At the beginning of the 1950s, supersonic bombers and cruise missiles (shells according to the classification of those years) were considered as a promising means of delivering nuclear warheads. Such a technique could attack targets, overcoming the enemy’s air defenses. However, the achievement of high flight data necessary for the breakthrough of defense was associated with a host of technical and technological problems. However, the development path of the delivery vehicles was determined. In the Soviet Union, several projects were launched to create advanced aviation and rocket technology.
Back in the late forties, several research organizations proved the fundamental possibility of creating an intercontinental cruise missile (MKR) with a cruising speed of at least 3000 km / h and a range of about 6000 kilometers. Such an ammunition could destroy targets on the enemy’s territory with a nuclear warhead, and was also able to overcome all existing air defense systems. However, for the construction of an intercontinental cruise missile it was required to create new technologies and new special equipment.
The first project of the domestic MCR was developed in OKB-1 under the guidance of S.P. Queen. One of the most important tasks during this project was the creation of navigation and control systems. Without such equipment, the promising cruise missile could not reach the target area, and there was not even a speech about its reliable defeat. New MKR was supposed to use the astronavigation system and navigate by the stars. The development of an astronavigation system proved to be a daunting task - this equipment had to not only accurately determine the coordinates of the rocket, watching the stars, but also to work under conditions of numerous interferences (the Sun, other stars, glare from clouds, etc.). In 1953, the staff of SRI-88 under the guidance of I.M. Lisovich completed work on the AN-2Sh astronavigation system. In the future, this system was improved, but no fundamental changes were made to its design.
The MKR project, created in OKB-1, defined the main features of the appearance of all future missiles of this class. Korolev suggested using a two-step scheme. This means that the intercontinental cruise missile had to take off vertically using the first stage with liquid engines. After climbing to the desired height, the second-stage sustained-flow propulsion engine should have been activated. The second stage was actually a projectile. The theoretical study of this proposal showed its prospects, as a result of which all new projects of the IBC implied the use of a two-stage architecture.
Project "Storm" / "350"
The design bureau under the leadership of Korolev was working on a new MCR before 1954, after which it was forced to abandon this project, since all of its forces went to the P-7 intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) project. In the spring of 54, all the work on the MCM topics was transferred to the Ministry of Aviation Industry.
20 May 1954, the Council of Ministers issued a decree, according to which it was required to develop two variants of intercontinental cruise missiles. To work on the program "KRMD" ("Intercontinental cruise missile") attracted OKB-301, headed by S.A. Lavochkin and OKB-23 V.M. Myasishchev. The projects received the conventional names “Storm” (OKB-301) and “Buran” (OKB-23). In addition, the projects wore the factory designations “350” and “40”, respectively. Academician M.V., Director of Scientific Research Institute-1, was appointed scientific supervisor of the “KRMD” theme. Keldysh.
The design team of OKB-301 when creating the project "Storm" / "350" had to look for new non-trivial solutions to emerging technical problems. The requirements for the advanced MKR were such that the creation of a product satisfying them was associated with the creation and assimilation of new technologies. Looking ahead, it should be noted that during the “Storm” project, the Soviet industry mastered the manufacture and processing of titanium parts, created several new heat-resistant alloys and materials, and also developed a large number of special equipment. In the future, all these technologies were repeatedly used in new projects. An interesting fact is that the chief designer of the “titanium” cruise missile “The Tempest” was N.S. Chernyakov, who later went to the P.O. Dry and led the creation of a "titanium" missile carrier T-4.
The sketchy design of the MKR “The Tempest” took only a few months. As early as August 1954, OKB-301 submitted project documentation to the customer. The product "350" should have been built according to the same scheme as the MKP, which was previously developed under the guidance of S.P. Queen. The “storm” was proposed to be two-stage, with the second stage supposed to be a projectile with a ramjet engine, an autonomous control system and a nuclear warhead.
The customer reviewed the proposed project, but expressed some new wishes and corrected the technical requirements. In particular, the weight of the warhead increased by 250 kg, to 2,35 tons. Because of this, the designers of design bureau S.A. Lavochkin had to make significant adjustments to the project «350». The intercontinental cruise missile retained the general features of its appearance, but it became noticeably heavier and increased in size. Because of this, the starting weight of the two-stage system rose to 95 tons, 33 of which accounted for the second stage.
In accordance with the updated project, several models were built that were tested at TsAGI and LII. At the Flight Research Institute, the models' aerodynamics were tested by dropping from a converted carrier aircraft. All preliminary tests and design work ended at the beginning of 1957 of the year. By this time, the project acquired the final look, which later remained almost unchanged. Shortly after the project was completed, the construction of several prototypes began.
Being built according to the scheme proposed at the beginning of the decade, the MKR "Burya" consisted of the first (accelerating) stage with liquid rocket engines and the second (marching) stage, which was a projectile plane and equipped with a nuclear warhead. As the aviation historian N. Yakubovich notes, the construction of the Storm can be described both from the standpoint of rocket technology and from the point of view of aviation. In the first case, the “Storm” looks like a two- or three-stage (if we consider the detachable warhead) rocket system, in the second - as a vertical take-off aircraft with rocket boosters.
The first step of the ICC "The Tempest" consisted of two blocks. Each of them had fuel tanks for 6300 kg of fuel and 20840 kg of oxidizer. In the tail part of the blocks were placed four-chamber engines С2.1100, developed in OKB-2 under the direction of А.М. Isaeva. In the gas jet engines located rudders designed to adjust the flight path in the first phase of flight. The first stage of an intercontinental cruise missile was designed to lift the march to a height of about 17500 meters. After that, the automation had to turn on the second-stage ramjet engine and reset the booster blocks.
The second stage of the product "350" was actually a cruise missile. The fuselage of the second stage was almost completely surrendered to the RD-012 supersonic ramjet engine, developed under the guidance of MM. Bondaryuk. Fuel tanks were located between the skin and the air intake duct in the fuselage. On the upper surface of the fuselage, in the middle and tail part of it, there was a compartment with guidance equipment and a cooling system. The warhead was located in the central body of an adjustable air intake. The second stage of the "Storm" was carried out according to the aerodynamic scheme of the mid-plane and had a small elongation triangular wing. The leading edge sweep is 70 °. In the tail of the rocket have provided the X-shaped tail with rudders.
Despite the estimated maximum flight range of at least 7000-7500 kilometers, the 350 MCR turned out to be quite compact. The total length of the rocket ready for launch was approximately 19,9 meters. The first and second stages were slightly shorter. Starting accelerators had a length of 18,9 meter and a diameter of not more than 1,5 meter. Each of the first-stage blocks at the start provided thrust of the order of 68,6 tf. The 18-meter second stage had a fuselage with a diameter of 2,2 meter and a wing span of 7,75 meter. Its ramjet engine at cruising speed provided traction up to 7,65 ton. The total mass of MKR ready for launch exceeded 97 tons, 33,5 of which accounted for each of the first-stage blocks and 34,6 tons for the second stage. It should be noted that during the modifications and tests, the launch weight of the “Storm” rocket was repeatedly changed, both upwards and downwards.
To launch the “Storm” rocket, a special launch complex was created on the railway platform. After the launch complex was launched, the launch complex was supposed to be turned in the right direction and the rocket was raised to a vertical position. At the command of the rocket using the engines of the first stage had to rise to a height of about 17,5 kilometers. At this altitude, there was an uncoupling of the used blocks of the first stage and the start of the second flow-through engine. With the help of a ramjet engine, the second stage had to accelerate to a speed of the order of M = 3,1-3,2. The astronavigation system, which corrected the flight trajectory, was switched on at the march stage. A few dozen kilometers from the target "The Tempest" was to rise to an altitude of 25 km and go into a dive. During a dive, it was proposed to dump the central body of the air intake with the warhead. Tests of models dropped from the carrier aircraft showed that the deviation of the missile warhead at the maximum range would not exceed 10 kilometers from the target.
By the middle of 1957, several copies of the 350 product were manufactured. In July, they were taken to the Kapustin Yar test site (according to some sources, tests were conducted at the Vladimirovka test site). The first launch of the Storm missile was scheduled for July 31 1957 of the year (according to other data, for August 1). During the first test run, it was intended to test the operation of the first stage. However, due to the failure of the systems, the launch did not take place and the rocket was sent back for revision. In the first few tests, instead of the finished second stage, its weight and size layout was used. He was a rocket body with fuel tanks filled with sand or water. The first flight of the promising CDM took place only on September 1 and ended in failure. A few seconds after the start, an emergency shooting of gas rudders occurred, because of which the product lost control and fell close to the starting position. The last launch of 57, held on October 30, also ended in an accident.
After a series of improvements, the tests resumed on March 21 of the year 1958. The goal of the fourth launch was to test the flight in the initial part of the trajectory. Instead of the scheduled 95 seconds, the 350 rocket stayed in the air for just over one minute. On the 60 second flight of the flight, the control automation for some reason turned the rocket into a dive, and after 3 seconds, the product crashed into the ground. 28 April, the next "Bure" managed to make a flight lasting more than 80 seconds. This time, the cause of the premature fall of the rocket was a malfunction of the electrical systems, due to which the first-stage blocks were reset. The rocket climbed a high-rise about 15 kilometers.
The launch of 22 in May of 1958 was the first successful test program. The 30 product, lightened by 350%, in 90 seconds of operation of the first-stage engines rose to a height of more than 17 kilometers and reached a speed of about M = 2,95. At this speed, there was a regular launch of a second-stage ramjet engine. The tested rocket fell in a given area two minutes after launch. Test launches with the aim of working off the flight in the initial part of the trajectory and testing the second stage continued until the end of March 1959. Of the seven launches conducted from 11 June 1958 of the year to 29 in March of 59, only one was recognized as successful. In two, there were failures of various systems at the start, the rest ended in accidents in flight.
It is worth noting that the successful flight of 29 March 1959 of the year was not fully successful. The first stage successfully brought MKR to the calculated height, after which the supersonic ramjet engine began to work. The flight of the second stage of the “350” product with half refueling took place at an altitude of 15 kilometers. In 25 minutes 20 seconds, the rocket traveled more than 1300 kilometers. However, during the horizontal flight, the speed slightly decreased due to the failure of the onboard equipment.
From 19 on April 1959 of the year to February 20, 60-th three more launches, which were considered successful, were carried out. During the April flight of the IBC, “The Tempest” was in the air for more than 33 minutes and traveled over 1760 kilometers. Some sources claim that during these tests the rocket flew around 2000 km, then turned in the opposite direction and flew another 2000 km.
In the middle of 1959, the OKB-301 updated the project, equipping the Storm intercontinental cruise missile with new engines. The first stage was now equipped with C2.1150 engines, and the second received a power unit of the type RD-012U. The engines of the new types provided an increase in the load and, as a result, in the flight characteristics. The first flight of the upgraded MCR took place on October 2 1959 of the year. On the marching section of the trajectory of the rocket for the first time used the astronavigation system. 20 February of the following year, the rocket “The Tempest” set a new distance record, flying about 5500 kilometers.
Of the four 1960 test launches of the year, only one ended in an accident. 6 March through 25-26 minutes after the start of a malfunction of the marching ramjet engine. The flight was interrupted, giving a command to self-destruct. By this time, the rocket flew about 1500 kilometers.
According to the test flight 23 program of March 1960, the MKR “Storm” was supposed to reach Cape Ozerny (Kamchatka). The launch, the ascent to the altitude of 18 km and the subsequent flight on the cruise line took place without any problems. It took no more than 12-15 seconds to switch on and start the operation of the astronavigational system. On the 118-th minute of the flight in the second-stage tanks ran out of fuel. After another 2-2,5 minutes the rocket was supposed to go into a dive, but the control system failed. The steady flight of the 350 rocket lasted 124 minutes, after which it fell, breaking a total of over 6500 kilometers. The speed on the march reached M = 3,2.
16 December of the same year, the rocket "The Tempest" was supposed to fly to the Kura (Kamchatka) test site. The product flew more than 6400 kilometers and deviated from the calculated trajectory by no more than 5-7 kilometers. The speed of the second stage reached M = 3,2. All systems during this flight worked normally. The flight was stopped after the exhaustion of fuel.
Already in 1957-58, after several successful tests of the intercontinental ballistic missile P-7, it became clear that the project "350" in the form of a shock system has almost no prospects. Intercontinental cruise missiles lost to ballistic in flight time and, as a result, in combat capabilities. In addition, MKR, unlike ICBM warheads in the future, could become a fairly easy target for advanced air defense systems. Because of this, 5 February 1960, the year the Council decided to stop work on the project Intercontinental cruise missile "The Tempest". The same decree OKB-301 allowed to conduct five additional test launches intended for testing various systems.
This permission was due to the fact that even in 1958, the designers led by S.A. Lavochkina and N.S. Chernyakova began working on a promising unmanned reconnaissance unit based on the Storm. In July, 1960, the country's leadership demanded to develop a strategic complex of photo- and radio intelligence, using the available developments on the MCR "350". The scout was supposed to fly at altitudes of the order of 25 km at a speed of 3500-4000 km / h. The radius of action was set at 4000-4500 kilometers. The unmanned reconnaissance aircraft had to be equipped with several PAFA-K and AFA-41 aerial cameras, as well as the Romb-K radio intelligence complex. It was proposed to create two versions of an unmanned aerial vehicle. One of them was to receive landing gear, which ensured its multiple use. The second option was supposed to make a one-time. To do this, he had to carry the fuel required for a flight to a distance of 12000-14000 kilometers, as well as radio equipment for transmitting data at a distance of 9 thousand km.
9 June 1960, the year is not SA Lavochkin. The project of a prospective strategic intelligence officer was literally orphaned. Due to the lack of support from the general designer, the project slowed down, and was closed by the end of the year. It is worth noting that not only Lavochkin’s death affected the fate of the project. By this time, there was a real opportunity to create a reconnaissance satellite with a suitable composition of equipment. The operation of such systems was slightly more difficult than using a modified cruise missile. In addition, to launch reconnaissance satellites, it was proposed to use launch vehicles unified with the P-7 ICBM. Because of this, the project of a strategic photo and radio intelligence officer was closed.
During the development of the scout, only three of the five authorized test launches were carried out. Another 16 held on December 1960 of the year had other goals. At the beginning of 60, the OKB-301 staff suggested using the 350 MCR as the basis for a high-speed high-altitude target, which could be used to prepare calculations for Dal anti-aircraft missile systems. After a single test run on the target development program, the project was terminated. The Dal project itself was also not successful - it was closed in 1963.
In December 1960, all work on the scout and targets ceased. Similar processing project MKR "The Tempest" was considered unpromising. Thus, the project "350" did not give any results in the form of practically applicable shock, reconnaissance, etc. system. However, this project can not be considered unsuccessful. In the development of intercontinental cruise missiles, Soviet scientists and designers conducted a large number of studies, created a lot of new technologies and developed several important directions. Especially for promising MCR, the first astronavigation system in the country and a number of other electronic equipment was created. Also, it should be noted the development of several new technologies associated with the manufacture and processing of titanium parts. An important part of the project "The Tempest" was the development of a supersonic ramjet engine. The development of the RD-012 engine allowed to accumulate a large amount of knowledge in this area, which was used in later projects.
With regard to the direct results of the project, the "Storm", as well as the entire class of intercontinental cruise missiles, simply could not withstand competition with intercontinental ballistic missiles that appeared in the late fifties. Ballistic missiles, such as the P-7, had a greater modernization potential and higher combat capabilities. The Soviet Union of the fifties and sixties could not afford to simultaneously conduct several projects of strategic strike systems and therefore had to take their prospects into account. Intercontinental ballistic missiles proved to be more profitable and more convenient than cruise missiles in a number of parameters. It should be noted that such savings previously led to the cessation of work on the Buran MKR project, which was developed at OKB-23 under the guidance of V.M. Myasishchev. The country's leadership and the command of the armed forces considered it unprofitable to create two cruise missiles with approximately equal characteristics at the same time.
As a result, the intercontinental cruise missile "The Tempest" became the next item on the long list. weapons and military equipment, which allowed to create new equipment or to master new technologies, but did not enter service. In recent years, leading countries have again focused their attention on long-range high-speed cruise missiles. Perhaps, in the future, new projects will lead to the creation of an MCS, in some way similar to the “Storm”. However, one cannot rule out such a scenario, in which new projects will repeat the fate of the Soviet 350 product.
Yakubovich N.V. Unknown Lavochkin. - M .: Yauza, Eksmo, 2012