There is an opinion among collectors that the term “Russian combat knife” has no right to exist. They say that the knife was a legguard, there was a baginet, there was a bayonet, but there was no military Russian knife. Although the "Word of Igor's Regiment" and the chronicles tell us the opposite - the Russian tradition of knife fighting is much more powerful than the analogous traditions of any other state. It was a knife, and later with a bayonet attack, the Russians terrified the enemy.
Interesting historical fact - in the armies of Western Europe the bayonet was "weapons last chance. The concept of "bayonet attack" practically did not exist there, and the deadly attachment to the trunk of the musket served only for defense.
The Russian deadly offensive bayonet attack has become a legend. The great Russian commander Alexander Vasilievich Suvorov generally introduced her into a cult, relegating to the background the importance of bullet firing from firearms. His winged saying “Bullet is a fool, a bayonet is well done” is known to every Russian who is interested in the history of his homeland. However, the most famous was and remains the bayonet for the rifle of the remarkable Russian designer and organizer of the gun production, Sergei Ivanovich Mosin.
The bayonet to the SI rifle. Mosina 1891 / 1930's Sample
Designed on the basis of the bayonet for the Berdan rifle of the 1870 model of the year, the four-sided bayonet entered service with the Russian army along with the Mosin rifle in the 1891 year.
It was a terrible melee weapon. A half-meter four-sided needle blade inflicted deep penetrating wounds, accompanied by severe damage to internal organs. In addition, the small inlet did not allow to assess on the spot the depth of penetration of the bayonet into the body and the severity of the injury, which could result in internal bleeding and infections that lead to peritonitis and, as a result, to death.
Practically unchanged, the Mosin rifle bayonet existed for half a century, having survived its peak in the revolution and the Civil War. In the Great Patriotic War, he caused the death of a considerable number of Hitlerites and a symbol of the people's liberation war against the Nazi invaders, which is reflected in many posters of the time.
Army Knife (ON-40)
Just before the Great Patriotic War, the weapon of Russian warriors was born, no less legendary than the Mosin rifle bayonet, the famous ON-40 (“army knife”), or HP-40 (“scout knife”), adopted by 1940 year , immediately after the Soviet-Finnish war. The second more popular, but historically less correct name is due to the fact that this knife armed reconnaissance units and sub-machine gunners.
The narrow - up to 22 mm - ON-40 blade allowed, with the least resistance, to put it between the enemy's ribs and at the same time lightened the weight of the knife itself. The wooden handle and scabbard served the same purpose and at the same time cheapened production.
Army knife Ural Volunteer Tank Corps
An interesting historical fact: in 1943 the Ural Volunteer was formed tank a corps fully equipped with over-planned labor and voluntary donations from workers in the Urals. It was a gift to the front from people already working to the limit of human capabilities, an example of the mass labor heroism of workers.
It was the Soviet-Finnish war that was an experience that revealed the shortcomings of the intelligence and sabotage activities of Soviet specialists behind enemy lines, including their lack of a multifunctional universal combat knife. With the help of which, it is possible to remove the enemy sentry without any noise, and it is possible to equip a temporary parking lot or caches in the forest, and to make snowshoes, and to drag a wounded comrade out of the improvised material quickly. Therefore, based on the uniform bayonet of the 1919 sample of the year and the Finnish scout knife, the legendary ON-40 was created.
However, I don’t think that it was the Soviet-Finnish war that opened the eyes of Russian gunsmiths to the advantages of the recent enemy’s combat knives. "Finca" was known in Russia and was popular even before the revolution. And although the Finnish knife was legally banned from the 30 in the USSR, in the same years it became a special tool of the NKVD in a slightly modified form.
The so-called “Finnish NKVD,” or “Norwegian-type knife,” shown in the photo, was produced at the Trud factory (before the revolution, the Kondratov industrialist’s factory) in the Vacha village of the Nizhny Novgorod region in the 40s. Although in reality this particular knife has no relation to Finland - the model is copied from a Swedish hunting knife by the work of the famous master Pontus Holmberg from Eskilstuna.
Pontus Holmberg Hunting Knife from Eskilstuna
The same knife, a prototype of the famous "Finnish NKVD", or "knife of the Norwegian type," about which they talk so much and which few people have seen even in the photo. Swedish hunting knife produced by Pontus Holmberg from Eskilstuna, the photo of which was provided, at my request, specifically for the project “Fighting Knives” by the author of several books on this subject Andrei Arturovich Mac.
Fink NKVD, modern version
Currently, the "Finnish NKVD" is produced from modern materials, its design has been significantly redesigned. Garda became almost straight, the top of the hilt “rounded”. The handle itself can be either made entirely of wood or coated with leather.
Knife Army sample 1943, "Cherry"
In 1943, the garda, the handle and the sheath of the NA-40 underwent significant changes and the Soviet intelligence officers were armed with an even more successful design - the HP-43 knife with a straight guard, leather sheath and a durable plastic handle, topped with a metal top - if you could wedge something , and the enemy on the head to caress. The knife was called "Cherry". The design was so successful that it is still in service with a number of Russian special forces.
Knife scout special (LDC)
In 60 in the USSR, the NRS was developed (a special scout knife), designed to defeat the enemy in battle with both a blade and a firing mechanism located in the handle and representing a short barrel and trigger. The NRS shot the silent cartridge SP-3 with a bullet caliber 7,62 mm sample 1943 year.
Special Scout Knife - 2 (НРС-2)
In 1986, the LDCs were upgraded to LDC-2. The blade of the knife became spear-like, the saw on the butt decreased almost by half, the cartridge SP-3 was also replaced with also silent SP-4 with an unusual cylindrical bullet, despite the “hemp-shaped” shape piercing the standard helmet at a distance of twenty meters. Cocking is carried out by a special lever placed on the handle, the descent by another lever located on its end part. Recharging is done by extracting the barrel, which takes an average of 1 – 2 minutes. Currently, the LDC-2 is in service with the intelligence units of the airborne troops and the marines, as well as special forces of the internal affairs bodies and units of the internal troops of the interior ministry.
Bayonet to 7,62 mm Kalashnikov assault rifle 1949 of the year
However, the best-known to every citizen of our country is the Russian combat knife is a bayonet to the Kalashnikov machine gun. The first model of the Kalashnikov AK, adopted by the Soviet army in 1949, did not have a bayonet at all. Only in the 1953 year, together with the so-called lightweight AK machine gun, the "bayonet-knife product" 6X2 "was adopted, which had the same blade as the bayonet to the self-loading rifle SVT-40 and differed only by the fixation mechanism. According to experts, the "bayonet knife product" 6X2 "was a very successful design.
Experimental knife R.M. Todorov 1956 model year
A prototype of the bayonet for AKM served as a regular knife of the reconnaissance and sabotage units of the Navy designed by Lieutenant Colonel R.M. Todorova sample 1956 year. Judging by the suspension of Todorov’s knife, he simply hung on his belt like an ordinary HP.
Todorov’s experimental knife came to the attention of Mikhail Timofeevich Kalashnikov’s employees who were engaged in developing a promising bayonet, and was reworked for AKM with a change in a number of knots, retaining the blade almost unchanged. And since that time, designers of almost all countries manufacturing weapons in one form or another have copied it.
Bayonet to AKM model 1959 of the year
In the 1959 year, when the AK-47 machine was upgraded to AKM, the bayonet “knife” of the “6X2” product was replaced with a lighter and more versatile one developed on the basis of an experimental knife designed by Lieutenant Colonel R.M. Todorov, which was mentioned above. But the new bayonet, the “product 6X3”, was soon again upgraded to the AK-74 machine gun, which replaced the AKM.
Bayonet to AKM and AK74 model 1978 of the year
This bayonet became a kind of visiting card of the Soviet Union with the AK-74 submachine gun. I don’t deceive myself if I say that the Kalashnikov assault rifle is the most famous and popular weapon of the last century, adopted for service in fifty-five countries of the world. On the flag and coat of arms of the Republic of Mozambique there is an image of a Kalashnikov assault rifle with a closed bayonet, which symbolizes the struggle for the independence of the country. Also the Kalashnikov assault rifle can be seen on the arms of the Democratic Republic of East Timor and the Republic of Zimbabwe.
Bayonet to AK-74 model 1989 of the year
In all honesty, this is a completely different bayonet, a little like its predecessor. Perhaps, the similarity remains only in the form of a scabbard and the presence of a characteristic hole in the blade. The shape of the blade and the handle, the material from which the handle and the sheath are made, as well as the form of attachment have changed - now the Russian bayonet is located in the horizontal plane to the right of the new Nikonov AN-94 submachine gun adopted by the Russian army.
The engineers of the Izhevsk plant, who created the last sample of a regular bayonet, believe that this method of fastening will help to avoid jamming the blade between the ribs of the enemy. And, perhaps, this has its own specific reason, because such a position of the blade is characteristic of many schools of knife fighting. Although the previous one, in general, has not been canceled, the knife flies into the enemy's stomach and in the vertical plane.
Stroporez of the Airborne Forces of the USSR
I can not fail to mention such an interesting weapon of this particular type of troops, as the regular cutter of the Airborne Forces of the USSR. Despite the purely practical purpose of this knife - to cut entangled parachute slings in the event of non-disclosure of the main dome when landing on a tree or on the water, it is a military weapon. And quite serious, given the ability of a two-sided saw to inflict ripped wounds. If, on the basis of the principle that “any object is a weapon in the Airborne Forces,” in addition to sharpen the blunt sheet-like part of the blade to the proper sharpness, the cutter becomes a fully-fledged hand-to-hand combat weapon.
Stroporez of the Russian Airborne Forces
Modern Russian knife-cutter is an automatic knife with frontal blade ejection, having a double-sided sharpening in the absence of a piercing tip.
Regular diving non-magnetic knife
Now I would like to say a few words about Russian diving knives. Today, only professional divers and, perhaps, collectors can meet classic diving knives, which are characterized by large sizes and have a developed handle with large stops, allowing you to securely fix the knife both in the bare hand and in the diving glove. The materials of such knives are made of special non-magnetic alloys, mainly titanium. The blade is extremely durable and can have several types of sharpening, as well as special tools and screwdrivers. On the butt, there is often a metallic top, which can be used as a hammer. The photo shows a regular non-magnetic diving knife, which consisted in supplying submarine sappers of the Soviet Union, who, in accordance with the requirements for magnetic visibility when working with high sensitivity magnetometric fuses, should not have magnetic equipment elements.
Regular diving knife with a ring
The method of fixing a knife in a sheath with the help of a threaded joint was widely used in the armies of various states, including Germany, Italy and the USA. Such a blade fixation was used in the USSR as well in the regular naval diving knife shown in the photo. The blade of this knife is a classic shape, made of corrosion-resistant steel, the handle is made of treated wood.
The ring on the handle serves to secure the cord to prevent accidental loss of the knife. Despite the external elegance, the knife is quite heavy, its weight with scabbard reaches one kilogram, and the dimensions of the handle allow you to confidently use it with a hand dressed in a diving glove. The fastening of the scabbard on the belt is rigid due to the metal brace into which the diving belt is being threaded. This is necessary in order to have the opportunity, with one hand not holding the scabbard, to make the 3 – 4 half-turn the handle, freeing the knife fixed at the mouth of the sheath by a threaded connection.
Universal Diving Knife (NVU)
The combat knife presented in the photo was a regular knife of light divers of the USSR Navy and is still used by naval reconnaissance and anti-SSV units (underwater sabotage forces and equipment) as cold weapons and for work underwater or on land.
The blade of NVU is equipped with a serreytor for sawing ropes, ropes and steel networks. Plastic sheath, with the possibility of two-point attachment to the lower leg or forearm. The sheath of the NVU is attached with a rubber lining on the handle. This method of fastening reduces the time to remove the knife, but practically eliminates the possibility of losing it. DDP has negative buoyancy, in other words, it sinks. But, drowning and reaching the bottom, it becomes in a vertical position on the ground with the handle upwards, which facilitates its search under water in case of loss. There is a non-magnetic modification of the NVU-AM knife, on which there is no serreytor.
However, in addition to the bayonet to the Kalashnikov assault rifle in Russia, a sufficiently large number of developments of short-bladed combat weapons were and are being conducted. I want to tell about some of them, in my opinion the most interesting ones. The knife was named "Sea Devil" with the light hand of combat swimmers involved in the testing of new types of cold weapons.
The designer of the knife is Igor Skrylev, the author of many developments in the field of creating combat knives, adopted by special units of the Russian army and fleet. The “Sea Devil” is a wide-profile knife that can be successfully used by both combat swimmers and special forces of other military branches to solve a wide range of tasks.
Experimental model of a universal knife for marines. The creation of universal knives has always attracted designers who are developing new models of cold arms, but solving a wide range of tasks with the help of a single tool is almost impossible.
The knife "Storm" has a stainless steel blade and a shockproof, chemically inert handle, as a result of which it can be used for melee by the units of the Marine Corps for which it was actually designed. The knife is purely combat - due to the lack of a saw on the butt and a serreytor on the blade, it can hardly be considered as universal.
The knife was made by order of the Moscow SOBR by the company "AiR" from the city of Zlatoust. There are three options - a combat knife, an award combat knife and a civilian modification. The photo shows the combat version. The award option is different in that it is made with gilding, but according to its tactical and technical characteristics it does not differ from the combat one.
DV-1 and DV-2
The DV-1 and DV-2 knives, which differ only in blade length, were developed by order and in cooperation with the soldiers of the Far Eastern special forces. Their names also indicate this - DV means “Far Eastern”. These are massive camping knives that can withstand heavy loads and be used for the most difficult jobs.
The photo shows a knife DV-1 with a spear blade and additional sharpening on the butt. The handle of the knife is made of Caucasian walnut, steel guard and pommel of the same material. The knife DV-1 all-metal shank passing through the handle, screw assembly and leather sheath.
The photo shows the export version of the DV-2 knife from a limited edition, differs from its serial progenitor in the materials used. His blade is made of steel Z60 instead of carbon steel 50XXNNUMXМФ usual for these knives, and the knife handle is made of leather, while in the base case it is made of walnut.
At first glance, the knife makes an impression with its size. Its full length is 365 mm, and the length of the blade is 235 mm. To protect against corrosion and prevent unmasking glare, a matte black coating is applied to the blade. Descents from the half of a click even with a solid thickness in 5,8 mm provide a good cut. On the butt of the blade there is a section with a bevel that forms a not wedge, which is used for cutting bones. The notch in front of the guard (choyle) allows you to intercept the knife, passing the guard between the index and middle finger. This grip is used to facilitate the pulling out of the stuck knife, as well as for a number of works, where such an arrangement of the brush on the knife provides better handling.
DV-2 has a double-sided guard that perfectly protects the arm. The handle, assembled from tightly fitted leather discs, has an oval cross-section. The handle ends with a massive top used for traumatic purposes. The tops are put on the through shank and tightened on it with a flat nut. The sheath of a knife is a classic design, of two layers of thick leather, interconnected by rivets. Suspension is vertical, with a strap, securely fixing the handle.
Knives of the "Punisher" series are designed and manufactured for the power units of the FSB of Russia by ZAO Melita-K, which has been producing high-quality knives since 1994, including a wide range of combat knives and daggers.
"Punishers" are available in two versions - "VZMAH-1" and "Maestro". In addition, there are modifications that differ in the material of the handle (typesetting leather, rubber or craton). “VZMAH-1” differs in the root part of serreytor sharpening, and “Maestro” differs in serritor sharpening from above, type of scabbard and type of blade finishing (antiglare, black or camouflage). Garda double sided. The wide blade is convenient for digging and allows, if necessary, to use the knife as an additional support on the slopes with loose soil. The cutting part of the blade has a sickle-shaped depression, which allows to increase the length of the cutting edge while maintaining the linear dimensions. The knife is completed with a sheath of high-quality leather or aviSent, allowing it to be fixed on the arm, leg, belt and elements of combat or hiking gear. Knife "VZMAH-1" officially adopted.
Knives "Vityaz NSN", "Vityaz NM", "Vityaz" were developed by order of the President of the "BKB" Vityaz "Hero of Russia S.I. Lysyuk for equipping special forces. A distinctive feature of the design is a large heavy blade with a narrow blade, which allows to maintain the inertia of movement, reduce weight and increase penetrating ability on impact, an anatomically convenient guard that allows you to hold the knife in your hand.
Knife "Antiterror" designed and manufactured for the security forces of the FSB of Russia. The blade of the knife has a petal shape, which allows maximum use of the working area of the blade and increases its cutting properties. The configuration of the blade has high penetrating power, the cutting part has a sickle-shaped depression, which allows to increase the length of the cutting edge while maintaining the linear dimensions. Reinforced the back of the blade. Standard ergonomic guard does not allow the hand to slide off at the moment of striking.
Combat knives of the Katran series differ in blade type and handle material. Knives of the “Qatran” series, depending on the modification, are used as an underwater knife, combat knife or survival knife. The handle of the knife has a double-sided guard and metal tops. Handle material - type leather, rubber or craton depending on the modification.
"Katran-1" - underwater combat knife. Blade with a one-and-a-half sharpening. On the butt sharpening is made in the form of a wave-like saw. In the root part there is a hook for cutting nets and serreytor sharpening. Rubber handle. Plastic sheath with straps for hanging on the leg. The coating of metal parts is black chrome.
“Katran-1-С” is the land version of this knife. Differs blade material: steel 50X14 MF. Anti-glare treatment of metal parts. The handle is made of leather. Leather sheath with plastic liner.
"Katran-2" - a hunting knife with a one-and-a-half sharpening. On the butt sharpening has an angle, designed for felling. Anti-glare treatment. The handle is made of leather. The sheath is leather.
"Katran-45" - a combat knife. An exclusive model designed by order of the 45-th regiment of the Airborne Forces. Differs in the presence of a blade on the blade of the saw on the metal, anti-reflective coating. The handle is made of leather. Leather sheath. There is an option with camouflage coating of metal parts.
The “Shaitan” combat dagger was developed in 2001 year by request and in cooperation with the officers of the power unit of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Tajikistan. Combat dagger "Shaitan" is available in two versions: the handle - typesetting leather and skeletal type ("Shaitan-M"). The knife has a narrow leaf blade with double-sided sharpening. At the root of the sharpening done serreitor. Serreitor is designed to be used as a strop cutter, easily cuts a climbing rope with 10-12-mm. The shape of the blade is designed for applying deep cut wounds, as well as for the greatest use of the working part of the blade. The garda and the handle are symmetrical. Also, "Shaitan-M" can be used as a throwing knife that can withstand up to 3000 throws. Handle from typeset leather, subjected to special treatment. All metal parts have anti-glare treatment.
The knife "Akela" was developed by request of SOBR as a "police" knife. A distinctive feature is its small size, which allows you to work in cramped urban environments, crowded places, where it is impossible to use firearms. The knife is a dagger type, double-edged, the blade has an anti-reflective coating (black chrome). The handle is made of MBS rubber, conveniently lies in the hand. The top is metallic, has a hole under the lanyard.
Knife "Smersh-5" - a classic combat knife. The prototype of this knife was used during the Second World War (HP-43). The blade of the knife has a high penetrating power. The ergonomic guard does not allow the hand to slide off during the stroke. The upper butt of the guard is designed for additional pressure when cutting hard objects.
The sample shown in the photo was adopted by the special units of the FSB. Knife "Gurza" consists of two versions and has a narrow blade with a one-and-a-half sharpening. On the butt, part of the sharpening is done with a serrayator. Serreytor increases the combat capabilities of the knife, and is also used for cutting ropes and cables, and only as a substitute for saws.
The combat knife "Cobra" was developed by request of the SOBR of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation. This is a small dagger with a narrow blade and a two-sided, anatomically comfortable guard. "Cobra" is a serious weapon that allows to solve combat missions in crowded places where the use of firearms is excluded. This dagger is designed not only for an injection, the shape of its blade allows the use of cutting and chopping techniques, both with direct and reverse grip.
This large and powerful knife with a blade length of 180 mm is designed to order the demining units of the FSB. "Vzryvotehnik" was created as a universal knife, designed to perform the functions of military weapons, a survival knife and an engineering tool. Currently officially accepted for supply. The blade is symmetrical, with differentiated sharpening - on the one side of the blade is the usual sharpening, on the other is a small serrer. The wooden handle has a steel top, which can be used both in combat and as a hammer.
Dagger of Financial Intelligence of Russia
The combat knife presented in the photo, made by AiR (Chrysostom), retains all the features of a classic dagger - a double-edged blade, symmetrical guard and a handle. This dagger is interesting in that it seems to be the only case in modern Russia that the tradition of departmental weapons has been revived, which, being a military model, also indicates that it belongs to a strictly defined state structure.
A small and only batch of this combat knife was made in 2008 year by order of the Financial Monitoring Service specifically for its employees. The dagger is made of stainless steel, the handle is a type-setting leather, a guard and an aluminum cap.
The abbreviation "OC" stands for "TsKIB Weapon". The OZ-04 knife was developed at the Tula Central Design Research Bureau (TsKIB) at the end of 80-x - the beginning of 90-x and was intended for special units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
The knife has a very massive structure, the thickness of the butt - 7 mm. The blade has a small bevel in the front. On the butt of the blade there is a double-row saw, but due to the low height of the teeth, its efficiency is relatively low, especially when sawing raw wood. The handle is symmetrical, with a double-side guard, made of plastic and has a large grooved for better retention.
Iron sheath riveted from two halves. In them, the blade is held by a spring-loaded plate, like AK bayone-knives. The sheath has a leather loop for the classic location of the knife on the belt. Also included are leather adjustable straps that allow you to place the knife on the body and equipment in several ways.