The legendary dagger misericorde (misericord or misicordy) served in the same “noble” purpose in France, which means “dagger of mercy”. Unlike the panzerbrehzer, the mezericordia did not pierce the chain mail, but with a thin and narrow blade they slaughtered a knight who was lying on the ground and was unable to stand up on his own, pushing the blade into the cracks between the plates of the plate armor. Other daggers were also spread - Swiss bassellard, Spanish rondel, Italian stiletto and dagger with special teeth to grip the blade of the sword.
In the era of chivalry, a thin and durable dagger was an essential attribute of a knight. If in armor - in the battle of the defeated to finish, if without them - to fight off from the enemies in a close room, where the sword does not turn around. By the way, a short combat knife of a tanto or a sword a little longer than a tanto-wakizashi served the same purposes in medieval Japan.
However, with the advent and spread of firearms weapons the knights had to abandon the useless heavy armor. The need for “daggers of mercy” also disappeared automatically. They were replaced by light daggers for the left hand - dagi, which were very popular in the era of the Musketeers. They could not only strike an unexpected blow or take the enemy's sword aside, but sometimes break a blade that fell into a special trap on the guard. There were even special Dagi with three blades - a kind of fork, into which the fencing masters seized the blades of the swords of their opponents.
In the 17th century, in the Western European armies, swords were gradually replaced by a more functional weapon — a saber or a heavier sword — a broadsword. And Dagh loses his luxurious guard, gradually turning into a combat knife, the “last chance weapon” of the private and the officer, after the saber is broken and all the cartridges are shot. And also as an instrument of everyday soldier’s life, necessary both in the march and in the halt.
In this article we will not consider in detail history and the evolution of combat knives from around the world, such a work would take many volumes. Here we will focus only on the most interesting combat knives of some countries - moreover interesting not only to the collector, but also to the simple reader who first touched the topic this article is devoted to.
Perhaps the most famous and legendary type of American knife, leading its history since the days of the Wild West. Designed in the 30 of the 19th century by planter Reason Bowie, the knife became popular thanks to Reison's younger brother, James. Being by nature a desperate adventurer, James Bowie sent to the next world with a knife bearing his name, a lot of both white competitors and redskins. Due to this, he was promoted to colonel of the Texas militia and glorified his brother’s knife all over America.
A knife with a large blade, resembling a sword, served as a help to the American armed forces in the age of dulnozharynyh guns and pistols, requiring a lot of time to reload after a shot. During the American Civil War 1861 – 1865 "Bowie knife" was considered one of the main types of personal weapons. Subsequently, with the advent of multiply-charged firearms, the enormous “Bowie knife” loses its relevance, however, thanks to the novels, and subsequently the films, it does not lose its legend. The successful form of this knife to this day is embodied in the reduced descendants of the famous ancestor - many American combat and tactical knives. For example, in the famous knife "Ka-Bar", which will be discussed below.
USMark I Trench Knife
Since World War I, it has become necessary to supply combatants with melee weapons. The bayonets at that time did not allow fighting for a short distance due to the large geometrical dimensions.
At this time, there are so-called trench knives, performing the role of melee weapons melee. Then the mass distribution among the US military received a hybrid of brass knuckles and a dagger, the so-called Knuckle Knife.
The photo shows a regular dough-knuckles the US Army 1918 of the year USMark I Trench Knife.
This is quite a versatile weapon that allows you to combine strikes with a metal part of the handle, reinforced with conical projections with stabbing wounds to the enemy. The tip of the handle ends with a conical top, also capable of causing serious injuries.
The Ka-Bar knife is an American classic combat knife with a bowie blade. United States Marine Corps (USMC), United States Marine Corps during the Second World War. First produced by Union Cutlery, then the knife was produced by such famous manufacturers as Case, Camillus and Ontario. The Ka-Bar blade is made of carbon steel and, to avoid corrosion, is predominantly black coated. Handle typesetting, leather, brown. The shank is a steel head, the purpose of which, like many combat knives, double - "brass knuckles." The sheath is traditionally made of brown leather embossed with USMC and the coat of arms of the US Marine Corps.
The combat knife of the American special forces First Special Services Forse (FSSF) during the Second World War. A joint US-Canadian FSSF squad was created in 1942 for special operations and equipped with a new V-42 Stilletto combat knife from Case Cutlery, the concept of which belongs to FSSF commander Lieutenant Colonel Robert T. Frederic, melee instructor Dermotu O'Neill and Colonel Orval J. Baldwin.
In some ways, “V42” is a reinterpretation of “FS,” a British commando dagger. The dagger handle instead of cast bronze or brass is made of leather, which increased the reliability of the grip. From the inside of the guard, a large skin plate was placed, which reduced the painful sensations of the wearer during the injection. The bare base of the blade allowed to throw a finger over the guard and pull out the knife stuck in the opponent's bones. To increase the impact of a thrusting strike on the unzipped part of the blade (ricasso), a “thumb imprint” with transverse notches was made, on which the thumb pad is placed at the direct grip of the knife. Such a grip with a horizontal blade is preferable when pricking between the ribs and should provide for dissection of a greater number of blood vessels. On the back of the handle is a "skull crush" - a metal cone for applying crushing blows to the opponent's head and joints.
Currently, the image of the legendary combat knife is included in the SOCOM (Special Operations Command) emblem; the special operations command of the US military; American special forces, the famous "green berets", the Canadian special forces JTF (Joint Task Forse 2). Also, the V42 image was part of the emblem of the famous "Delta" squadron (Operational Detachment Delta), who fought in Vietnam.
Camillus Jet Pilots' Survival Knife
Camillus Cutlery Company is one of the oldest American firms that has been manufacturing knives for the military since the First World War. Unfortunately, for several years as a company went bankrupt, all its property, including equipment and trademarks, was auctioned off. So there remains the hope for the resumption of production in another place, by other people, but under the same trademark.
"Camillus Jet Pilots' Survival Knife" - US military pilots combat knife from 1957 year. It is ideal both when placed on a belt, and on the pilot's unloading and life jacket. Due to the special design of the scabbard, it is possible to wear both in a normal and upside-down position. "Bolt" - a counterweight on the top of the handle allows you to apply crushing blows to the opponent's head and joints, as well as use the handle as a hammer. Wonderful survival knife in the case of landing a pilot in an unfamiliar area, repeatedly tested in extreme situations by USAF pilots (United States Air Force, USAF).
ASEK Survival Knife System (Ontario)
With all the positive properties of the previous model of survival knife for military pilots (Camillus Jet Pilots' Survival Knife), it had a number of drawbacks due to the fact that the level of its production technology corresponded to 50-th years of the last century.
Problems such as low corrosion resistance of the blade, leather on the handle and sheath, prone to deformation, ineffective (for new materials) saw on the butt, did not allow to successfully apply this knife in modern conditions.
In 2003, the new knife, called ASEK Survival Knife System, produced by Ontario, was put into service. This is not even a knife, but rather a set of tools that provide an opportunity to leave the plane after the crash and survive in any conditions.
The knife has a saw on the butt, allowing you to successfully cope with both aviation aluminum and wood. The blade sharpening is half serrated. At the end of the handle is a massive top that can be used as a hammer. In addition, the top has a conical protrusion for easier breaking glass and plastic. In addition, the sheath has a special tool for cutting belts and a small diamond bar for straightening the blade in the field.
There are holes on the garda, with which you can tie a stick using a knife as the tip of a spear.
ASEK Survival Knife System is mounted on the elements of equipment or on the pilot's shin.
The American M7 bayonet was developed in 1964 for the M16 rifle. He became one of the latest examples of bayonet knives, primarily weapons, a means to defeat the enemy, and not a multipurpose tool.
A whole series of American bayone-knives of the Second World War and post-war times, such as, for example, M4 (for M1 carbine), M5 (for M1 Garand rifle, M6 (for M14 rifle) and M7 described here, has one common the progenitor is the M3 Trench Knife combat knife, widely used by the American army since the beginning of the 1940-s and produced by many companies both in the US and in other countries. All the bayonet knives listed above inherited the blade from the M3, differing in fact only by the handles and attachment points to the weapon.
An interesting fact is that the geometry of the M3 blade makes it possible to regard it as an ancestor of the knife, commissioned by the German Luftwaffe, which in turn is only one of the many variants of trench knives that appeared in the trenches of the First World War. Such borrowings are not uncommon in the weapons field, because during the war, efficiency, not originality, is paramount. And a successful sample that has proven its effectiveness can live a long life, embodied in a multitude of copies and imitations, often on opposite sides of the front.
As mentioned above, the M7 is a fairly traditional design. At first glance it is clear that his dagger blade with a length of more than 170 mm is intended for stabbing blows. This contributes to the symmetrical profile of the blade with a one-and-a-half sharpening. At the butt there is a sharpened area, reaching almost half the blade length. This factor significantly increases the penetrating ability of the bayonet both in the user's hand and in the position attached to the rifle.
The developed guard has a ring in the upper part, designed to be mounted on the weapon barrel, and in its rear part there is a massive metal part with spring-loaded elements fixing the bayonet on a special tide in front of the rifle's forearm. In addition to fulfilling its main function, the butt plate can be used for striking - both as an ersatz hammer and in a melee, as the successful arrangement of the latch components does not allow them to be damaged by a blow.
The handle of the bayonet-knife is assembled from two plastic halves, fixed on the shank with the help of two screws. These pads have a deep notch, thanks to which a reliable and comfortable retention of the bayonet in your hand is ensured.
The sheaths used with the M7 bayonet, is a standard sample used with all bayonet knives of the series, and the M3 including. This interchangeability is caused by the identity of the blades of these samples. The sheath is made of rigid plastic of green color, equipped with a metal mouth and a flat spring that securely holds the blade of the bayonet inside. There are two variants of such scabbards, differing in suspension. The M8 scabbard has only a conventional loop for attaching to any belt, while the M8А1 has a suspension hook equipped with a wire hook for a pistol strap - a standard element of the uniform of the US Army. In recent years, the US Army has adopted a new type of scabbard for the bayonet described - МХNUMX. These sheaths are black, they are noticeably narrower than the M10, and they are easily recognizable by the expansion at the mouth. The suspension of the sheath М8 is made of cordura, it is similar in design to the suspension М10А8 and is also designed for mounting on a pistol belt.
After 20 years after the start of the release, the M7 ceased to be the main bayonet of the US Army. In its place came M9, which is described below. However, the M7 is still produced in several countries, including the United States, and is on the supply of their armies. On the basis of the M7, the Ontario Knife Company has created its modern version with a spindle-shaped handle and a blade made of carbon steel 1095.
* nozhi *
This is a bayonet, whose appearance has already become canonical in the world of combat knives. Ontario M9 was born quite late - in 1984 year. It was developed by Qual-A-Tec owner, Charles "Mickey" Finn (1938 – 2007), who previously had a hand in developing such a bright knife as the Buck 184 Buckmaster. According to the results of state tests, this bayonet became the best among other applicants and was adopted under the designation МХNUMX, partially replacing the previous main bayonet of the American army - М9, produced from 7 of the year.
The M9 was produced by several companies, the first of which was Phrobis (also founded by Finn), then it was replaced by manufacturers such as Buck, LanCay and Ontario. At the moment, over four hundred thousand M9 bayonet knives have been produced, and these are only official deliveries. The number of commercial versions, copies and "spiritual heirs" of this knife, produced by a variety of companies from Smith & Wesson to nameless Chinese manufacturers, cannot be counted.
The basic motive of the design of this knife was the desire to get a bayonet, more a tool than a weapon. The time of the bayonet attacks irrevocably passed, and to replace the predatory elongated M7 came a thicker and longer M9. This is a massive knife, a rough and absolutely “unkillable” universal tool that allows not only cutting - surprisingly well, considering the blade thickness and low descents - but also to chop, prick, open boxes and zinc with ammunition, to bite barbed wire, including and live, and produce a variety of other types of work.
The shape of the blade M9 kind of reminds Buckmaster. This is not a dagger blade of M7 and earlier bayonet knives of the USA, but a clip-point, sometimes called a “bowie”. Finn only slightly adapted the unduly “cinematic” appearance of his previous creation for practical use. A saw with excessively large teeth and a serrator were also removed from the butt. They were replaced by a section with a metal saw, similar to those used in the survival knives of American pilots.
Garda and butt plate became standard for American bayonet knives. They are completely identical to the similar elements on the M7. The ring in the upper part of the guard serves to mount a rifle on the flame arrester, and in the design of the back plate there is a spring-loaded fixation unit on a special tide under the rifle barrel. The bayonet fits all versions of the M16 rifle, the M4 carbine, a number of smooth-bore guns used by the US Army, as well as many commercial models of small arms offered on the international market. Thick blade shank passes through the entire handle to the buttplate, where a nut is screwed on it, tightening the entire structure.
The handle of the bayonet is a spindle-shaped, traditional for American combat knives. Both the sheath and the sheath of the M9 are molded from heavy plastic resembling bakelite.
On the sheath there is a metal pommel with a protrusion playing the role of a flat screwdriver with a peg, for which you can hook a hole in the M9 blade, turning the bayonet with a sheath into barbed wire cutters. This feature was spied on by Soviet bayonet knives, but in this case it was slightly modified - the suspension design allows you to detach the sheath for ease of operation with nippers and attach them back in seconds.
The M9 bayonet is still in production. In 1998, on the basis of it, the M11 knife was created for sapper units, differing in bundling, and most importantly, in the absence of the possibility of attachment to arms. Subsequent developments, such as the OKC-3S bayonet, adopted by the US Marine Corps, also traced the family traits of the M9.
Ontario Mk.3 Mod.0 Navy Seal Knife
In the US Armed Forces, as in any other troops around the world, there is an unspoken rivalry between various military departments. It is expressed even in the designation of weapons and equipment adopted by one agency or another. The designation of "land" weapons and equipment always contains the letter M - model, and sailors, including the US Marine Corps, as well as various special forces (for example, US SOCOM - Command of the Special Operations Forces) designate their samples with a two-story code "Mk, Mod. " Seeing such a designation, one can always assume that this item is related to the fleet, USMC (US Marine Corps) or US SOCOM.
All this applies to this knife. Even its manufacturer, the company Ontario Knife Co, especially notes on its own website that this knife is used exclusively in the fleet.
The Mk.3 blade is more similar in shape and design to AK bayonets than to its immediate predecessors, USN Mk.1 and USN Mk.2 Ka-Bar, the previous two models of American naval knives used during the Second World War. But with similar sizes with the above-described 6x3 and 6x4 bayonets and the blade form is almost identical with them, Mk.3 has even a butt cutter, “pike”, which, together with the sharp predatory tip of the blade, gives the knife the highest efficiency of the punch. And we must bear in mind that such a sharp and thin tip requires careful handling - it would be somewhat rash to open the cans with a knife.
There is a saw on the butt of the knife, similar to the saws on the M9 or AK bayonet knives, but with noticeably larger teeth than on the Soviet counterparts. The Garda Mk.3 is straight, equilateral, designed mainly for glove work, as its facets are easy to put your hand on when doing strength work. Plastic handle, of the two halves, fastened together by a screw. The notch on the handle is aggressive, which prevents the knife from slipping out of the hand when working in extreme conditions. The same purpose is served by a lanyard, passed through a hole in the end of the handle. The handle ends with a flat massive butt plate, capable of performing the function of a hammer and a skull crusher, the "skull crusher."
Mk.3 plastic sheath, with a strong flat spring, perfectly fixing the blade and not allowing the knife to fall out of the scabbard, even in an inverted position with strong shaking. The suspension of the scabbard is made of Cordura, it has a strap fixing the knife handle and a bent wire fastener designed for mounting on a pistol strap - a standard ammunition of the American army.
As a result, on the basis of a set of characteristics, it can be said that the Mk.3 is a competent and reliable knife that can serve the user both as a tool and as a weapon.
Ontario SP15 LSA
This representative of the SP series along with the aforementioned SP3 can be considered the successor of the famous battle daggers from the Second World War period Fairbairn-Sykes and V-42. The abbreviation LSA means Land, Sea, Air, which can be a little loosely translated as "on the ground, on the water and in the air." This name, according to the manufacturer, should speak about the universality of this knife and the breadth of its application. Unlike its predecessor, the dagger SP3, SP15 is officially purchased by the American army, it is assigned the number NSN. This allows us to consider the differences between the two daggers as a change in the design of SP3 in favor of the government customer and gives an idea of the requirements of the military.
The SP15 blade is flatter and more cut-oriented than the SP3 dagger blade borrowed from the M7 bayonet. It is not symmetrical to provide higher descents on the cutting side of the blade. From the butt side, there is a large serrator on the blade, occupying more than half of the blade. A false edge on the butt in the basic version is not sharpened, but its reduction completely allows to do this by increasing the effectiveness of the thrust.
The SP15 handle with a two-sided symmetrical guard is borrowed from SP3 with one major difference. The cone-shaped skull crusher, the “skull crusher,” which follows the shape of a similar piece on the legendary V-42, has been replaced with a flat top. Less effective in hand-to-hand combat, it is much more useful because of the possibility of its use as a hammer. This small detail once again shows that in the modern army the knife is primarily a tool, not a weapon.
SP15 sheath is similar to the sheath of other knives of this series. They are made of two parts - the base of thick leather, the upper half of Cordura. At the bottom of the scabbard is a cord for fixing on the leg, the suspension is classic, vertical, made of leather. On the sheath there are two safety straps on the buttons, one of which fixes the knife for the guard, and the second for the handle in the back of the bar, providing a more tight fit of the handle to the body in the stowed position and not allowing it to cling to branches and objects during active movements in conditions.
Scuba / Demo
Scuba / Demo is not only one of the rarest American Special Forces knives, but also one of the rarest military knives ever. In fact, today there is only one original knife. Initially, 39 knives were made, and 38 of them were sent to Armenian special forces on the coast of North Vietnam. 36 of them were lost during military operations, no one else saw the remaining knives. SOG UBA / Demo completely recreates the unique character of the rarest knife of all time.
Another batch of these knives was released only once, on the 20 anniversary of the knife manufacturer SOG, the name of which, in fact, comes from that very legendary knife SOG (Special Operations Group, special operations group) released for United States Marine Corps (USMC), United States Marine Corps. Currently, SCUBA / Demo is no longer produced.
Fairbairn-Sykes Fighting Knife (FS)
The dagger of the British commandos, traditionally in service with the royal marine commandos in our day. Created in 30-ies of the twentieth century by former police officers, British instructors of commandos on shooting and close combat with and without weapons by captain William Ewart Fairbairn and Eric Anthony Sykes, who acquired their experience of real hand-to-hand fighting on the streets of Shanghai - South Kite weaver weaver weaver weaver weaver weaver, each of them. the former colony of the british empire.
The basis for the twelve-inch blade served as written off bayonets from Metford rifles, spindle-shaped handle was copied from the handle of the rapier. The handles of the first daggers were wooden with brass knobs, allowing them to deliver crushing blows. The scabbard covered wearing the dagger with the grip both up and down. In November 1940, Fairbairn and Sykes began their collaboration with Wilkinson Sword, which resulted in the launch of the dagger, named after its creators, Fairbairn-Sykes (FS), in January 1941. Based on this dagger, many other combat knives appeared, including V-42, Marine Raider Stitiletto, and others.
So far, “FS” is a symbol of commandos — marines and special airborne troops in the UK armed forces.
OSS AF First design
In 1942, Colonel Rex Applegate developed the first version of the new combat knife, which was named OSS AF and was a kind of intermediate link between the FS and AF combat knives. More than half a century has passed, and the company Boker has attracted the famous manufacturer of knives Hiro from the Japanese city of Seki to recreate the famous knife, of which very little remains in the original. Boker has released only 600 of such knives, which are currently rare collection items, one of which is shown in the photo.
The OSS AF blade is wide, shaped closer to the AF knife, made of stainless steel. The handle is spindle-shaped, made of leather, shaped like an FS knife, but more voluminous. Garda and pommel made of polished brass.
Later, changes were made to this design, as a result of which the well-known AF combat knife appeared.
Boker Applegate-Fairbairn Fighting Knife (AF)
The combat use of the legendary dagger by the British commando FS during World War II revealed a number of flaws that subsequently co-founder of the FS William Ewart Fairbairn and Colonel Rex Applegate decided to eliminate, creating a more modern option combat knife. Too long FS blade was shortened to 15, see. Too thin and easily breaking off point at the new knife has become more massive. The round-shaped handle that rolled in the hand became flatter and more comfortable. If during the Second World FS, it was sometimes necessary to make out retired bayonets, then for the new knife they began to use stainless steel 44 ° C, one of the best knife steels, which is well sharpened and keeps grinding for a long time. Thus, due to the rich practical experience of its creators, the Appleggate Fairbairn dagger became one of the most famous and popular combat knives in the world. Currently, in the form of a modification with a black blade and a black guard, it is in service with the GSG 9 (Grenzschutzgruppe German - “Border Guard Group”), the anti-terrorist unit of the special forces of the Federal Police of Germany.
The next knife after FS created by Fairbairn was the so-called Smatchet, a chopping knife with a wide leaf-like blade, which could be used both as a weapon and as a tool. A similar knife was put into service OSS, the secret American Bureau of Strategic Services (Office for Strategic Services, OSS).
The model shown in the photo is the brainchild of Colonel Rex Applegate (Rex Applegate), one of the authors of the famous AF knife, who put a lot of strength in promoting it to the market. As a result, the company Boker released a pilot batch of 2200 knives with a handle made of micarta, after the commercial success of which began to produce Boker Smatchet with a plastic handle.
Boker Titanium dive knife
This diving knife was designed by famous designer Dietmar Pohl and German champion diver Jens Ho: ner. After testing several prototypes of steel and titanium, the final goal was reached - the optimal scuba diving knife.
Boker Titanium dive knife comes in several versions - with a simple double-edged sharpening, with a truncated tip, and also with a blade equipped with a double serreytor, which is convenient to cut the ropes, nets and breathing hoses of the enemy divers. This is a compact and lightweight knife with a large handle, the sheath of which is made of kaydeksa and optimized for attachment to the forearm or to the diver's leg.
In 1915, Heinrich Boker & Co. from the German "city of blades" Solingen received a government order to design a knife with a thin blade made of high-quality, resilient steel for trench hand-to-hand combat. As a result, the famous trench knife of the First and Second World War appeared, with minor variations produced by several firms and used by German saboteurs and scouts during special operations, as well as in close combat, which, due to the tightness, excludes the use of a rifle with a fastened bayonet
Also from a historical point of view, another version of the German "trench" knife intended for close combat may be of interest. The photo shows a haul knife, which was manufactured during the Second World War by Puma from the city of Solingen. The knife has a thin blade of elastic steel with the mark of the manufacturer. The handle is made of bakelite, the sheath has a clip for attaching to a belt or clothing. Purely a combat knife with no frills, designed for trench hand-to-hand combat, but, in contrast to the HP-40, is not a companion of the Victory weapon, but only a military trophy of the winner.
Even bound by numerous restrictions after defeat in World War II, the German army needed a knife. The presence of folding multi-purpose knives in the army was not a solution to the problem - the young Bundeswehr needed a full-size knife that combines the functions of a combat knife and tool.
However, such a knife appeared only in the 1968 year. It was adopted by the army under the designation Kampfmesser - "combat knife" - and was a fairly simple and reliable design, reminiscent of trench knives of world wars.
The blade of the knife has a one-sided sharpening with descents from the middle of the blade, which, with a thickness of 3,5 mm, gives it good cutting properties without sacrificing strength. The steel guard of the knife has a developed one-sided stop, bent in the direction of the handle, which allows you to make considerable efforts to the piercing blow and at the same time reliably protect the hand of the fighter. The shank of the blade is long, runs the entire length of the handle, on it with two screws reinforced two halves of the handle, cast from impact-resistant plastic. Moreover, the rear screw with a through hole, allowing you to pass through it thong or safety cord.
The sheath practically does not differ in construction from the sheath of bayonets of the times of the First and Second World Wars. It is an all-metal construction with a flat spring inside and a peg in the form of a fungus on the outside of the scabbard. A leather hanger clings to the peg with an additional fixing strap at the level of the top screw of the handle.
Eickhorn Kampfmesser 2000
After the adoption of the Kampfmesser combat knife in 1968, the German army and special services could not do exclusively with this model. Thanks to the new German laws, various units were able to purchase equipment and weapons for their needs, which led to the appearance in various power structures of a large variety of knives. These were both knives developed by German companies (Boker, Puma) and foreign ones (Glock, Ontario). Plus, the army successfully used a bayonet-knife for the main rifle of the Bundeswehr H&K G3 produced by the famous arms company Heckler and Koch, a rather successful design with a dagger blade and one-sided sharpening. And after the collapse of the GDR - and options for bayonet-knives for the AK of East German production, inherited from the NVA (Nationale Volksarmee, National People's Army of the GDR).
Many firms developed and offered the Bundeswehr their designs of combat knives, both created independently (for example, the rather successful Eickhorn ACK) and developed on the basis of existing samples. Modifications to the Boker Applegate-Fairbairn knives were proposed, as well as bayonet options for AK and H&K G3 without attachment points to the rifle. All of them, for one reason or another, did not stand the test.
Finally, according to the results of the competition held in 2001, the knife manufactured by Eickhorn-Solingen Ltd. is adopted by the Bundeswehr. under the traditional name Kampfmesser 2000.
Interesting blade of this knife. Many researchers and collectors agree that the “American tanto” form was chosen by the KM2000 designers largely because of its popularity, and not because of real practical advantages. But anyway, this knife was the first of the combat knives adopted by the army (as well as taken to supply NATO troops) with a similar blade shape.
Straight butt, wedge-shaped profile, straight descents with a third of the height of the blade - all this gave the knife a predatory and aggressive look. At the same time KM 2000 fully complies with the requirements of the technical specifications. It cuts perfectly (with corrections, of course, to the properties of the blade material, 440C stainless steel) and cuts well. The weight of the knife is about 300 grams with a blade length in 170 mm. Approximately half of the cutting edge of the KM 2000 has a serrated sharpening, which is not very pronounced, so as not to interfere with normal work, but it allows you to cut the cable or rope in one motion. The thickness of the blade in 5 mm is enough to pry the manhole covers, and if necessary, to hold the body weight of a fighter when used as a support. The shank passing through the entire handle protrudes from its rear part and allows it to be used as a hammer, broken glass or “skull crusher”. However, its flat surface does not interfere with the use of the second hand in situations where additional effort is required.
KM2000 plastic sheaths are equipped with a flat spring that holds the knife inside. On their front side, covered with one of the belts, there is a section of abrasive material with a diamond coating that serves to straighten the cutting edge in field conditions. At the tip of the scabbard there is a hole with a cord threaded into it, which serves for additional fixation on the leg during suspension of the KM2000 on the belt. This variant of the suspension is not the only possible one - there are fasteners on the reverse side of the cordura base of the sheath that allow them to be fixed on any piece of equipment.
La Vengeur 1870
French dagger sample 1916, the name of which translates as "1870 Avenger". Weapons of infantry of the French army during the First World War, created specifically for trench combat.
Since the beginning of the war, it turned out that the long bayonet of the French rifle of the Lebel system was not suitable for close combat. In this connection, the French command in 1916 began to hastily arm the infantry with a new dagger, whose name reflected the aspirations of the French government to win back in the Franco-Prussian 1870 – 1871 war. However, despite the practicality, the dagger was not officially accepted for service and was produced by many private firms, which explains the differences in size, finish and quality of these daggers that have come down to our time.
The knife was designed by a Canadian Forces veteran, a sapper, a diver, a demining instructor and martial arts specialist Brent Beshara. An interesting feature of the knife of the former special forces fighter is both the original form of the double-edged blade and its “chisel” sharpening. The master of hand-to-hand combat, Brent Beshara, created an extremely durable combat knife, designed both to inflict powerful shots, capable of penetrating body armor with a certain strength and skill, and deep cuts to the neck and extremities of the enemy with the tip of a long blade. The design of the scabbard allows you to place the knife in almost any position on the body. Currently, the XSF-1 is manufactured by Masters of Defense (MOD).
Strider SMF Marsoc
Strider SMF Marsoc, a folding knife, was the first 60 years tactical folding knife developed specifically for the First Division of the American Marine Corps SOCOM (Command for Special Operations).
The combat version of this knife, manufactured by Strider Knives from San Marcos, California (San Marcos, California), has a camouflaged 100 mm blade made of high carbon steel knife CPM S30V. The part of the handle on which the frame lock is made is made of titanium, the second half is made of G10 fiberglass.
The latest version of this knife includes the Hinderer Lockbar stabilizer, a mechanism developed by knife-maker Rick Hinderer and licensed for use in Strider. The Lockbar stabilizer is a metal disc designed to prevent the lock plate from bending out. The original knife developed for SOCOM's Marine Corps in the 2003 year does not include this feature, unlike subsequent versions.
Before that, a special knife for the Marine Corps division was already produced in 1942, when the Fairbairn-Sykes (FS) type of hand-to-hand combat was adapted by Lieutenant Colonel Clifford Shui. The knife was produced by Camillus Cutlery Company of Camillus, New York. He received the name "United States Marine Raider Stiletto", or "USMC Stiletto", and was produced for the Marine Corps up to 1944 year. In fact, this knife was a copy of the famous Fairbairn-Sykes combat knife, of which 14 370 units were released.
When the First Squad was created, it was decided not to use the traditional Ka-Bar combat knife for the marines. Instead, the Strider's SMF folding knife was chosen, more compact and comfortable to carry.
The combat version of the Strider SMF Marsoc knife has a stamp on the handle on the date of creation of the First SOCOM Marine Corps (“030620”, or 20 June 2003), as well as the inscription “DET-1”. In addition, the combat version bears the marks of naval raiders (Marine Raiders), an elite unit of the US Marine Corps, created during World War II to conduct amphibious operations.
Glock Feldmesser 78
One of the most famous combat knives of the second half of the twentieth century has so many “parents” and habitats in its pedigree that this would be enough for an adventure novel. It was developed by the old Austrian company Ludwig Zeitler in the second half of the 1970-s as a development of the popular American combat knife of the Second World War - М3 (which in turn is a rethinking of the German Luftwaffe knife), but at a new technological level and using modern materials. Soon the company ceased to exist, and its offspring were never adopted by the Austrian army.
Then came the turn of the Germans. A.Eickhorn GmbH is working on the design and produces a number of commercial knives, which are a further development of the Zeitler 77 knife. Differences from the prototype were in a slightly different form of the blade, more developed guard, which has become two-sided, as well as in a different form of plastic parts - the handle and the sheath. This knife also was not destined for a long history.
Further traces of the knife again lead to his native Austria, to the firm Glock, then engaged in the manufacture of sapper blades, various tools, grenades, etc. - the firm Glock with its pistols became known a little later. And only now the Austrian military finally paid attention to the knife, having adopted a model called the Glock Feldmesser 78 to supply the army.
Feldmesser, which means "field knife", is available in two basic versions. The 1978 model knife of the year is the basic military version, and the 1981 model model of the year differs from it only in the presence of a saw on the butt.
The blade of the clip-point shape length 165 mm and thickness 4 mm is made of carbon steel, which is indicated by the manufacturer as "spring".
Steel is hardened to 55 HRC, which is quite enough for a working knife and makes it much easier to sharpen in the field. To protect against corrosion and prevent unmasking glares, the blade of the knife of both modifications is phosphated, which gives it a matte black color. The garda of the knife is double-sided, its upper ledge is bent towards the blade, forming an opener for ammunition boxes or bottles. This fact is sometimes questioned, but the information is confirmed by the manufacturer.
Another fact that causes questions in the environment of knife lovers is the possibility of the adjoining of the Glock knife as a bayonet to the Austrian rifle Steyr AUG. This option was really considered when developing the knife, and it was for this reason that a cavity was left in the handle, which was mistakenly considered a container for NAP (wearable emergency stock). A special adapter was inserted into this cavity, which served as a fastener for attaching the knife to the rifle. The Austrian army abandoned the project, and the Glock's serially produced knives with a lid for the adapter are closed.
The handle has a convenient shape and dimensions, all this allows you to confidently hold the knife in the glove and bare hand. The center of gravity of the knife is located directly between the blade and the handle, which makes it possible to effectively use the knife with a relatively short blade for cutting. But the structure of the blade and the design of the handle of the knife dictate mainly piercing techniques of knife fighting.
The spindle-shaped handle itself with five corbels is molded from plastic on a shank that enters about half of it. Despite the seeming fragility of this compound, numerous tests of the knife show that the force required to break a knife is hardly possible in real conditions. So, for example, recorded cases of penetration with a knife metal pans. In this case, the knife was not damaged, with the exception of stripped at the tip of the coating.
Plastic sheaths made by injection molding. The latch fixing the knife with a hook for the guard and the hanger is made with a sheath as an element. At the end of the sheath there is a drainage hole and a loop through which a strap can be passed to fix the sheath on the leg.
The sheaths and handles of Glock knives of both modifications can be green (military version), black (commercial and used in some special services), sand-colored (commercial).
Glock knife and its various modifications are widely used in the world as combat knives, which combine the functions of tools and weapons. In addition to the Austrian army, they are in service in a number of European countries. Without becoming the main fighting knife of the Bundeswehr, they are still limitedly used in Germany, for example, the famous anti-terrorist unit GSG9. Also Glock knives are widely represented in the commercial market. Lightweight, comfortable, reliable - it can be said without exaggeration that Glock knives rank among the best combat knives in the world.
Extrema Ratio Fulcrum S
One of the most famous Italian combat knives. Extremely reliable, the blade can withstand a point load up to 150 kg. The form of the Japanese tanto, which has been tested for centuries, implies a long-term use of the knife in extreme conditions without prejudice to its cutting qualities. The center of gravity shifted forward and the considerable weight of the blade provide for the possibility of delivering effective cuts. It was used as standard equipment for the Italian Nibbio units in Afghanistan. It was part of a pilot project of the Alpine Forces headquarters, one of the goals of which was the selection of a multipurpose multipurpose knife for infantry.
The tests of Extrema Ratio Fulcrum proved so successful that Fulcrum Bayonet was created at its base, a bayonet-knife with fastening to a rifle instead of a guard. Which, by the way, on the knife presented in the photo, is cut down by the seller, which automatically translates the staff weapon of the Italian military into the category of household knives.
The Fulcrum S knife shown in the photo is a shortened version of the Fulcrum knife, which has almost the same characteristics, but is slightly lighter.
Extrema Ratio Col Moschin
Col Moschin was officially adopted in 2002 by the Ninth Incursori (Italian Special Forces) regiment. “This model is the quintessence of a knife intended for combat,” said Extrema Ratio, whose designers inspired the asymmetrical blade daggers used by Arditi (IT. Bold), the attack aircraft of the Italian First World War, when creating this knife.
The blade of the combat knife Col Moschin, in contrast to the civil version shown in the photo, is sharpened on both sides, which allows you to apply cuts with a butt while moving the knife back. The anti-glare coating of the blade has a very militant name, Testudo, which means "turtle", a battle line of Roman legionnaires. The blade has the logo of the Ninth Regiment - a parachute, a wing, a torch, crossed gladiuses (Roman swords) and the number "9".
The guards are kept to a minimum so as not to interfere in the melee. The center of gravity of the knife is shifted to the side of the handle, which is designed in such a way that it is possible to measure the impact force and inflict both lethal and controlled light damage.
Extrema Ratio. Praetorian II
A combat knife from the famous Italian company Extrema Ratio. Two variants are available - Praetorian II and Praetorian IIT, which differ in the shape of the blade. The handle of this dagger makes it possible to use with equal success both direct and reverse grip in battle, and it is possible to place the guard between the fingers with partial placement of the palm on the ricasso (unfinished part of the blade). Such a grip turns the knife into a kind of enlarged jawary, one end of which is a sharpened blade, and the other is a skull crasher, a skull crush. The handle is made of foamed polymer, resembling a large pumice stone. In the bare hand, it feels overly aggressive, since the knife involves the use of a hand protected by a glove.
The knife was created as part of the Praetoriana project, during which new types of blades were developed, the knife guard was rounded off, and the handle borrowed from the Tuscania knife was modified to be compatible with the new solid sheath.
An interesting alternative to the Praetorian II is version II T, in which the classical dagger blade is modified and resembles the Roman gladius. This design solution turns the knife into a multipurpose tool that can be used in the most difficult situations without the risk of deterioration of the cutting and piercing properties of the blade.
Extrema Ratio Suppressor Knife
that dagger with an unambiguous description of the manufacturer, contained in the title, Suppressor Knife, the “knife of repression”, was developed for “GIS” (Gruppo Intervento Speciale), a team of elite anti-terrorist special forces of the Italian police.
It is a modern rethinking of V42, the combat knife of the American special forces of the Second World War with a modified guard and from modern materials. In addition to the actual dagger blade, there is a steel skull crasher at the end of the polyamide handle. As in the previous knife, the handle is made of foamed polymer, resembling large pumice. The knife involves the use of a hand protected by a glove.
Tactical sheaths provide for mounting in various positions, including on the leg. Inside there is a hard case with the function of automatically fixing the knife in the sheath. One of the owners of this combat knife gave a brief but succinct description of the Suppressor Knife: “Laconic solution of complicated problems”. More precisely you will not tell.
Chris Reeve Green Berett
Knife maker Chris Reeve Green Berett and Chris Reeve Pacific Bowie was born and raised in South Africa and served in the army as a professional hunter. In 1989, he moved to the USA, where he opened his own knife manufacturing company.
Green Berett was the first model of Chris Reeve's combat knife, which was tested in US special forces. American advertising positions this knife as follows: "The Green Beret knife, like the men for whom it is intended, is effective, cruel and uncompromising."
Currently, Chris Reeve Green Berett is issued to graduates of qualification courses of the American Special Forces (Special Forces Qualification Course). To them, he is known as “The Yarborough”, for the rest it is “The Green Berett Knife” (“The Green Berets Knife”). By the way, Yarborough is the surname of US lieutenant William Yarborough, an officer of the 504 th paratroop battalion, who in 1941 offered a distinctive insignia on the headdress of American special forces: the parachute framed in the wings of an eagle.
Sog Navy Seal 2000
In 2000, this model won the state competition for knives for the reconnaissance and sabotage unit of the US Navy SEAL (Sea Air Land), better known under the nickname “Seals”. Designed on the basis of another popular model of this company, "Bowie". However, it differs in size, materials from which it is made, as well as a number of design features, which are worth telling in detail.
The blade of the knife is made of steel AUS 6, hardness 56 – 58 HRC, processed by deep freezing and covered with a light gray anti-reflective coating. Sharpening one-sided, on the other hand there is a false blade, stretching almost the entire length of the blade. This design significantly increases the piercing properties of the knife. In the root part of the blade there is a serrator, starting immediately from the cheila (the unzipped part of the blade near the guard). The knife is also quite suitable for powerful chopping blows.
The garda is massive, with a smooth transition to the handle, made completely with the handle by injection molding.
The handle is made of craton and covered with notches, for ease of retention, there are subfinger hollows, but not too deep, so their practicality is questionable. The shape of the handle in cross-section, extending in the middle. In general, the shape of the handle contributes to comfortable hold any grip.
The sheath is made of kaydeksa, tightly fix the knife mouth, however, for the insurance there is also an additional safety strap on the button. On the sheath there are holes and grommets, allowing to mount them on the uniform in almost any position. Belt mode of wearing is also provided.
Gerlach M 92
The regular combat knife of the Polish airborne troops, similar to the American M3 Trench Knife or the Austrian Glock Feldmesser. Among the features worth noting is the method of fixing the knife in the sheath and the uncharacterist bend of the guard, which is associated with the technique of using the knife. At the mouth of the scabbard there is a spring tongue that goes into the slot of the guard and fixes the knife. The knife is simple, effective and inexpensive to manufacture.
The oxidized blade with a length of 175 mm, on the ricasso of which is stamped with the crown and the name of the manufacturer Gerlach, the handle is made of hard rubber. The sheath is designed with the ability to mount the knife in any position, including on the leg
Knife Chilean commandos, interesting primarily blade unusual shape. For example, the well-known knife specialist Dietmar Paul believes that a hook-shaped knife originates from a primitive field tool.
Nevertheless, this “primitive tool” is in service with the Chilean special forces and is produced by the official state company “Famae”, which testifies to the functionality of this double-edged knife, tested by time, like, say, a form of Japanese tantто. But it is clear that the fight with such a knife requires special skills.
Although the Chilean special forces have such skills. For example, there is evidence that in the battle for the city of Arica 7 on June 1880, the Chilean warriors in hand-to-hand combat actually killed nearly a thousand Peruvian defenders. That is, the knife has rather rich historical traditions of real combat use. It should be borne in mind that there is a version of an even more ancient origin of this knife - some researchers believe that Korvo was used in the Inca Empire, which included part of the territory of modern Chile.
Translated from the Spanish "Korvo" means "curved." In the literature, the knife is first mentioned in the Spanish heroic poem “La Araucana” by Don Alonso de Hercilia and Zúñiga, published in 1578 year and telling about the conquest of the lands of the Araucans, the indigenous people of Chile, by the Spaniards.
Kukri is a military knife of the Gurkha, Nepalese mountaineer-mercenaries, who from the beginning of the 19th century had been serving in the British forces and participating in all armed conflicts in which Great Britain was involved during this period. It was thanks to the gurkhas who fought both in the First and Second World Wars, and later in Hong Kong, Malaya, Borneo, Cyprus, the Falkland Islands, Kosovo, Bosnia and Afghanistan as part of rifle, parachute, engineering and special units, the kukri became widely known around the world.
There are cases when Nepalese commandos with their kukri cut off the heads of opponents with one blow. Well, it is quite possible that this is not a legend. Feelings of holding kukri in hand are unambiguous - an ax with a very unusual blade, which is convenient to cut branches and branches, and, if necessary, use proper skill as an engineer blade. In short, a universal tool for survival.
Interesting manufacturing technology of the original Nepalese kukri. The knife from the beginning to the end is made by hand. The heavy blade is forged from high carbon steel, the handle is made of buffalo horn.