Military Review

USA: Expropriation as a way to survive

USA: Expropriation as a way to survive

In November, 2013, the chairman of the Senate Finance Committee of the United States, Democrat Max Bocus, proposed a one-time capital tax on corporations. This is a new trend. Its vivid expression was the events of March 2013 of the year in Cyprus, where the operation to confiscate bank deposits was made. Soon this experience was extended to the whole European Union. In June, Brussels adopted a directive, according to which clients' money deposited in client accounts can be used to save banks. European capitalism began to chop the branch on which he sat for several centuries.

In the spring, American authorities turned a blind eye to the events related to bank confiscations in Cyprus. However, according to individual statements of American politicians and economists, it was possible to understand that Washington is eyeing the European experience. Both congressmen, the owner of the White House, and government officials unanimously declare that in the future banks should not count on help from the state treasury. During the crisis, 2008-2009, according to conservative estimates, US banks received at least 1 trillion at the expense of taxpayers. dollars Today, the budget problems of America sharply exacerbated. And at the same time, no one has repealed the principle of “Too Big to Die” (“Too big to die”), which still existed on Wall Street. Washington cannot allow the largest banks of Wall Street to go to the bottom, because then they will pull the entire US banking system, and then the entire US economy, to the bottom. It can be assumed that the largest banks will be saved by their clients. However, for the time being, this seditious conclusion in Washington is not publicly made.

There is an opinion that America is more anxious about the institution of private property than Europe. However, it is not. If Europe still plans to deal with bank confiscations, then America has been practicing them for a long time - under the guise of various economic sanctions against the “wrong” political regimes from the point of view of Washington. And although the economic sanctions in Washington are primarily political goals, in many ways they have already become a business for Uncle Sam. We are talking about freezing of funds of individuals and legal entities of other countries in American banks. From the old examples one can cite US economic sanctions against Cuba. From fresh examples - against Libya, Syria, Iran. Formally, this is not about confiscation, but about freezing or arresting funds in bank accounts. However, first, frozen money is, in fact, an irrevocable deposit. Such a deposit is a gift for any bank, it increases the stability of a credit institution, and allows you to increase assets. Secondly, even after defrosting, the money from the deposit does not necessarily return to their rightful owners. Enough to remember history with Libya. Only the foreign exchange reserves of the Central Bank and the sovereign fund of Libya, located outside the country, were estimated at 2011 a year at 150 billion. Washington achieved freezing of Libyan currency reserves at banks in the United States and other Western countries. At the same time, he promised that after the fall of the "criminal" Gaddafi regime, "the money will be returned to the people." The war ended, but the money never returned to Libya.

* * *

Even those who have been engaged in the economy all their lives have heard almost nothing about the “capital tax”. Under capitalism, this tax is complete nonsense; it contradicts the letter and spirit of capitalism. However, sometimes even the most consistent defenders of the capitalist economy remembered this tax. Examples can be found in the work of the famous American economist at Berkeley University professor Barry Eichengrin, The Theory and Practice of Capital Taxation, which was written in the early 1990s. It contains an analysis of individual attempts to introduce in the twentieth century taxes on bank deposits and capital (capital levy). It turns out that, at first, there were very few such attempts. Secondly, it has always been a one-time, rather than a permanent tax. Third, not all attempts ended with the practical introduction of a tax. Fourthly, almost all attempts took place in Europe.

Almost all cases, notes the American economist, refer to the period of the first years after the end of World War 1914-1918, when the economies of European countries were in a state of complete ruin, and the state treasury was empty. Each time the introduction of the tax was accompanied by a discussion: what's worse - the worst debt problems and holes in the budget or the confiscation of part of the capital of citizens. There has always been a conflict between economic expediency and the long-term destructive consequences of violating the fundamental dogma of capitalism about the inviolability of private property. The delays in the discussions led to the fact that under conditions of high inflation the real value of the tax turned out to be extremely insignificant. In addition, the owners of liquid assets managed to take him out of the country, into a shadow or hide. Finally, there were also purely technical problems associated with the complexity of capital valuation. And more often it ended in discussions, the tax was not introduced. So it was in Germany, Hungary, France, Britain. Well-known English economist John M. Keynes was at first an active supporter of the introduction of a capital tax, but then, having deeply understood the issue, he moved to the camp of tax opponents. To some extent, the tax was carried out only in Italy, Czechoslovakia and Austria, but its fiscal effect was extremely small.

For some reason, Professor Barry Eichengrin forgot to say in his study that the "capital tax" was applied not only in Europe but also in America. I mean the operation that the US ruling circles carried out at the height of the 1930's economic crisis. Only she was not called "capital tax". After President Franklin Roosevelt came to the White House, one of his first high-profile decisions was decree number 6102 on the mandatory surrender of gold to the state treasury. The decree entered into force 5 on April 1933. All individuals and legal entities located in the United States were obliged to exchange gold (in the form of coins and ingots) for paper money at 1 dollars per troy ounce before 1933 in May 20,66. The exchange could be made at any bank in the United States that has the right to conduct operations with the metal. The execution of the decree was given a little more than three weeks. Violators were threatened with 10-year imprisonment and a fine of 10.000 dollars (by the standards of that time, a fortune).

In the following year, 1934, Roosevelt signed the law on the state's gold reserve: it provided for the confiscation of gold from banks, which in return received gold certificates. In this case, the reverse exchange of certificates for the metal was prohibited. In 1934, the price of gold was raised to 35 dollars per ounce. Therefore, it is possible to speak not about the purchase of gold by the state at a “fair” price, namely, the confiscation, on which the state earned very good money. By the way, Wall Street banks also earned this. They had access to insider information and advanced their gold in advance outside the United States. After 4, all the state-selected gold was solemnly brought to the purpose-built Fort Knox vault in Kentucky. This law was valid for more than four decades and was repealed only in 1974 year.

In our opinion, the confiscation of gold in 1933-1934. pursued not only and not so much fiscal goals as far-reaching goals of turning the US dollar into a world currency. After 10 years, in 1944, the international conference in Bretton Woods was held in the United States, and the issues of the postwar organization of the global monetary and financial system were discussed. America then managed to push the decision that the US dollar would function as world money, Washington promised the free exchange of the US dollar for the yellow metal to the monetary authorities of other countries. The guarantee of this was the very stock of gold in Fort Knox, which arose as a result of Roosevelt's "golden confiscation".

* * *

Let us return, however, today, to the initiative of US Senator Max Bocus, which concerns the introduction of a capital tax. Launching such an initiative on Capitol Hill means that America is going through very difficult times. The proposal was formulated a few days after the thundercloud of US government default passed by (October 17 in the US Congress managed to reach an agreement between Democrats and Republicans to raise the government borrowing ceiling until February 2014 of the year).

I will provide some details regarding the proposed capital tax. This tax Senator Baucus proposes to recover from large US multinational corporations, which for many years accumulated their liquid assets abroad, evading taxes. And this is not about the fine, compensation or payment of debts on the old taxes, namely, the new tax, and one-time. The tax rate is proposed in 20% of the cash reserves of US corporations abroad. What are these cash reserves? Ratings are very different. For the most modest account - at least 2 trillion. dollars. In this case, the tax will give the US treasury 200 billion. However, this is the minimum figure. According to others, the financial assets of US companies outside the country at the end of 2012 amounted to 20,5 trillion. dollars. Congress has already agreed to consider the proposal of Senator Baucus, and US Treasury Secretary Jacob Lew said he found the project interesting. A few years ago, it was impossible to expect such a reaction from the American establishment. This suggests that America, after Europe, was ripe for confiscations and expropriations ...


(1) V.Yu. Katasonov. The global banking system at death // Site “Fund of Strategic Culture”, 20.03.2013.
(2) For details, see: V.Yu. Katasonov. On the percentage: loan, amenable, reckless. Reader of modern problems of "monetary civilization". Books 1 and 2. - M .: Scientific Research Institute of School Technologies, 2012.
(3) See: V.Yu. Katasonov. Confiscation of bank deposits as a global perspective. // Site “Fund of Strategic Culture”, 03.06.2013.
(4) Barry Eichengreen. The Capital Levy in Theory and Practice. University of California, Berkeley - Department of Economics; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER); Center for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) // NBER Working Paper No. w3096 October 1991 (
(5) For details, see: V.Yu. Katasonov. Escape from America: the process is gaining momentum // Site “Fund of Strategic Culture”, 16.10.2013.
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  1. AVV
    AVV 14 December 2013 12: 55
    America as it was, throughout its existence, a criminal state, has not changed !!! The looting of the resources of the whole world, the creation of all kinds of pyramids, banking, trading, mortgage !!! That is, it continues to live for other people's money and at the expense of others! !! And the introduction of various sanctions on the accounts of other states, firms, banks, individuals, is nothing more than a way to earn money !!! Therefore, the question arises: is it worth our state to keep its capital in this criminal state !!! Just in one fine day, they can just disappear like Cypriot deposits !!! And we need this ???
    1. Lesnik
      Lesnik 14 December 2013 15: 46
      European capitalism began to chop the branch on which he sat for several centuries.

      I would like to clarify "World Jewish Capitalism"
      I am not anti-Semite, but you need to call everything by their proper names laughing
      1. BBM
        BBM 14 December 2013 17: 40
        Quote: Forestman
        I would like to clarify "World Jewish Capitalism"
        I am not anti-Semite, but you need to call everything by their proper names

    2. Reyngard
      Reyngard 14 December 2013 18: 58
      And what are these capitals? Stolen from trusting and powerless Russians? Of course, so that they do not serve America, they must be returned! But! With complete confiscation in favor of the citizens of Russia, for example, by founding some truly people's bank, and not to use Putin’s gang.
    3. Reyngard
      Reyngard 14 December 2013 19: 10
      And yet ... No matter how you blame America, its government does what its citizens do best, no matter what methods, unlike the Russian one.
      1. aksakal
        aksakal 14 December 2013 19: 39
        Quote: Reyngard
        And yet ... No matter how you blame America, its government does what its citizens do best, no matter what methods, unlike the Russian one.
        - And yet - no matter how hayal Reingard, he is still Russophobic and Russophobic. Reinhard, is there something you don't like? A suitcase, a train station, America, where the government does what is best for its citizens. And yet - in spite of Smirnov - listen, Reinhard, that's just pure curiosity, but the truth is they say that in addition to the obligatory placement of Russophobic posts, you are obliged to sleep with each other on the principle of "man - with a man" and "woman - with a woman"? There are just a lot of complaints on the Internet about American employers.
        1. bif
          bif 15 December 2013 03: 58
          Quote: aksakal
          And yet - in spite of Smirnov - listen, Reinhard, that's just pure curiosity, but the truth is they say that in addition to the obligatory placement of Russophobic posts, you are obliged to sleep with each other on the principle of "man - with a man"

          This is to warm up anger and aggression, which is then splashed out in the form of posts. Well, familiarization with Western "culture" by itself.
      2. saber1357
        saber1357 15 December 2013 00: 56
        Brother, why is the Russian flag shining? Come on, go to the USA, your beloved. I have worked in PundoStan for 5 years. I HAVE A FULL UNDERSTANDING how good it is for US citizens. Hundreds of conversations he had with US citizens, from which, to summarize, it follows that such an event as a "black funnel" at night (oh, sorry, a Mercedes or whatever they drive there) and a conversation with a pensioner at the local FBI office from 12 am to 4 am about that phrase about the foreign / domestic policy of the United States that you said yesterday with such and such a gym, etc., etc., etc. is not something that is common, but quite not surprising. Now the mentally normal US CITIZENS are pretty much scared, and not at all because of the "Russians are coming" but, ... well, they hope you already guessed why. So come on, get off, there liberals are waiting for you in pubs for people of a certain orientation, they will explain what's what ...
      3. The comment was deleted.
    4. Vadivak
      Vadivak 14 December 2013 19: 30
      Quote: ...
      the events of March 2013 in Cyprus, where the operation to confiscate bank deposits was carried out.

      Let's say we have to fight with a crook. Cyprus is an offshore read a crook. By the way, the Russian crook. In Cypriot banks, the Russians had 31 billion dollars. Of these, 12 billion belonged to Russian bankers, 19 billion - to firms and individuals. 38% - in Cyprus, Russian firms with foreign capital are registered in Cyprus. All polls speak Russian. And who saved them guess who?
    5. Sterlya
      Sterlya 15 December 2013 01: 49
      French President Charles de Gaulle was once told a joke.
      Someone was selling a picture. A Russian approached him and offered oil worth $ 500t. Arab offered gold for a million dollars. As a result, the American bought the most profitable for $ 2 million.
      - so what is the benefit if he offered several times more than others asked Charles de Gaulle.
      In fact, he bought for $ 1 said one. how much paper costs, and making a check.
      Charles de Gaulle thought about it and in the future it was this joke that pushed him to exchange all the dollars available in France for gold. he just loaded them on airplanes. and the ship and flew to America for an exchange.
  2. My address
    My address 14 December 2013 15: 44
    I understand this as cautious withdrawal of unsecured money supply in order to avoid SUCH 1000% inflation of the dollar and the Great Depression of the 30's seem like seeds.
    At the same time, our gold and foreign currency (in US obligations about 200 lard) will disappear, but no one will answer for it.
    1. S-200
      S-200 14 December 2013 16: 15
      Quote: My address
      At the same time, our gold and foreign currency (in US obligations about 200 lard) will disappear, but no one will answer for it.

      They have such a financial strategy with the Fed - pumping out resources (paying well), but at the same time devaluing the partners' revenue ... Therefore, the BRICS are trying to get off the dollar train.
      The more BRICS will "go away" from the dollar (euro), the higher taxes on corporations and citizens, the US and EU government will establish. Well, it is desirable to destroy more material values ​​in the world (far from the metropolis), so that there is a need for new funds for financing their reproduction ...
      and other tricks of the "world capital"
  3. Normman
    Normman 14 December 2013 15: 46
    If a gentleman cannot win by the rules, the gentleman changes the rules.
  4. velikoros-xnumx
    velikoros-xnumx 14 December 2013 15: 51
    all state-selected gold was solemnly taken to a specially constructed Fort Knox repository in Kentucky

    a phrase from my favorite movie "Ivan Vasilyevich is changing his profession":
    - "And the king is said to be not real" in the sense that they say that the basements of Ford-Knox have long been empty. Dominique Strauss Kahn somehow let it slip on this topic, how it ended for him, we know.
    1. AlexP47
      AlexP47 14 December 2013 16: 47
      "But Pan Ataman has no gold reserves .."
      Popandopulo, movie "Wedding in Malinovka"
    2. AlexP47
      AlexP47 14 December 2013 16: 47
      "But Pan Ataman has no gold reserves .."
      Popandopulo, movie "Wedding in Malinovka"
  5. homosum20
    homosum20 14 December 2013 15: 53
    Even Karl Marx argued that all capital is created by criminal means. For the appropriation of surplus value by the capitalist is confiscation. Having lived 53 years, practically without a stretch, I can say that I have not seen a single case of prosperity at my own expense. There is always a trail of either crime (sometimes of previous generations) or a lucky break (which is also the use of unearned money) after "beautiful life".
    in America they only follow the general rule. And we, a country in which a handful of oligarchs have taken property from an entire nation - and he was silent, do not have to look for a speck in the eyes of others. By the way, Russia is the only country in the world in which the subsoil can be privately owned. What is this if not robbery? No Cyprus looks against the backdrop of our country.
    1. bif
      bif 15 December 2013 04: 05
      I agree with you, except
      Quote: homosum20
      Russia is the only country in the world in which the subsoil may be privately owned

      An example for clarity, is it better to pair?
      1. 15 December 2013 07: 20
        A liter of AI-95 in our region is almost a dollar. If I am a share "owner" of Russian mineral resources, like you, then why should I pay for my property from my wallet so dearly? An example is below the price of gasoline in the USA:
        "According to the American Automobile Association, the average price per gallon (3,785 liters) of gasoline in the US on Monday rose 5,2% compared to last week," Vesti Ekonomika reported.
        Fuel prices rose 17 cents to $ 3,52 a gallon. This is the largest price jump in the last 2 years. "
        Let the oil magnates return my hard-earned 2 rub.30 kopecks. with every liter of gasoline, if I am the owner!
        Maybe this example alone will be enough for you?
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. Hitrovan07
          Hitrovan07 15 December 2013 23: 18
          I agree with the conclusions, BUT you think a poorly respected laughing
          And why only 2 rubles. 30 kopecks - Considering how much gasoline costs in Venezuela or cost in Libya !!!
        3. bif
          bif 16 December 2013 00: 44
          If I am a share "owner" of Russian mineral resources, like you, then why should I pay for my property from my wallet so dearly?

          The "share owner" of the Russian subsoil, not falling into the delirium of this fabrication, how is this connected with gasoline? Gasoline is a product of oil refining at a refinery !!! You can just as well scream about the price of milk, as a product of the processing of herbs in the animal's body.
          As I understand it, I’m familiar with mathematics at least at the elementary school level - it pleases. So from 30r for 1 liter AI-92 HOW MUCH are the TAX of the state? And how much profit? Little forever screaming hamsters know about pricing in the USA and other oil-producing countries, but they can squeak about 2 a ruble for an 1 liter somewhere in Kuwait ... first check out - then speak.
          1. bif
            bif 16 December 2013 01: 10
            So from 30r for 1 liter AI-92 HOW MUCH are the TAX of the state? And how much profit?
            Especially for hamsters:
            23,8% - net profit of the company
            17,1% - production and transportation costs
            59,1% - taxes to the state budget
            The price of a-92 gasoline in the USA is 1 dollar per liter, 3-4 dollar per gallon.
            Here in more detail
  6. andrei332809
    andrei332809 14 December 2013 15: 53
    Communists spoke correctly - the Western system has rotted
    1. alone
      alone 14 December 2013 16: 01
      laughing Well, where are these communists now? Say Zyuganov? this is a communist like me Che Ge Vara
      1. andrei332809
        andrei332809 14 December 2013 16: 06
        Quote: lonely
        ? Say Zyuganov?

        do not juggle. you understand that this is not about the present. at the moment that the "communists", that the democrats are dragging the country to the path of the liberal (ugh, what a filthy word) economic system

      2. Basarev
        Basarev 14 December 2013 17: 49
        No Zyuganov is not a communist, and so is a toothless clown
        1. Reyngard
          Reyngard 14 December 2013 19: 01
          If you do not know, then besides Zyu, there are also "Communists of Russia".
      3. 15 December 2013 07: 24
        Quote: lonely
        Say Zyuganov? this is a communist like me Che Ge Vara

        Do not offend Comrade Che! He worked for the World Revolution, and Zyuga "works" for himself.
    2. And Us Rat
      And Us Rat 14 December 2013 19: 38
      Quote: andrei332809
      Communists spoke correctly - the Western system has rotted

      1. S-200
        S-200 14 December 2013 23: 55
        belay NEGRODACTYLE pacific ? what may be ...
        1. And Us Rat
          And Us Rat 15 December 2013 03: 15
          Quote: S-200
          belay NEGRODACTYLE pacific ? what may be ...

          Snake Obamych wassat As I heard - he even Yusovites themselves got worse bitter radish. For 2 incomplete cadences already got everyone, just All am
  7. Ivanovich47
    Ivanovich47 14 December 2013 15: 55
    Not from a good life plan to spend "expropriation" capital financial authorities of the West. Life in the debt of Western society at the end of the 20 of that century led to the development of a powerful financial crisis, which also affected Russia. NOur country will now pay a high price for integration into the global economic community. This is the price of globalization. And the citizens of our country must keep their ears open. Because the "expropriation" of our deposits in the future is quite likely.
  8. knn54
    knn54 14 December 2013 16: 16
    -This tax Senator Bocus proposes to recover from large multinational corporations in the United States, which for many years accumulated their liquid assets abroad, evading taxes.
    They will have an election soon. So this is most likely an election promise.
    The West, first of all, is concerned about the impending political and social collapse of LIBERALISM. And financial issues will be decided at the expense of others.
    For an ALIEN "elite" in the United States adopted a law on national defense, which in fact ANY person (both in the United States and abroad) allows you to consider as a potential terrorist and start an investigation against him (NDAA - National Defense Authorization Act 2012). And since the United States and Switzerland have entered into agreements on "cooperation" in the financial sphere, the Yankees now have no difficulty in "freezing" the funds of any individual or legal entity in a Swiss bank. So the "Magnitsky Act" is a trifle. Today Cyprus - tomorrow EVERYWHERE.
    PS The time has come to recall the situation at the beginning of 1914, when many politicians and statesmen, and even ordinary people in Russia, realized that the country was on the verge of a world war. Already a few months before the outbreak of World War I, most of the funds of Russian citizens and companies, as well as the State Bank of the Russian Empire, stored in banks in Germany (as well as Austria-Hungary) were withdrawn by them and returned to Russia.
    APASUS 14 December 2013 16: 50
    Throughout history, America has always played by its own rules, written for itself. Not only can they introduce additional taxes for anyone, they are not even stopped by state borders in order to obtain the necessary resources.
    1. Reyngard
      Reyngard 14 December 2013 19: 43
      So why and who holds the capital there? Ordinary Russians need it?
      1. saber1357
        saber1357 15 December 2013 01: 00
        In, a simple Russian turned up. With constant apologetics addressed to the United States ... but the obvious is not real, so simple such ...
  10. mountain
    mountain 14 December 2013 17: 23
    And I was always wondering where everyone was and what they did to rectify the situation. After all, all the fuss on the dollar has not started today. And now, and the EU does not remind you of anything? Germany's dream came true, what she wanted to get through wars, she got through a scam. And, again, they don’t see what it is all about? The world is clearly going crazy.
  11. kelevra
    kelevra 14 December 2013 17: 32
    Capitalism is far from an ideal society system! Money is rubbish and sooner or later it will not be!
  12. sasska
    sasska 14 December 2013 17: 54
    Quote: Ivanovich47
    Our country will now pay a heavy price for integration into the global economic community. This is the price of globalization.

    European integration ...
    but how can you "integrate" a snake into a hedgehog (or vice versa)? "You can't harness a horse and a quivering doe in one cart." (A.S. Pushkin, 1831)
    Pedivikia says: "The integration of society or separate states can be carried out on the basis of coercion, mutual benefit or similarities in the socio-economic system, interests, goals and values ​​of various individuals, social groups, classes, states."
    I have a question: a what, how and why Of the above, do Russians need it? it seems to me that nothing.
    all these cries of integration are needed only by liberals who are ruining their country - Russia cannot be defeated by war.

    IMHO, no more.
  13. SlavaS
    SlavaS 14 December 2013 18: 19
    Keep money in a glass jar, under the bed!
  14. Grbear
    Grbear 14 December 2013 18: 39
    So what? Let them decide their problems at the expense of their bigwigs. This is normal. Moreover, we also need to step in this direction and “bite out” some of our oligarchs (especially since their beloved Uncle Sam does this and we “keep in the wake” of the liberal economy).

    They will not dare to "squeeze" government deposits, except from "little" friends and selectively. For the rest of the big players, a "freeze" is a declaration of war or a complete loss of "face", followed by a collapse of the economy.

    But still symptomatic good .
  15. wax
    wax 14 December 2013 21: 37
    And something happened to our banks?
  16. sasska
    sasska 15 December 2013 00: 26
    Quote: Wax
    And something happened to our banks?

    good what do you have ITS there are banks. just for example: find at least one National bank in the former republics that joined the eurozone. you will find - you are standing to my applause.
  17. Sterlya
    Sterlya 15 December 2013 01: 31
    They will mostly bite off not their own. Their hide in the beginning. meaning the very ones. And such as Russian. Mexican. Indian and others oligarchy them on the drum. it’s they who consider themselves to be someone. they love America, and they sleep and dream of letting them go around the world. because theirs will later become theirs.
    And yes. Marx seems to have written.
    Behind any major fortune lies a crime.
    That even turns Marx. Usa is the biggest criminal in the world. how not to twist.
    the United States already can not imagine that you can live within our means. rather than printing paper simply and without any ingenious combinations.
  18. Alex 63
    Alex 63 15 December 2013 01: 45
    One senses a strong Jewish lobby in the United States. Which means are "kosher" and which ones you can put your paws on.
    1. 15 December 2013 07: 46
      Confiscation, confiscation ... And remember, dear gentlemen-comrades, the dashing 90s on the ruins of the USSR. Mr. Pavlov's reforms are not confiscations? Did the Democrats clean our pockets and clean our wallets with a graceful movement? No, they just printed unsecured pieces of paper: "Pavlovka" 100; 200 RUR How did the dollar jump, remind you? Let me remind you, although over the years, something has been forgotten, so: 2, 600, 4 rubles / dollar, now the Central Bank's USD is 800. Particularly careful so that there are no clarifying questions for me, divide the three sums indicated above by a thousand (denomination).
      It turns out that after Pavlov we were "milked" four more times.
  19. Horn
    Horn 15 December 2013 09: 54
    Ostap Bender knew 400 "relatively honest ways to take money." But there was no outright robbery among them.
  20. blizart
    blizart 15 December 2013 11: 54
    Fort Knox, Fort Knox De Gaulle could not exchange "French" dollars for gold