- Monya, let's say you have six apples, half of which you gave to Abram. How many apples do you have left?
- Five and a half.
Paraphrasing the ancient Jewish wisdom (“To buy watches for a million is not a feat, the feat of being able to sell them”), we note that buying military equipment abroad is not considered a great achievement. Achievement - when some of the best submarines in the world are bought on extremely favorable terms: for half of their market value, or even completely free of charge, in the form of returning historical debt for the Holocaust and compensation for the criminal military-technical cooperation of Germany and Iraq at the end of 1980 that, in the opinion of the citizens of Israel, could harm their country.
The balance is the following - in the period 1998-2000. The Israeli Navy adopted three German-built submarines: INS Dolphin and INS Leviathan - their construction was fully funded by the German government; INS Tekumah - the cost of building this boat was divided in equal parts between Germany and Israel.
In 2010, a new round of cooperation between the Israeli Navy and Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG began. The following three boats are planned for construction: INS Tannin, INS Rahav and another submarine, whose name has not yet been announced.
Three new boats - an upgraded version of the INS Dolphin with an air-free GEM on hydrogen fuel cells. Modern technologies allow for 2-3 weeks to do without surfacing to the surface. With the right tactical use, the combat qualities of such submarines are identical to nuclear-powered ships - and in some important parameters (secrecy) even surpass them. Smaller size and power, the absence of thundering turbines and itchy pumps of the reactor coolant, a propulsion system operating without explosions and vibrations, giving a minimal thermal footprint — a non-nuclear submarine merges with the natural background of the ocean, becoming a deadly enemy. As shown by the results of the latest NATO exercises, in the duel situation, naval submarines in most cases are the first to detect nuclear submarines and strike first.
Dolphin type submarine device (2 sub-series). Underwater displacement - 2300 tons. Immersion depth - 200 meters. The submerged speed is up to 20 nodes. Crew 40 man.
Equipped with the most modern weapons and electronics. The cost of a German boat of this level in the world arms market reaches 700 million dollars. Israel pays 2 / 3 the cost of their construction, the remaining funds for the construction of boats once again come from the budget of Germany.
It is difficult to say how ethical is the conversation about the ratio of the saved millions and millions of human lives lost during the tragic events of 1939-45. Like the very fact of installing such a “monument” to the victims of Nazism - underwater vehicles created for new killings. Or does the German gift hint at the ancient “Eye for an Eye” law, calling for a fair revenge and provoking an armed conflict between Israel and Germany?
Wrecked cabin of the INS Dakar submarine (formerly Bitansky HMS Totem, 1943), lifted from the depth of 3000 meters. The submarine died on the transition from the UK to Israel in 1968, under unclear circumstances.
No less surprising are reproaches in the criminal collaboration of German firms with Iraq. In fact, Saddam Hussein fought with weapons of Soviet and to a lesser extent French production. Scud missiles that fell on Israel have nothing to do with Germany. This is despite the fact that throughout the 80-ies, the US State Department recognized Iraq as a "friendly regime" - as opposed to religious fanatics from Tehran. There are more questions than answers, so I suggest turning to the technical side of the question.
So, a diesel-electric submarine of the Dolphin type.
It is a development of well-known submarines "Type 209" - high-quality German equipment, which is in service with 13 countries of the world (all Germans built a boat of this type for export 61)! An option for the Israeli Navy combines a number of elements of a new generation of submarines "Type 212", while it is somewhat shorter than the original design: the length of the Dolphin is only 57 meters with a maximum body width of about 7 meters. The boat looks unnecessarily “oklady” against the background of modern nuclear ships (for comparison, the Virginia-type PLA has a hull length of 115 meters with a width of 10 meters), but the “shorty” has the advantage of better handling and maneuverability.
The entire body of the submarine is permeated with nerve fibers and sensors of the combat information system STN Atlas ISUS 90-55. Not so much is known about this development by German specialists - for example, in 2000, during the tender for the supply of combat information systems for Collins-type submarines of the Australian Navy, the Australians conducted comparative tests of the German PIUS (on board the Dolphin) and the American BIUS Rayteon CSS Mk.2 (aboard the Los Angeles-type USS Montpelier PLA). The verdict of the experts was unequivocal - the German system is far superior to the American one in terms of classification and recognition of a large number of sonar contacts. It is able to allocate more useful information and is not prone to failures and “freeze” at the most inappropriate time. In addition, it is ideally compatible with non-nuclear submarines. Alas, the Australians were forced to sacrifice the interests of their sailors - the tender was canceled. The new program, adopted under pressure from the United States, envisaged the development of a CSS on the basis of CSS Mk.2.
Submarine type "Gal". A series of three British-built submarines 1976-77. Currently decommissioned.
But back to the Israeli "Dolphin". In addition to the high-tech BIUS STN Atlas ISUS 90-55, several other detection systems of own and foreign production are installed on board, including:
- 4CH (V) 2 Timnex radar radiation detector, developed by Elbit Systems Corporation (Haifa), capable of tracking directions to enemy radar with an accuracy of 1,4 °;
- Centimeter radar for searching for surface targets (developed by the Israeli company ELTA Systems);
- Hydroacoustic station CSU 90 in nose cone, PRS-3 noise-finding device and FAS-3 sonar with side-view antenna (supplier of all systems - German company Atlas Elektronik);
- two periscopes for searching and attacking targets set by the American company Kollmorgen.
Among other features of the Israeli Navy submarines - the most powerful composition of weapons. Ten torpedo tubes: six mm 533 caliber and four mm 650 caliber! Ammunition - 16 torpedoes, mines and cruise missiles. There is an opportunity for fixing on the case of containers with diving equipment and mini-bathyscaphes.
TA caliber 650 mm has not recently been used anywhere except in the USSR Navy submarines for launching “long torpedoes” and long-range anti-submarine missiles with a special warhead. Something similar is available on three American C-Wolfs - these submarines use a scheme with a self-made torpedo, which is why the TA caliber was increased to 660 mm (standard 533 mm ammunition is used). But how will Israel surprise us?
The authoritative reference book Jane's Fighting Ships indicates that large-caliber TAs are used as sluice chambers for exiting combat swimmers, as well as in the form of compartments for storing special equipment.
There is also evidence that Israeli boats are equipped with Popeye Turbo cruise missiles, an ammunition created on the basis of an air-to-surface Popeye missile with an increased launch range of up to 1500 km and the possibility of equipping nuclear warheads. In 2000, the United States refused to provide Israel with Tomahawk cruise missiles, citing an international agreement banning the export of cruise missiles and UAVs capable of carrying a payload of 500 kg over a range of over 300 km. The Israeli Navy had to urgently develop its own replacement - impromptu based on aviation missiles, which, alas, did not fit into the dimensions of a standard 533-mm torpedo tube. The test launch of such ammunition from a submarine of the Israeli Navy in the Indian Ocean was recently recorded by the intelligence of the U.S. Navy. The Germans themselves express justifiable fears about this - there is an opinion about the prohibition of the sale of such equipment to Israel, because this can lead to irreversible and frightening consequences. But now it’s too late to discuss anything - five of the six ordered boats have already been transferred to Israel (three in service, two are at the final stage of construction and retrofitting, transfer the fleet scheduled for 2014).
The Israelis themselves are moving away from a direct answer, explaining that launch glasses are inserted inside 650-mm TA - the system is used to launch conventional Sub-Harpoon anti-ship missiles (this is with six standard TA caliber 533 mm!).
Why is Israel submarine fleet?
The journalist who visited aboard the Dolphin shares delighted impressions of modern interiors of compartments and two dozen plasma panels in the boat's CPU, which displays all the necessary information: data from hydroacoustic stations and inertial navigation systems, parameters and readiness of weapons, compartments, information about stocks of fuel, air and fresh water - everything that officers of the ship need to know.
“Immersion! Immersion! ”- the order of Commander M., the speaker of the speakerphone system, is broadcast in the compartments. The helmsman gives away the steering wheel - and the boat obediently falls to the depth. Moving in 100 meters below the surface of the Mediterranean, the crew proceeds to localize the resulting "fire" in the engine room. Having successfully coped with the "fire", the boat floats to the periscope depth - commander M. raises the periscope and inspects the horizon: everything is clear! The boat does not pose a danger to shipping in the area of the port of Haifa. Moving on ... Here, a couple of dozen kilometers from the coast of Israel, Dolphin fulfills the routine tasks of combat training. Commander M. is pleased with his ship and the competent actions of the crew ...
Jacob Katz, a The Jerusalem Post reporter, has become one of two media representatives who have been aboard Israeli submarines over the past 10 years. The Israelis carefully conceal information about their submarine fleet, leaving foreign researchers to guess at the strategy and tactics of the combat use of the Israeli Navy submarines.
In the meantime ... To help the three "Dolphins" (1 sub-series) hurry even more formidable ships of the 2 sub-series - "Tannin", "Rahav" and the sixth unnamed boat, which will join the ranks of the Navy in 2017. The new boats are longer than the “Dolphin” on 10 meters and are equipped with an air-independent hydrogen fuel cell propulsion system - like the German “Type 212”. Even with the partial co-financing of their construction by Germany, six non-nuclear submarines will become the most expensive system adopted by the Israel Defense Forces.
But why did the country smaller than the Moscow region need such complex, expensive and heavily armed submarines? Did Israel have a threat from the sea?
Among the most gloomy and mystical assumptions is the following: Israeli NNS provide the doctrine of guaranteed retribution in the event of an attack on Israel using weapons of mass destruction. Popeye Turbo missiles with nuclear warheads can reach targets in Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Syria, or a troubled Sudan. The autonomy of sailing 8000 miles, coupled with the strategic range of cruise missiles, allows you to keep any country in the Middle East and on the African continent.
Possible route "Riders of the Apocalypse" to the coast of Iran
However, the Israeli submariners are faced with other, more urgent tasks - for example, covert transportation of combat swimmers and sabotage groups to the coast of the enemy. Successful raids using submarines were repeatedly conducted during the Six Day War and the Doomsday War (1973).
The covert observation of the coast and the movements of enemy ships, the adjustment of artillery fire, the setting of minefields, search operations related to the survey of the seabed - the range of tasks for the submarine fleet is enormous.
Finally, the main thing - fighting at sea. The presence of submarines of this level allows Israel to have a strategic advantage over any of the Arab countries: “Dolphins” are able to cut off all communications in the Mediterranean, Red or Arabian Sea, block the enemy coast and tear apart any frigate of the Iranian Navy or Saudi Arabia.
It is reported that due to the heightened tension in relations with Iran and fears around the Iranian nuclear program, Israel constantly holds one of its submarines in a position in the Indian Ocean, ready to deliver a deafening blow to the Iranian military infrastructure. In view of its outstanding combat capabilities, Dolphin-type submarines are identified as the main offensive force of the Israeli Navy.
Through the removed skin of the streamlined hull, cryogenic oxygen tanks and metal hydride tanks are visible
The Jerusalem Post
The Collins Class Submarine Story: Steel, Spies and Spin. Authors: Peter Yule, Derek Woolner