Military Review

ZRRK "Tunguska-M1"

The Tunguska-M1 anti-aircraft cannon and missile system was designed in the second half of the 1990s and was adopted by the Russian army in 2003. The lead developer of the Tunguska-M1 air defense missile system is the State Unitary Enterprise "Instrument-making Design Bureau" (the city of Tula), the machine is produced by OJSC "Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant". The main weapon of the modernized complex is the ZSU 2S6M1 "Tunguska-M1". Its main purpose is to provide air defense tank and motorized rifle units both on the march and during hostilities.

ZSU "Tunguska-M1" provides the detection, identification, tracking and subsequent destruction of various types of air targets (helicopters, tactical aircraft aviation, cruise missiles, drones) when working on the move, from short stops and from a place, as well as the destruction of surface and ground targets, objects that are dropped by parachutes. This anti-aircraft self-propelled gun was the first to achieve a combination of two types of weapons (cannon and rocket) with a single radar-instrument complex for them.

Gun armament ZSU "Tunguska-M1" consists of two 30-mm anti-aircraft double-barreled rapid-fire guns. The high total rate of fire - at the level of 5000 shots / min - ensures effective destruction of even high-speed air targets that are in the zone of attack of the complex for a relatively short time. High pointing accuracy weapons (achieved due to good stabilization of the line of the shot) and a high rate of fire allow you to fire at aerial targets, while in motion. Ammunition consists of 1904 30-mm shots, with each of the machines of the installation has an independent power system.

ZRRK "Tunguska-M1"

The missile armament of the Tunguska-M1 RMS consists of 8 and 9М311 SAM. This bikalibernaya rocket, solid fuel, two-stage, it has a detachable starting engine. Aiming the SAM to the target is a radio command with an optical communication line. At the same time, the rocket is very maneuverable and resistant to overloads up to 35 g, which makes it possible to hit actively maneuvering and high-speed air targets. The average flight speed of a rocket at its maximum range is 550 m / s.

The experience gained during the active operation of previous versions of the Tunguska air defense missile system demonstrated the need to increase the level of noise immunity when firing missiles at targets that have the means of setting optical interference. In addition, it was planned to introduce into the complex the equipment for automated reception and implementation of target indications received from higher command stations in order to increase the effectiveness of the combat operation of the Tunguska battery at intensive air attack.

The consequence of all this was the development of the new TGUSK-M1 reserve missile system, which is characterized by significantly increased combat performance. A new anti-aircraft guided missile, equipped with a modernized control system and a pulsed optical transponder, was created to arm this complex, which made it possible to significantly increase the noise immunity of the missile defense control channel and increase the probability of destroying air targets that operate under the cover of optical interference. In addition, the new rocket received a proximity radar fuse, which has a range of up to 5 meters. Such a move made it possible to increase the efficiency of Tunguska in the fight against small air targets. At the same time, an increase in the operating time of the engines made it possible to bring the range of air destruction from 8 thousands to 10 thousands of meters.

Introduction to the complex of equipment for automated processing and reception of data from external target designation from a command post (like a PRDU, a mobile reconnaissance and control center) significantly increased the effectiveness of the combat use of the complex’s batteries during a massive enemy raid. The use of a modernized digital computing system (CWS) built on a modern elemental base allowed us to significantly expand the functionality of the 2С6М1 ZSU in solving control and combat tasks, as well as to increase the accuracy of their implementation.

The modernization of the optical sighting equipment of the complex made it possible to significantly simplify the entire process of target tracking by the gunner, at the same time increasing the accuracy of target tracking and reducing the effectiveness of the combat use of the optical guidance channel from the professional level of the gunner’s training. The modernization of the Tunguska radar system carried out by the missile defense system “Tunguska” allowed the gunner’s “unloading” system to work, and the data to be received and implemented from external targeting sources. In addition, the overall level of reliability of the equipment of the complex was improved, the operational and technical characteristics were improved.

The use of a more sophisticated and powerful gas turbine engine with 2 times the service life (600 hours instead of 300), increased the power of the entire power system of the installation, achieving a reduction in power drawdowns during operation with the included hydraulics of weapon systems.

Simultaneously with this, work was carried out on the installation of a thermal imaging and television channels equipped with a target tracking machine at the ZNU 2С6М1, in addition to this, the detection and targeting station itself (SOC) was upgraded to increase the target detection area by flight altitude to 6 thousand meters (instead of existing 3,5 thousand meters). This was achieved through the introduction of 2-x angles of the position of the SOC in the vertical plane.

Factory tests of the ZNS 2C6М1 model upgraded in this way confirmed the high efficiency of the entered options when operating the complex for air and ground targets. The presence on the installation of thermal and television channels with automatic target tracking ensures the presence of a passive target tracking channel and the per-day use of existing missiles. ZSU "Tunguska-M1" is able to provide combat work, while on the move, acting in the battle formations of covered military units. The system of air defense in terms of the totality of the qualities and effectiveness of the protection of subunits against enemy air attack weapons made from low altitudes has no analogues in the world.

Differences ZRPK "Tunguska-M1" from the previous version

The modification of the Tunguska-M1 complex is distinguished by a fully automated process of guiding missiles at a target and exchanging information with a battery-operated gearbox. In the rocket itself, the laser proximity sensor of the target was replaced with a radar sensor, which had a positive effect on the destruction of the ALCM cruise missiles. Instead of a tracer, a pulsed lamp was mounted on the device, the efficiency of which increased 1,3-1,5 times. The range of anti-aircraft guided missiles was brought to 10 thousands of meters. In addition, work began on the replacement of the GM-352 chassis produced in Belarus with the domestic GM-5975, created in Mytischi on the Metrovagonmash software.

In general, in the 2K22М1 “Tunguska-М1” complex, which was adopted in 2003, it was possible to implement a number of technical solutions that expanded its combat capabilities:

- The complex was introduced equipment reception and implementation of external automated targeting. With the help of a radio channel, this equipment is interfaced with a battery gearbox, and this in turn allows you to automatically distribute targets between the battery ZSU and the battery gearbox Rangier and significantly increases the effectiveness of the combat use of the complex.

- The unloading schemes were implemented in the complex, which significantly facilitated the work of the Tunguska gunner when escorting mobile air targets using an optical sight. In fact, everything was reduced to working as if with a fixed target, which significantly reduced the number of errors in target tracking (this is very important when firing a missile target, since the maximum slip should not exceed 5 meters).

- The system for measuring course and pitch angles was changed, which significantly reduced the disturbing effects on the installed gyros that appeared during the movement of the machine. It was also possible to reduce the number of errors in measuring course angles and inclination of the ZSU, to increase the stability of the control circuit for the FOR, and therefore increase the probability of hitting air targets.

- In connection with the use of a new type of rocket, the equipment for extracting coordinates was modernized. In addition to the continuous light source, the rocket also received a pulsed source. This solution increased the noise immunity of the missile defense equipment and made it possible to effectively defeat air targets that have optical jamming systems. The use of a new type of missile also increased the range of destruction of aerial targets - up to 10 thousands of meters. In addition, a new radar non-contact target sensor (NDC) was introduced into the rocket design, which has a radius of operation up to 5 meters. Its use had a positive effect on the defeat of small air targets, for example, cruise missiles.

In general, in the course of modernization work, a significant increase in efficiency was achieved. The “Tunguska-М1” air-defense missile system is more effective than the previous version of the “Tunguska-M” complex in the conditions of the enemy’s jamming in 1,3-1,5.

Tactical and technical characteristics of "Tunguska-M1":
The zone of destruction by range: SAM - 2500-10000 m, FOR - 200-4000 m.
Damage zones by height: ZUR - 15-3500 m, FOR - 0-3000 m.
The maximum range of ground targets is 2000 m.
Target detection range - to 18 km.
The target tracking distance is up to 16 km.
The maximum speed of air targets hit is up to 500 m / s.
Ammunition: missiles - 8 in launchers, FOR - 1904 30-mm shots.
The mass of missiles in the transport and launch container - 45 kg.
The mass of the warhead missile defense system - 9 kg., The radius of destruction - 5 m.
The working conditions of the complex: FOR - from the spot and in motion, the Zour - from short stops.

Information sources:

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  1. bif
    bif 17 December 2013 08: 20
    A unique feature is the ability to fire on the march, so Tunguska is indispensable for the protection of tank columns.
    1. just exp
      just exp 17 December 2013 16: 49
      Thor can also fire on the fly, and beats on and emnip more precisely.
      1. the47th
        the47th 18 December 2013 08: 07
        Transfer from marching to combat position takes up to 3 minutes. The reaction time of the complex is 8 — 12 seconds.

        Copied from Wikipedia. Guns respond to a target faster than missiles.
        1. bif
          bif 18 December 2013 15: 21
          Quote: the47th
          Transfer from marching to combat position takes up to 3 minutes. The reaction time of the complex is 8 — 12 seconds.

          Copied from Wikipedia. Guns respond to a target faster than missiles.

          This is for pointing and firing rockets, guns do not need this
          1. crazyrom
            crazyrom 6 January 2014 19: 57
            It seems to me that the guns are "always ready", and if they can be lowered to 0 ...- 5 degrees, then you will get a good BMPT. True, it is expensive, and the ammunition is enough for 22 seconds of firing, but the fire is so heavy and low-aimed that any lightly armored equipment and manpower will be blown to dust by literally 0,3 seconds by pressing the trigger (or whatever they shoot).

            (this is about "protecting the column on the march", it is naturally stupid to specifically use it as a BMPT)
  2. 31231
    31231 17 December 2013 08: 38
    How many of them have been delivered to the troops ?! Someone tell me?
    1. Krasnoarmeec
      Krasnoarmeec 17 December 2013 10: 00
      Quote: 31231
      How many of them have been delivered to the troops ?! Someone tell me?

      I don’t know how many troops, but in 2000, when I served, about 61 units were in service with the 8 Separate Kirkines Marine Brigade.
      1. Bongo
        Bongo 17 December 2013 10: 19
        "Tunguska-M1" in 2000 year? what
        1. PSih2097
          PSih2097 17 December 2013 10: 31
          Quote: Bongo
          "Tunguska-M1" in 2000 year? what

          "Tunguska-M" at 90m, and in 2000, "Tunguska-M1" ...
          In 1999, Russia began supplying Tunguska-M1 air defense missile systems to India in a total of 60 pieces. Earlier, India acquired 20 Tunguska complexes.
          1. Bongo
            Bongo 17 December 2013 10: 33
            The article deals with Tunguska-M1. About their number in the troops and asked.
            1. Krasnoarmeec
              Krasnoarmeec 17 December 2013 13: 38
              Quote: Bongo
              "Tunguska-M1" in 2000 year?

              what Indeed, not M1, radar visually different. Well, in general, do not judge strictly.
    2. uestlend
      uestlend 17 December 2013 21: 25
      Not only one trimmer exists
    3. uestlend
      uestlend 17 December 2013 21: 45
      Not one, there is only one instance
  3. Bongo
    Bongo 17 December 2013 09: 23
    Aiming the SAM to the target is a radio command with an optical communication line.

    What makes it impossible to fire a rocket at night and in poor visibility conditions.
    1. Avenich
      Avenich 17 December 2013 15: 28
      Good joke, will anyone bite?
      1. zyablik.olga
        zyablik.olga 17 December 2013 16: 01
        Read in detail at your leisure about the missile guidance system on the Tunguska.
        Although this article says that the rocket is guided over the optical channel using radio commands.
        1. just exp
          just exp 17 December 2013 16: 52
          Yes, the same ATGM, only the wires are replaced by the radio, the SAM mark (in the case of old ATGM ATGMs) is tracked and pointed at the target, if the mark is not visible then xs xs xs, "Shtora" on the T-90 also works. blinds the ATGM mark for the operator, and makes firing impossible.
      2. uestlend
        uestlend 19 December 2013 21: 58
        This is not a joke believe everything that they say is 100 percent information.
    2. just exp
      just exp 17 December 2013 16: 54
      at first I didn’t even think about something like that.
      in fact, in a battlefield where smoke and dust rise to great heights and around the air defense system after 5 meters nothing is visible, how will the complex operate? ATGMs have the same problem, so the owners got a firefighter with ARS GSN and we have a chrysanthemum, because laser and optical guidance tools in the conditions of a big war lose their relevance. since no horseradish is visible.
      1. Avenich
        Avenich 18 December 2013 10: 03
        Dear! The article went to the second page, which I sincerely regret. But since the author of the comment never responded, I will take the liberty of clarifying the situation a little. The article is pretty clear about how the missile guidance system works. The locator finds the target, the onboard computer determines the characteristics, selects the type of weapon and gives a signal to kill. Further, the missile, guided from the vehicle, hits the target. Everything is simple and clear. No optics. But firing from a cannon is done "the old fashioned way", through an optical sight, the electronics in this case only "helps" the operator. Moreover, the article notes that this business (to shoot at an aircraft with a cannon) is rather complicated and requires certain skills from the operator.
        But why do we need an "optical communication channel"? Again, everything is simple, in order to increase the noise immunity, the signal from the computer to the missile control locator is transmitted via optics, and not by wires. Perhaps most of the transmitted and received signals within the complex are transmitted via optical communication lines. In general, the noise immunity of equipment is today's "Trojan horse" of radio electronics and not only in military equipment.
  4. Eric
    Eric 17 December 2013 11: 34
    It is noteworthy that she shoots her cannon ammunition for about 12 seconds. This is noteworthy in that the one surviving tunguska near the freight station in Grozny, if my memory serves me, shot all bk cannons for takeoff and beat on five floors opposite the station.
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 17 December 2013 12: 00
      Quote: Eric
      surviving tunguska near the freight station in Grozny

      There was a case, it was the guys from the 131st Maykop brigade who made a rustle there, they were assigned to 81 SMRs from Samara. Only our oak staff officers did not think that the "Tunguska" were generally not adapted for combat in such conditions, in particular in the city. They were originally brought in to guard the airfield. I talked with the surviving lieutenant at the car service near the city hospital and the bridge over Sunzha, they fought off the attacks of the spirits for a whole week, all 6 cars were burned.
      1. Booby
        Booby 17 December 2013 14: 49
        Quote: Timeout
        They were initially driven to protect the airfield ..

        No, they were first used just for their intended purpose - the security guards of the 131st Motorized Rifle Brigade convoy on the Mozdok-Grozny march from a possible attack by the Dudaev planes (they thought they still remained).

        But the Tungusks entered Grozny because they were assigned to the battalions in Mozdok and no one from the SME staff recalled them before the assault.

        So no airfield guards, 131 IDBs were going to aerodromes.
    2. IRBIS
      IRBIS 17 December 2013 12: 14
      Quote: Eric
      It is noteworthy that she shoots her cannon ammunition for about 12 seconds.

      It is also "noteworthy" that with intensive use, the effectiveness of firing at air targets becomes zero. During the exercise, three installations were unable to extinguish the second illumination bomb dropped - the projectile trails "sagged" very noticeably. To be honest, I personally, at that moment, was "slightly" surprised and disappointed with what I saw.
      1. just exp
        just exp 17 December 2013 16: 58
        in the course of the era of the guns dies, watched the program about the shell, it was advertised there so that the discovery gives out with its stories about the miracle, and at the same time they showed shooting from the guns, which they could not shoot down a slow UAV, finished off it with a rocket, guns there turned out to be just an appendage to beauty (well, you can still beat them on the ground perfectly).
  5. Nitarius
    Nitarius 17 December 2013 13: 02
    it is a pity that SUCH DEVICES are not sold to private hands! Such a home - to sleep peacefully!
    and then for some reason recently, friends, neighbors are SO and TURNING INTO FIGHT!
  6. chunga-changa
    chunga-changa 17 December 2013 13: 27
    What is the fundamental difference between the shell and the tunguska, can someone briefly explain?
    1. Booby
      Booby 17 December 2013 14: 35
      In airmobility.
    2. sivuch
      sivuch 17 December 2013 17: 34
      In principle, it is different for everyone.
      Tunguska was originally ground to fight against the Apaches, i.e. air defense means of the SV of the regimental level. In the article they wrote that manual tracking of the target at the first Tunguska required a very high level of operator training.
      The shell in its current form is the country's air defense, to cover air defense systems, radar, anti-aircraft defense, and, of course, the strategic objects themselves. must bring down planes, KR and WTO
  7. just exp
    just exp 17 December 2013 17: 04
    and now the time has come when it is no longer necessary to develop new gliders, hulls, guns and so on, now the main thing is electronics, who has it cooler (more resistant to interference, better calculates the exact position, then discovers, more accurately directs, and so on) it's better .
    and indeed, comparing the F16A and F16 block 60 is like comparing the T-72 and T-90SM, comparing the Su27 and Su35 (the glider of the 35th, though modified. but made on the basis of T10), no one in their right mind will either.
    in general, probably, and really new, there will only be a new layout of old ideas, even a revolutionary one can be invented, even in the armature with its uninhabited tower and KAZ Afganit, like a knife (or a screen, I always confuse them), the ideas are far from new, just put together in a new way.
  8. Tankist_1980
    Tankist_1980 17 December 2013 20: 03
    resource 600 hours? Somehow not enough ....
  9. uestlend
    uestlend 17 December 2013 21: 41
    In the late 80s and early 90s, semi-active guidance was developed for missiles like all air defense systems, but perestroika came, they stole the car, the project was closed. Shell is its continuation since the TUNGUSKI project was closed.
  10. Lesorub
    Lesorub 17 December 2013 21: 53
    Great car for covering columns and stationary objects! Respect to our developers and the warriors who serve on them!
  11. fight
    fight 18 December 2013 11: 28
    I know her far and wide. In general, the car ** clearly.
    1. sivuch
      sivuch 18 December 2013 15: 46
      Exactly M1?
      and what is the truth?
  12. wanderer_032
    wanderer_032 18 December 2013 20: 58
    Powerful thing, if in skillful hands of course.
    Another thing would be to get rid of the nonsense from the heads of our "generals" that not every car that has tracks and cannons is a tank (regarding the use in Chechnya) fool .
  13. Stasi
    Stasi 2 July 2014 08: 53
    "Tunguska" as I understand it is intended to replace "Shilka". Previously, the task of protecting troops on the march from enemy aircraft was assigned to the Shilka complexes. But under the current conditions "Shilki" became obsolete and "Tunguska" were created to replace them. By the way, about the use of anti-aircraft weapons in ground combat. During the Great Patriotic War, our anti-aircraft gunners had to shoot not only at aircraft but also at enemy tanks. During the war in Afghanistan, "Shilki" showed themselves very well. The columns accompanied by the Shilkas were less likely to be attacked by the dushmans, as they were very afraid of the firepower of this complex. Also "Shilki" showed themselves in Chechnya, destroying the hideouts of bandits.