush from one extreme to another. They and the Germans are all very difficult.
    Or maybe they are ashamed that they are Slavs?
    1. abdrah
      abdrah 26 December 2013 12: 26
      +1
      The Poles are not Slavs by their own conviction, but the descendants of the Sarmatians. In fact, this is a mixture of all rabble, shy and cowardly.
      1. washi
        washi 26 December 2013 14: 57
        -2
        Quote: abdrah
        The Poles are not Slavs by their own conviction, but the descendants of the Sarmatians. In fact, this is a mixture of all rabble, shy and cowardly.

        No need to call the rabble of our Austrian and German subjects.
        And then ALL of our subjects will be offended.
        Poles are a mixture of Catholicism with the Slavs.
        The second such mixture is the Uniates.
        There was also Czechoslovakia and Germany, but they ripened in time, but did not see. Now the protestants
  7. Roman 1977
    Roman 1977 26 December 2013 12: 30
    +7
    "We (Poland) could find a place on the side of the Reich almost the same as Italy
    and, probably, better than Hungary or Romania.
    As a result, we would be in Moscow, where Adolf Hitler, together with the Rydz-Smigly, would take the parade
    victorious Polish-German troops "

    Polish professor Pavel Vechorkevich.
    Well, these are some photos from the joint "friendship" with my comments:

    Hitler and Polish Foreign Minister Beck, even took off his cap in front of the gentleman, forgot the gentry "ambition" and was not afraid to chill his head

    Goering and Polish Foreign Minister Beck, well, friends forever

    Goebbels and Pilsudski, Beck is also here, studying ...

    Touching handshake of Polish Marshal Edward Rydz-Smigla and German Attache Colonel
    Bogislava von Studnitz at the Independence Day parade in Warsaw on November 11 on November 1938, well, there are no comments ...

    Polish soldiers pose with the deposed Czechoslovak coat of arms outside the telephone and telegraph building they seized during Operation Zaluzhie in the Czech village of Ligotka Kameralna (Polish Komorní Lhotka), located near the town of Tesin. While rejoicing, hoping for the next trip to the "damned to her"
  8. ed65b
    ed65b 26 December 2013 12: 34
    +1
    The Poles deteriorated after the adoption of the Catholic faith, and before that they were faithful allies of Russia.
  9. ed65b
    ed65b 26 December 2013 12: 38
    +4
    It was then that the Pope singled them out as a special caste of the Slavs and appointed them watching over the barbarians. Looks strongly explained how many centuries have passed and psheks all strive to match.
  10. knn54
    knn54 26 December 2013 12: 43
    +2
    “It should be considered as a secret and tragedy of European history the fact that a people capable of any heroism, some of whom are talented, valiant, charming, constantly display such huge flaws in almost all aspects of their state life. Glory in times of rebellion and grief; infamy and shame during periods of triumph. The bravest of the brave too often have been led by the most infamous of the vile! And yet two Poland always existed: one of them fought for the truth, and the other creeped into meanness. ”
    W. Churchill.
    1. abdrah
      abdrah 26 December 2013 13: 05
      +2
      "Poland is the hyena of Europe!" - the same Churchill used to say.
  11. Yutas
    Yutas 26 December 2013 13: 31
    0
    For some reason, the words "Poland, Poles" almost always come to mind. Only occasionally - a childhood film "Four tankmen and a dog"))). Have you not noted anything else good?
    1. washi
      washi 26 December 2013 15: 00
      +1
      Quote: Yutas
      For some reason, the words "Poland, Poles" almost always come to mind. Only occasionally - a childhood film "Four tankmen and a dog"))). Have you not noted anything else good?

      A good film, but it was banned for showing in Poland (I don’t remember the year, sorry)
  12. Alexander I
    Alexander I 26 December 2013 14: 50
    -1
    From this article, as I understand it, it was the Poles who prevented Hitler from seizing world domination smile It was these precious resources spent on Poland that the Germans did not have enough near Moscow 41.
  13. zzz
    zzz 26 December 2013 15: 46
    +6
    Found on the internet: Oh, it's a long story. Very mysterious. There are so many factors ...
    Immediately make a reservation, the Poles do not like Ukrainians even more, but for a different reason.
    The Poles are very fond of their history, and in this story there were many different moments.
    If you remember, they did not want to recognize Ivan the Terrible as king, but continued to call him the Grand Duke of Moscow, which caused conflicts. And these trips to Moscow ... They sat in the Kremlin, like at home. Today, the Poles believe that the Russians have treacherously violated their obligations, in which they recognized the right of the Polish king to the Russian kingdom.
    They stood so cool, and then suddenly everything was gone. Khmelnitsky uprising, as a result of which they lost all of the left bank of the Dnieper. Further more. All these sections of Poland, turning it into a Russian province. The suppression of repeated uprisings by the Russian troops (by the way, one of them was suppressed by Suvorov). And so on and so forth. They went with Napoleon - hoping to return the lost. Already in the early twentieth century, the dictator Pilsudski gave them new hope. He promised to revive the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from sea to sea. And in 1920, he began to fulfill the promise. When in response the Cossacks of Budyonny went to Lviv, and Tukhachevsky to Warsaw, the Poles were so offended ...
    And 39 year? Russian invaders! For some reason it never occurred to anyone that Poland was only returned to the 1918 borders of the year, fixed by the Brest Treaty. For some reason, no one remembered that before that Poland had the exact same treaty with Germany and chopped off a piece of the Czech Republic by agreement with the Germans.
    Finally, 1945 year. The Russians are right there. Again invaders!
    We will not analyze the validity of their position, just this is the reason for the hostility. Russians are bad, they are barbarians, they are aggressive, rude and cruel. They oppressed and destroyed the Polish people! And the Ukrainians, among other things, also, which previously served them.
    Why love them, these Russian?
    1. Tyumen
      Tyumen 26 December 2013 17: 56
      0
      Petlyura signed an agreement with Pilsudsky on the restoration of the power of the Directory in Ukraine,
      for which he promised him huge Ukrainian regions. Today, Ukrainians consider him a hero. ?!
    2. invisibility
      invisibility 26 December 2013 22: 09
      -1
      Maybe because after 1945 years Poland was allowed to be. If it weren’t for Comrade Stalin, they would be torn apart. As Churchill said: a nation that could not defend itself should accept the mercy of the liberators. I don’t remember verbatim.
    3. abdrah
      abdrah 10 January 2014 00: 41
      +1
      I support your comment by 500%, the Poles got much more than what they deserved - when Stalin divided the land in 45 (he marked the borders of the Soviet Union), the meadows cried and cried out - "Yak Polish without Pushcha?" and the generous and kind tsar cut off the glades of Bialystok and its voivodeship (region), keep Pushcha, brothers! Moreover, Father cut off the German lands in the glades so much that at every crossroads his monument should stand, the entire Baltic coast from Szczecin to Kaliningrad, for example. 10th century and built the port of Gdynia.) - but besides Gdynia, the glades in the 20th century about Poland from the sea to the sea had only memories of which their Lithuanian allies somehow disappeared, as well as Tatars, Mordvinians, Chemeri, Chud, etc. which helped the whole world to protect the meadows from the harsh European reality.
  14. Alexander I
    Alexander I 26 December 2013 16: 33
    +4
    In general, the Poles are an unreliable ally. In 1812, they allied with Napoleon attacked Russia. in the first world poland it was a part of three empires of the Russian, German and Austro-Hungarian, it seemed that someone had to win, but no, all three empires ceased to exist. The interwar period is described above, after the Second World War, Poland became part of the Warsaw Treaty Organization and the Union of Mutual Economic Assistance. The result - both of them ceased to exist. At the moment, Poland joined the NATO bloc and the European Union .... Well, in general, some negative dynamics are obtained.
    1. m262
      m262 26 December 2013 19: 24
      +2
      Well, God forbid, it’s not good to break traditions wink
  15. individual
    individual 26 December 2013 18: 57
    +2
    Well, why do we always lag behind in such publications!
    Remember how pseudo historians Roy Medvedev, Dmitry Volkogonov and their archival colleague Yuri Afanasyev were mocked, supported by Soyudis and other "national fronts of the Baltic states."
    Then such a howl was raised about the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact.
    Then they unilaterally proved that the USSR / Russia were aggressors.
    And we all hawala, although we did not believe everything.
    Yeltsin provocateurs also contributed to the creation of a fake story.
    Why does the truth break through only now, and not when the "fifth column" in the USSR was destroying a great country.
    I am still in shock from the zombite technological processing of the population of those disastrous years for my MOTHERLAND.
    1. invisibility
      invisibility 26 December 2013 22: 12
      -1
      We will take our own am
  16. voliador
    voliador 26 December 2013 20: 55
    0
    Yes x .. with these pshekami. Sverbet in their ass - let them scratch about the birch. One already scratched near Smolensk laughing .
    1. zzz
      zzz 27 December 2013 23: 50
      0
      Quote: voliador
      Yes x .. with these pshekami.


      They can not be underestimated. Even in the charter of a Russian officer it was forbidden to marry a Polish woman.
  17. stalkerwalker
    stalkerwalker 26 December 2013 22: 43
    +5
    If the article removes dates and surnames, replaces the word Germany with the EU, then everything fits perfectly into the outline of today.
    Forgive me wonder how proud Pshek love to step on their own rake ... wassat
    1. invisibility
      invisibility 26 December 2013 22: 54
      +1
      This is not a rake, it's their eggs
  18. valokordin
    valokordin 27 December 2013 03: 13
    +2
    The Poles have always hated us, as well as the Germans, but they were closer to them. But the country's leadership treacherously admitted the guilt of the USSR for the shooting of the Poles in Katyn, to please the Westerners, to spoil the great country and its leader I.V. Stalin. Although the killed State Duma deputy. Prosecutor General of the USSR V.I. Ilyukhin proved this. 2 decisions of 2 Moscow courts issued a verdict on the falsification of documents on the order of execution of the Poles. If Ukraine is merged, the next will be Russia.
  19. zzz
    zzz 27 December 2013 23: 43
    0
    Quote: stalkerwalker

    Forgive me wonder how proud Pshek love to step on their own rake ... wassat

    And for me, so let the rake be heavier.
  20. Penek
    Penek 27 December 2013 23: 43
    0
    Communicated with ordinary Poles - engineers, technicians - they have no dirty tricks with Russians and other infidels. All this is in the minds of parents who were offended in the past or the year before. In general, in Poland, as in a joke - "clean, but poor." Therefore, it's a shame at Russia.
  21. jury08
    jury08 28 December 2013 17: 19
    +3
    No need to incite anti-Polish enmity-if the Pole is not a Slav, then Russian and even more so!
  22. unknown
    unknown 29 December 2013 15: 28
    0
    Like other Jewish (European) peoples, the Poles have a false story. Stolen.
    In reality, they rose during the time of the Great Troubles, from bandits from a high road (nobleman) turning into gentlemen.
    Prior to that, their story is dark.
    The territory was part of the Moravian kingdoms. The Moravian (Czech) king founded Krolevets, later renamed Königsberg. Future Poles did not fight with any Crusader Germans due to the lack of Germans (in our current understanding).
    Yes, and Moscow did not sit on the throne. It was not the Polish-Lithuanian intervention (Poland at that time-Little Russia, today called Ukraine, Lithuania-White Russia, not Zhmudia), but the Civil War of the old empire, when hordes of supporters of the "Jewish heresy", now tolerantly called Protestants, invaded the metropolis.
  23. Robert Nevsky
    Robert Nevsky 29 December 2013 20: 34
    0
    BETTER POLES FOR NEIGHBORS THAN PRUSES!