Military Review

Crimea: Partisans for Africa. Part of 1

The Russian people have accumulated a vast and unique experience in partisan wars against foreign invasions. At the beginning of the 17 century, Russian partisans and militia expelled from Russia a horde of Polish-Catholic invaders. In the First World War 1812, the Russian army and numerous partisan units defeated the French invaders, ruthlessly exterminating the European contingent of Napoleon Bonaparte's army. In the Great Patriotic War 1941-45. Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian partisans in the rear of the Nazi occupation waged their own war against the invaders and played a huge role in the defeat of the European armies subordinated to Hitler and Nazis by the financial tycoons of the West.

The names of the partisan heroes Ivan Susanin, Denis Davydov, Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya, the Young Guard are forever inscribed in history Russian people.
I, a retired Soviet officer, is close to a partisan theme. In 1966-1968, 1971-1977 I had to serve in the 165 training center for training foreign military personnel (TC), first as a military translator, then as a teacher of social sciences.

The center was located in the Crimea - in the village of Perevalnoe near Simferopol. It trained thousands of partisans — platoon commanders, fighters, engineers, mortar gunners, communications men, mechanics and drivers, gunners, military paramedics — for national liberation movements that fought with the Portuguese colonialists in Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, and also for the people liberation armies and partisan detachments liberating their countries from racists in Namibia, Zimbabwe, and the Republic of South Africa.

1967 town center officers

The Soviet leadership opened the 165 training center for foreign military personnel at the request of the progressive African public, the Organization of African Unity, in accordance with the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, adopted at the 16th session of the United Nations General Assembly in 1960.

UN Declaration of Granting Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples

Let me explain the significance of this declaration in more detail to those who are intoxicated by the deceitful anti-Soviet and Zionist propaganda that is being broadcast today from television screens in Russian. Let me remind you that the Soviet Union has always been the mainstay of all the progressive forces of the planet - the international worker, communist, anti-colonial, anti-war movements.

Few people today remember this Declaration, its great significance for the fate of many backward and plundered by Europe nations and nationalities that for centuries had been living under the heavy oppression of the most "democratic" human rights activists such as the United Kingdom, France, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, etc. "civilizers".

The text of the Declaration was prepared by diplomats of the USSR, socialist countries and progressive regimes of the Third World. It put forward the following requirements for all capitalist countries:
(1) Immediately grant all colonial countries, trust and other Non-Self-Governing Territories complete independence and freedom in building their own national states, according to the freely expressed will and desire of their peoples ....
(2) Eliminate all strongholds of colonialism in the form of possessions and rented areas in foreign territories.
(3) Governments of all countries are urged to strictly and unswervingly observe, in relations between states, the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and the Declaration on Equality and Respect for the Sovereign Rights and Territorial Integrity of All States, without excluding any manifestations of colonialism, exclusive rules or advantages for some states. to the detriment of other states.
The Soviet project was approved by the representatives of the majority of states. 14 December 1960. The United Nations General Assembly by a majority vote adopted the text of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples. "Against" the colonial powers voted.

The following year, the Soviet Government introduced the question “On the implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples” to the XVI session of the UN General Assembly. In the memorandum, it proposed to the General Assembly to declare 1962 the year of the final elimination of colonialism, to demand the immediate cessation of colonial wars and repression against participants in the national liberation movement, the withdrawal of all foreign troops from the colonies, the elimination of foreign military bases there by the UN Charter. if they refuse to comply with this requirement. The UN, it was stated in the memorandum, should require the immediate granting of broad democratic rights and freedoms to the population of each colony, holding democratic elections to national authorities in these countries, and canceling all agreements aimed at restricting the sovereignty of future independent states.
And again, the colonial powers of Europe and America voted against the Declaration and against sanctions. They did not want to withdraw their colonial administrations and armies from the territories they occupied in Asia, Africa and Latin America. On the contrary, they strengthened their armies with the latest weapons.

The Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples has opened the freedom of choice to the liberated countries: to join military-political blocs or to remain outside them. Many of them chose to remain outside the bloc system imposed by imperialist powers on the world. In September, an international organization, the Non-Aligned Movement, was created at the Belgrade Conference on the principles of non-participation in military blocs.

In May, a regional intergovernmental political organization, the Organization of African Unity (OAU), was formed at the Addis Ababa Conference of Independent African States at 1963.

It proclaimed its principles: equality and non-interference in the internal affairs of member states; respect for their territorial integrity and independence, peaceful settlement of controversial issues, support for liberation movements in dependent African territories, non-alignment, etc. She formulated clear goals: strengthening the unity and solidarity of the countries of the continent; coordination of actions and development of comprehensive cooperation of African states, protection of sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence; the destruction of all types of colonialism; encouraging international cooperation.

One of the OAU committees was engaged in organizing military training of fighters for partisan armies in the former colonies of the western "democracies." The first training centers for partisans were opened in Arab countries, in particular, in Algeria and Egypt. The leadership of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) has asked the Soviet government to create military training centers to train fighters for the national liberation movements of Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, and later - Namibia, Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and the Republic of South Africa.

One such center was created in Crimea in 1965 in accordance with the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, adopted at the XVI session of the UN General Assembly ....

165 foreign military training center

I arrived at the training center in March 1966 as an English translator. I am back from a business trip abroad. For three years I worked with Soviet military experts in Egypt. In the center I met two familiar translators with whom I served in Egypt, Captain Gudymenko and Major Shcherbatov. They told me about the life of the officer corps, positively characterized the commander, Colonel Boyko, his deputy, Colonel Strekozov, and the head of the political department, Colonel Lavrov.

Perevalnoe I liked it. It lies in the valley along the river and the highway to Yalta. Behind the houses of collective farmers began endless orchards. In 1960-e there was one of our military unit. A good asphalt road led to it. Around the part stretched green fields and woods, running up high mountains. Expansion and beauty!

The training center is a headquarters, a club, a warehouse, a bathhouse, a barracks, a garage, two-story houses with stove heating for officers and warrant officers were built before the war and after the war. When in Moscow it was decided to create a training center for training African partisans here, military builders in record time erected a spacious canteen for students, a small officer’s room, a library, a two-story medical center, a four-story building for cadets, a three-story educational building, a building for autoclasses in a garage, a five-floor apartment house for officers and their families with a shop, a kindergarten, an officer’s canteen, a boiler room with a high pipe. Near the site was located circuit and shooting range. Perevalnoe is an ideal place for training partisans. Mild climate. In the valley and on the hill there are convenient glades for conducting exercises on the ground during the day and at night.

From the highway of our military unit is not visible on the hill. Millions of holidaymakers, hurrying to the Crimean resorts, didn’t guess that at Perevalnoy they were passing by a military training center that trained military personnel for the national liberation movements of Africa, a center known to all Western intelligence agencies.

The military units are the same everywhere: we went in military uniform, saluted the elders of the rank, knocked his heels as they approached the commander, marched with parade on the parade ground, gave up the cross, did the shooting on personal weapons, throw grenades and hit targets from a Kalashnikov rifle, day and night. I admit, it was not easy for me to get used to the officer's strap after graduating from civilian high school and free life abroad! There we went in civilian clothes and addressed our elders by name and patronymic.

Every Monday at nine o'clock in the morning, the personnel of the training center — officers, teachers of cycles, a guard company and headquarters, four African cadet companies — lined up on the parade ground. The commander, Colonel Boyko, set the tasks for a new week, reported on discipline violations, and expressed his gratitude to those who had distinguished themselves. We marched to the music of our brass band along the tribune, on which were the commander of the unit, his deputy and the head of the political department.

On Wednesdays, the officers read the orders of the Minister of Defense at the club. Every day, at 17.15, senior officers who were out of school left for service buses to go home to Simferopol, while the younger ones went home to Perevalnoye.

Cadets from South Africa and Namibia in the center of Simferopol

Our part differed only in that several hundred foreigners from African countries were studying there. Training sessions with them were conducted by military teachers of cycles (departments) of tactics, fire, communication, engineering, automotive, and public disciplines. Classes lasted from 9.00 to 14.00. Then the cadets went to the dining room. They ate in the spacious and cozy dining room at the sanatorium norm. Cleanliness and order reigned in the barracks. Many Africans, being in the Crimea, for the first time learned what white sheets are, normal nutrition, that friendships can be established between whites and blacks. After lunch, the cadets rested and prepared for night classes.

Cadets were not allowed to leave. After 18.00 in the club, Soviet military and revolutionary films were shown to them.
Translators have translated. Political workers interviewed cadets in companies. After dinner with 21.00, cadets with teachers and translators went according to the schedule for night classes.

I will also add that many Africans who arrived at Perevalnoe were infected with scabies and worms. The colonies completely lacked a health care system for Africans. Among them were also infected with tuberculosis or venereal diseases. They had to be treated in the medical center of the training center, in the Simferopol military hospital or in the military sanatorium in Alupka.

The training of each group of cadets lasted from six to ten months. They were taught to shoot a pistol, machine gun, machine gun; throw grenades; drive a car, blow up bridges, railways, buildings. They studied tactics, combat regulations of the Portuguese and South African armies.

Cultural events were held in the evenings with the cadets. Once a month, cadets were taken on excursions: to collective farms, factories, schools, to Simferopol shops. They saw with their own eyes the advantages of Soviet socialism. In the Crimea, they saw prosperous rich collective farms, folk resorts on the Southern Coast for working people, enterprises of Simferopol.

Our center was visited by the leaders of the African national liberation movements: Augustoinho Neto, (Angola), Amilcar Cabral (Guinea-Bissau), Sam Nujoma (Namibia), Oliver Tambo (South Africa) and others. All of them, speaking at the meetings before the officers, expressed satisfaction with the high level of training of the students. They saw that their compatriots were surrounded by the care of Soviet officers and attendants. They understood how difficult it was to teach partisans, illiterate, downtrodden, who spoke only tribal languages. They liked the organization of the educational process.

Translation matters

I had to learn Portuguese. He taught him from a textbook in French, which he accidentally bought at a Cairo book collapse. Texts - simple and funny dialogues and jokes. Young memory easily absorbed ready-made phrases. I knew Spanish. It turned out it is not difficult to switch from Spanish to Portuguese. All the same, that from Russian to Ukrainian.

A month later, I snapped in half the classes with the sappers. We taught Africans how to blow up bridges, buildings, railway tracks, guarded by colonial armies in African territories. They practiced sapper skills during the day and at night.

I continue to cram also "Teach Portuguese language" Evsyukova P.N. (M., 1963). Six months later, I improved my Portuguese so much that I was sent to transfer teachers to a cycle (department) of social sciences. Hispanists who mastered Portuguese political terminology worked on it.

1967 Translators

Translation bureau was the largest unit in the unit. If about ten or a little more officers worked on each cycle, the bureau consisted of about fifty translators. In their composition it was possible to distinguish a small group of Spanish translators who, after graduation, had time to work abroad. They recalled with gratitude the years spent in fraternal Cuba.

The second group consisted of translators who arrived at Perevalnoe after completing one-year courses of Portuguese-language military translators. Their knowledge was quite enough to ensure translation in all cycles. Many officers from this group then continued their studies in civilian institutions.

I made friends with many translators. Among them I can name Mishchenko N., Petrashko O., Gudymenko A., Gasparyan A. Not all translators were interested in working with cadets.

- Was it necessary to finish university, improve Spanish for three years in Cuba, in order to teach assembly and disassembly of the machine? - resent dissatisfied with the appointment of translators.

- Assembly and disassembly of the machine. What is there to explain? Showed and ordered: do as I do. Monotonous teams can easily learn any teacher.
- We are like typists. Those translate handwritten text into print, we translate words and commands from one language to another, others grumbled.
- Do you translate a lot of words in field exercises with sappers or shooting? You sweat till you get stuck until you see when the shooting is over, - still others said bitterly.

Indeed, work on all cycles except socio-political did not differ in the richness of the language.

“Now, if becoming a specialist with knowledge of foreign languages ​​is another matter,” we dreamed. - What is the ceiling of our career? Major position in the Union, lieutenant colonel abroad. Try it to work! One post for fifty translators.

We have heard various stories about the dizzying careers of former translators. One was taken to the intelligence school, worked for many years abroad. Another was sent to the diplomatic academy, then he served in the Soviet embassy. The third graduated from the military academy, was left in adjuncture, invented an additive to aviation fuel, received a doctoral degree, a professorship and headed the department, etc.

At the Center, translator cadres were constantly updated. Over the years of my work at the Center, translators went on business trips abroad: one - as an observer to UN troops in Syria, five with English to Egypt after Israel’s 6-day war with Arab states, many with Spanish - to Cuba or Portuguese in the middle of 1970's to Angola and Mozambique. Some switched to teaching. Captain V. Pashko from the post of head of the translation bureau was transferred to a military translation teacher at Kiev University.

Translator Captain Nikolnikov F. engaged in the collection of African folk material - tales and myths. He worked for several years on translating this material from Portuguese and Creole into Russian, and then published several collections of African fairy tales in Moscow. If you take into your hands any fat volume of foreign fairy tales, you will surely find in it tales that have migrated to its pages from Perevalnoye, thanks to this amazing man and researcher of African folklore.

Following his example, in 70, I also started collecting fairy tales. Among my Namibian cadets, I found several storytellers. My Namibian fairy tales I wrote down were published with my daughter in the journal Around the World. However, I was interested not only in fairy tales, but also in the songs of the Ovambo nation (the largest in Namibia). In addition, I recorded the songs performed by the cadets and stories about the struggle of the SWAPO guerrilla units with the occupation regime of South Africa on a tape recorder, supplied them with comments and sent to the General Directorate of radio broadcasting to foreign countries in Moscow, and they sounded all over Africa.

The cycle of social studies

Translation on the cycle of social disciplines was considered the most difficult, although the difficulty, as I quickly understood, was not so much the knowledge of political terminology, but the ability to simplify complex political ideas, to make them understandable to completely illiterate people, only yesterday torn from the tribal environment. And in many tribal languages ​​there was no political terminology at all.

Teachers to social scientists had no time for classes, as half of the time was spent on translation into Portuguese. However, in some groups, Africans did not understand Portuguese either. It was necessary to designate repeaters from Africans from Africans who knew both Portuguese and tribal dialects. That is, the so-called "double translation" was used. The Soviet translator translated into Portuguese, and the repeater from the Africans retold the understanding into the tribal language. And often the Soviet translator and repeaters were forced to interpret the knowledge of the benefits of socialism to the cadets longer than the teacher. At such classes the teacher was more silent than he explained.

The cycle of common disciplines The third on the left is the p-k Antipov. The author is on the far right in the second row.

Probably my story-translations sounded so convincing that the head of the cycle, Colonel Antipov A.I. I once invited me into my tiny office and started talking about how difficult it is for teachers of the cycle to work with cadets without knowing foreign languages.

- It is very difficult for an adult to learn a language. It's easier for the translator to learn the story. Do not invite translators for a cycle of teachers? Do you think they will go?
- Not all. Many would like to go abroad again.
- So they have all been to Cuba.
- So what. It is more interesting to work abroad, especially in a country where they speak the language you learned.
- Would you go to the cycle as a teacher?
- I do not know. Need to think.

Colonel Antipov was one of the most respected officers in the training center. He went through the whole war as a political officer of a platoon, company, battalion. He was badly wounded. After the war he graduated from the Military-Political Academy. IN AND. Lenin and served in the army political worker, head of the political department. Kept independently. He did not allow anyone to interfere in the affairs of his cycle.

A year later, Colonel Antipov suggested that I go to work for a cycle as a teacher, I agreed.

- It would be necessary to learn, comrade colonel.
- Be sure to learn. Let's submit an application to the district political department. We will send to the Higher Academic Courses at the Military-Political Academy.
- Then I agree.

Soon, by order of the unit commander, I was transferred from the Translation Bureau to the Cycle of Social and Political Disciplines. A new life began in the team of teachers - majors and lieutenant colonels (I was a senior lieutenant). I had to carefully prepare for each lesson, write a plan of notes; attend classes of colleagues, learn from their experience, learn methods of teaching the history of the USSR.

I taught in Portuguese. Colonel Antipov attended classes and after each visit did a detailed analysis of the lesson. He did not know the language to conduct classes on himself, but he understood perfectly what the teacher was talking about. Discussing the course of the lesson, he always gave practical advice.

The work of the teacher inspired me. I literally flew to work on the wings: I was pleased to lecture in a foreign language. I have long dreamed of such work, and the dream of a teaching career began to come true. I was waiting for me, as a senior lieutenant, to be officially approved by a lieutenant-colonel as a political worker and a teacher in the political department of the Odessa Military District, when they send me to study at the Higher Academic Courses in the Military-Political Academy in Moscow.

The teachers of the cycle of social disciplines were obliged to conduct cross-cultural studies with officers of other cycles with translators. I sat down for books and manuals prepared by the cycle officers about Angola, Mozambique, Guinea (Bissau). These were thick compilation works typed by typists in five copies. The basis was the published books of Soviet and foreign Africanists. Within a month, they helped me grow into the historical environment in which the anti-colonial national liberation movement emerged and developed in the Portuguese colonies, and then in Namibia, Zimbabwe and the Republic of South Africa.

1960 went down in history as the years of the armed struggle of African peoples for their freedom and independence. In their struggle, they relied on the diplomatic support of the countries of the socialist community and material military-technical assistance from the USSR, the independent states of the Middle East, and Africa.

In one 1960, seventeen states of Africa won their independence. Many of them began to help other peoples of Africa, languishing from the colonial yoke of the European "democracies", to fight for their freedom and independence. The choice of methods of struggle was not great - either peace negotiations with the colonial authorities in the framework of international organizations or difficult armed struggle with the colonial armies of European "democracies" using all the methods of guerrilla warfare.

At the beginning of the 1960-s, the UN decided to declare the independence of the two trust territories. They formed several free states - Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi. Colonial status was eliminated in all countries of the former French colonial empire. The national war of the Algerian people against the French colonialists (1954-1962) has just ended. Every year brought independence to former British protectorates. In the liberated countries, the struggle began to overcome the economic, cultural and social backwardness inherited from colonialism.

From the beginning of 1960, insurgent wars broke out with the Portuguese colonialists in Guinea-Bissau, Angola and Mozambique under the leadership of the parties: the African Guinea Independence Party and Cape Verde (PAIGC), the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), the Revolutionary Mozambique Liberation Front ( FRELIMO).

Portugal was the weakest link in the colonial system of imperialism. English, American, South African, Belgian West German and Japanese capital was particularly active in the territory of its colonies. Portugal tried to create a state-capitalist sector in the economy of its colonies, pursued a policy of "assimilation" of the African elite. Members of this elite received Portuguese citizenship and could learn, live and work in the metropolis. In the colonies, forced labor was widely used.

In Angola, the first rebel groups emerged in the 1950s. With the anti-Portuguese uprising in 1961, an armed struggle for independence began. She lasted 14 years. The leader of the national liberation struggle was Augustin Neu, a poet, a famous cultural figure (1922-1979). The Portuguese authorities refused to peace negotiations with African political parties recognized abroad, naively hoping to extinguish the flames of popular uprisings in the African colonies by conducting terrorist punitive operations.

In Portuguese Guinea, PAIGC began. armed struggle for independence in January 1963 g, following the example of the peoples of Angola. At the 1-th congress of PAIGC in February 1964, the party’s program and charter were adopted, its governing bodies were created, and decisions were made to form a regular army and a people's militia.

In Mozambique, several anti-colonial political groups united in the Front in 1962. In September, 1964 FRELIMO began an armed struggle against the Portuguese colonialists. He was led by Eduardo Mandlane (1920-1969). He was killed by a bomb placed in a book sent to him.

The Portuguese authorities responded with extensive use of punitive, terrorist operations: they burned villages, killed their inhabitants, destroyed grain reserves.

Our Crimean center has made a huge contribution to the victory of nations fighting for their freedom and independence.

What did cadets see during excursions in Crimea?

In the summer, millions of Soviet working people (up to 10 million per year), who are on holiday to the south coast resorts, passed through Simferopol, the capital of Crimea. The cadets knew and saw for themselves that any simple Soviet person, be he a teacher, a worker, a collective farmer, an engineer, a doctor, could afford to rest on the best resorts of Crimea. At the same time, some came to rest on free vouchers (with meals; their unions paid for them), others bought vouchers for a small fee, others came in the "wild way", renting rooms in houses and apartments of the local population. At the same time, tickets for a plane or train cost relatively cheap. From Moscow to Simferopol the air ticket cost 25 rubles, in the compartment car 19 rubles. with an average monthly salary 100-120 rubles.

The cadets saw wonderful spacious schools with classrooms in chemistry, physics, biology, and geography. We saw the cleanliness, order, joyful, happy faces of Soviet children, teenagers, boys and girls in a neat school uniform. Could talk in special schools № 7 and 11 in English with students. View museum collections dedicated to the heroes of World War II.

In Crimea, the majority of collective farms were rich and the collective farmers were good at their own farms. A cadet or state farm visit by cadets began with a meeting with the director or chairman and party organizer. Then the party organizer showed the economy. He stopped the buses on any street of the village and offered to see how the farmers live, to go into any house. The cadets came in, talked with the owners, saw their friendly faces, asked them questions and found out that the house was built by a state farm or collective farm, that they paid for housing and utilities for 3-5 rubles per month, that they could buy products at a warehouse produced in the farm.

We visited a huge poultry farm, a collective farm mineral water plant, an underground mushroom farm, a collective farm sanatorium near Simferopol. I remember in the state farm on the way to Nikolayevka the party organizer showed the cadets a huge underground wine cellar and invited them to try the young wine. The cadets sang songs all the way after this "tasting".

From conversations with officers, the cadets learned that the officer’s salary depends on the military rank and amounts to 200-400 rubles a month, that all officers have free apartments, and after retiring to 25 years in the army they retire.

Excursions, conversations in the intervals between classes, stories of teachers in the cycle of social disciplines in the classroom - all this clearly demonstrated the advantages and achievements of Soviet socialism. They could not even imagine that simple workers and their children could live like this. They very much wanted such a life to come to their land. For the sake of such a goal, freedom and independence it was worth fighting to the last drop of blood.

Africans left the Crimea home healthy, mentally and physically prepared for armed struggle against colonial and racist regimes. Many of them were convinced of the advantages of socialism, of the possibility of living as free, equal people in a free country. Returning to their homeland, the cadets told about a fairy-tale country in which there are no colonialists, no white racism, no capitalists and rich people in which all people are equal and any person’s dream could come true.

They were grateful to Soviet officers — their teachers, translators, cadet company commanders and platoon officers, political workers, doctors, waitresses in the canteen. African leaders were aware of the positive assessment by cadets of the work of our training center and expressed gratitude to the leadership of the Center for the high quality of military and political training. cadets.

Colonel Kalashnik - the new commander of the unit

During the six-day war of Israel with the Arab states in June 1967, I served in the Crimea, without thinking about what role this war can play in my life and whether the events in the Middle East are right in the Soviet press.

Late in the fall of 1967, I was called for an interview at the Ten (10-e Office of the General Staff) in Moscow and offered to go on a new trip to Egypt. I returned from it in August 1971 in Perevalnoe to the position of translator-referent.

During my trips abroad at the training center there were big changes. First, there were partisans from Southern Rhodesia, Namibia, and the Republic of South Africa. Now I worked as an English translator on a cycle of social sciences.

A year later, Colonel Antipov managed to achieve my transfer to the post of teacher, to political workers. My dream came true: I became a teacher. In 1974, I graduated from the Higher Academic Courses in the Military-Political Academy. IN AND. Lenin. I plunged into the study of regional geographic material on the countries of Southern Africa. It was prepared by the cycle teachers in the form of a thick reference volume for each country. These were compilation works. However, they had compiled good reference material.

Secondly, in the center there was a change of power. The former commander, Colonel Boyko, resigned. It was a balanced, educated, tactful person. He did not interfere in the internal affairs of the cycles (departments). Do not impose their will on them. He treated the officers with respect. Not loaded drill teachers. He was a typical representative of the Soviet officers, formed during the Great Patriotic War. They saw in their subordinate comrades with whom sooner or later they would have to go reconnaissance. We, junior officers, called such commanders "baty." Batey we considered Colonels Strekozov, Ivanov (communication cycle), Antipov (cycle of social disciplines).

Colonel Kalashnik VI, the new commander of the unit, received from the former commander of the unit a training center with a well-organized process of political and military training of African freedom fighters. Colonel Boyko managed to create a friendly, well-coordinated team. Each officer in him knew his duties and performed them brilliantly. And how else could they work, if more than a dozen colonels and fifty lieutenant colonels who were the backbone of the military-teaching staff of the center were subordinate to the commander in the rank of colonel ?! A security company, medical center, musical company, garage and headquarters were part of this team.

What could the new commander of the unit bring in the streamlined work of the team?

Colonel Kalashnik turned out to be the exact opposite of Colonel Boyko. He belonged to a younger generation of Soviet officers. Military regulations replaced him with a "moral code." Officers, warrant officers, soldiers are cogs in the well-functioning mechanism of military pedagogical technologies, and the position of the commander of the unit is a step to the generals' stripes. He alone knew what each of us needed to do, how we should behave in the service and at home, what to think, etc.

He had nothing to insult a serviceman in front of the line. He eliminated "sloppiness", brought "iron" discipline. He intimidated the man with his dismissive attitude towards him. It was not only the officers below his rank who were afraid of his one glance, but even his peers who were equal to him. In every officer and ensign he saw a potential offender of discipline, a slacker, sloven. He did everything so that the service would not seem like honey to all servicemen. He often did “checks”, but their goal was to find another “slob” and publicly scold and insult him at a drill review. Therefore, we did not consider such a “batya”.

In his character there was absolutely no mechanism for respecting a person. Such people are popularly called heartless. Complaints were written about his heartlessness, his disregard for the person’s identity, and the inspectors who came from the political department of the Odessa district or the Main Political Directorate of the Office checked the facts of a possible violation of the Charter. Charter Kalashnik not violated. They pointedly did not want to see the facts and therefore did not find confirmation of the rude and tactless behavior of the commander in relation to the officers.

Kalashnik was a typical representative of the new wave of Soviet bureaucracy, one of those who contributed to the destruction of the democratic principles of the Soviet state system, who led the socialist power to destruction. During the years of Brezhnev's rule, many careerists clung to party, Soviet bodies, the army, special services, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Gorbachev, Yeltsin and their teams are vivid evidence of this.
I express my personal opinion about Kalashnik. During the years of service in Egypt, I had to work with many wonderful officers and generals, not just to come under Israeli artillery shelling, to go on reconnaissance with comrades. I have someone to compare with the new commander of the training center, with whom, by the way, I have normal personal relations. He even offered to head the translation bureau, but I refused. I was attracted to teaching. (See my memories of the service in Egypt - http: //

Officers who have served 25 for years or more in the army wrote reports and resigned as soon as they received apartments. Among them were many wonderful military educators. Translators were looking forward to when their homeland would “call” them to a new overseas mission, so that they would never return to this soldier’s paradise.

Professor Slinkin MF

One of the center officers most respected by me who resigned one of the first officers under Colonel Kalashnik before my return from the second business trip was Lieutenant Colonel M. Slinkin. (1925-2007), also a former military translator, a man of amazing fate. Born in the village of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug. After graduating from military school in 1944, he fought as a commander of a fire platoon of a mortar battery. Member of the storming of Berlin. After the war he graduated from the special department of the Military Institute of Foreign Languages. In 1957-1990 He was repeatedly on long business trips in Afghanistan as a senior translator, senior consultant, political advisor to senior government and party leaders. He was awarded orders and medals of the USSR and Afghanistan.

For many years in Afghanistan, he collected and used military-technical terms in Dari on cards. Got a whole suitcase of cards. I took it with me everywhere, until I had prepared for publication the Russian-Dari Military-Technical Dictionary and did not publish it. His dictionary was reprinted in the USSR several times. It was, by the way, the first such dictionary in the history of world oriental studies.

In the Crimean Training Center Lieutenant Colonel M.Flinkin. came a political worker. Worked with Africans in companies. Colonel Antipov achieved his transfer to teaching for a cycle of public disciplines. But he worked on the cycle for a long time. Offended once by a Kalashnik at the drill, he, a military officer, wrote a report and resigned. The commander considered it shameful to apologize to him.

In retirement, Slinkin defended his thesis (1973). He worked for over thirty years at the department of new and recent history of the Tauride National University. IN AND. Vernadsky (before the 90-s he was called the Simferopol State University. MV Frunze). In 1980, he visited Afghanistan again, this time as an adviser to the revolutionary government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. When he returned, he wrote a book, defended his doctoral dissertation on modern Afghanistan on the topic “Coming to power and the crisis of the left regime of Taraki-Amin in Afghanistan” (2000). Became a professor. In his writings, he used information that he drew first-hand in Afghanistan. He taught Persian. He wrote a textbook "Speech practice of the Persian language (2-e edition, revised and augmented - 2003). Compiled" book for reading. Persian language. 1-5 courses. (Study Guide. Simferopol, 2001).

I wanted to follow in his footsteps. Looking ahead, I'll tell you by the way that in 1977, I also wrote a report asking me to fire me into the reserve, and said goodbye to the army. For two years he worked as a teacher in a secondary school and studied at the correspondence postgraduate school of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences. At the same time he was working on his thesis on the struggle of the people of Namibia against South African colonialism and racism. Thesis defended at the Institute of African Academy of Sciences of Africa. He published articles, delivered reports at all-Union and international conferences of Africanists. Professor Slinkin MF He recommended me as a teacher of the history of Asia and Africa to the department of new and recent history of the Simferopol State University.

For me, Professor Slinkin was the ideal of a military translator, teacher, scientist; patriot devoted to the Motherland, Russia, historical science and oriental studies. It combined kindness with intelligence, tact with respect for a person, diligence with scientific integrity. He looked at the world with the eyes of the never-depressing great Persian poet Omar Hayam, whose ruby ​​was fond of quoting.

1967. Duty on the part. Left - author

To be continued ...
Articles from this series:
Crimea: Partisans for Africa. Part of 1
Crimea: Partisans for Africa. Part of 2
Crimea and Africa. 165-I guerrilla training center. Part of 3
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  1. erased
    erased 16 December 2013 09: 26
    Interestingly written and essentially true. We always knew how to fight.
    But Ivan Susanin has nothing to do with it? His work as a guide for the Poles is a fiction, long exposed.
  2. amigo1969
    amigo1969 16 December 2013 10: 20
    The article is excellent. I know this military unit (the training was near - the School range). Once again we are convinced how wisely, qualitatively and systemically a military education was built in the USSR. The level and experience of teachers is amazing !!!
  3. wot
    wot 16 December 2013 12: 17
    hello, it’s written correctly, I’ll add that I myself served in urgent service in 1986-88 in the GSVG, so the comrades never yelled before the ranks and called sergeants to the chancellery and brought them up and now the battalion commander yells like a divorced person and lowers the commanders when they are brought up, the education is lame and very weak there aren’t enough normal officers with anyone who’s not only in the battle, and it’s not fearful to leave for training at the base of the oaks, except for the dough, they think nothing of it.
    1. DimychDV
      DimychDV 16 December 2013 19: 55
      M-dyaa, and here at our military department a graduate of the Tomsk military school, intelligence department, emphasized: - when the sergeant allowed himself hazing - I called him into the dugout and drove the rifle butt all over the dugout. But with the soldiers, his authority was indisputable!
  4. RoTTor
    RoTTor 16 December 2013 14: 03
    one of the last leaders of this center - a disabled person, an Afghan veteran, a colonel, became a deputy of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, then was deputy head of the award department of the Presidential Administration of Ukraine. I drank too much, because I don’t call my name ...
    1. cosmos111
      cosmos111 16 December 2013 14: 37
      The Africans paid us for their freedom.
      Fighting and killing in the country of militants both in Chechnya and Afghanistan.
  5. ikar2006
    ikar2006 16 December 2013 16: 13
    And we, Crimean schoolchildren from the city of Alushta, after finishing the 9th grade in 1983, were taken to this center, where we got acquainted with military equipment and fired from "Kalash" and observed, a lot of different people, both "black" and "yellow". There were even T-34s on the move. There were as many as 8 of us schoolchildren.
  6. Uhe
    Uhe 17 December 2013 18: 28
    Do you know that a whole archive of this accumulated experience of the struggle was destroyed in 1998, if I am not mistaken, by one appointed at that time the head of that department? Guess who it was? ;) An entire archive of guerrilla warfare was burned intentionally.
  7. bublic82009
    bublic82009 17 December 2013 21: 54
    when I studied at the Higher School of Economics and Political Administration, freshmen took us to demonstration classes. School representatives were with us. I met my former principal there. the warriors of Laos were remembered. small such dwarves ran. they even our first growth was small. the field camp of the FFSA and IED was nearby.
  8. blizart
    blizart 18 December 2013 20: 08
    He remembered his youth, some kind of creative community was in us, now only comparing today's society, you understand how far we have gone along the path of extreme individualism
  9. Mista_dj
    Mista_dj 19 December 2013 13: 37
    Plyusanul article, for reliability and veracity.
    I know this chat very well, many times, on an urgent basis, I've been there for special training.
    I even shot from the tank (for the first time) at their shooting range, the first shot hit the target, right into the tower)))
    The most powerful base was the training of saboteurs!

    And now, sadness ...
    About the officers - in general I am silent.
    Even the thorn of the fence - the locals were taken home ...
    1. Prager
      Prager 1 November 2014 15: 24
      I really understand you! we have the same story with the once elite military air defense unit for the protection of the Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric station.