MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
The PLA Air Force is headed by the commander-in-chief, who is one of the deputy defense ministers of the PRC. The total strength of the Air Force personnel is approximately 330 thousand people.
The main aviation branches are fighter, fighter-bomber, bomber, military transport and reconnaissance. The PLA Air Force also includes ground-based air defense forces, including the formation of anti-aircraft missile systems (ZRS) and barreled anti-aircraft artillery, as well as airborne troops *.
The operational association of the PLA Air Force is the Air Army, which includes several formations and units. A tactical unit is an air division, it consists of three air regiments, an air regiment of three squadrons, a squadron of three links, a link of four to five aircraft.
The air force is divided into groups that are part of the seven military districts. The number of divisions in the military district depends on the size of the latter. For example, in the largest of them - Guangzhou and Shenyansky - there are seven air divisions each.
STRUCTURE OF AVIATION PARK
During the period from 1995 to 2012, the number of Air Force personnel decreased from 400 to 330 thousand people. The total number of combat aircraft has decreased from 5300 to 1693. The number of bombers reduced from 630 to 82. Significant changes in quantitative and qualitative terms occurred in the fighter-bomber and ground attack aircraft. Aircraft support troops (direct aviation support) Q-5 were withdrawn from its structure, of which 1995 units were counted in 500 in the year, and in the Q-5C / D / E modification to 2005, the year remained to 300 units. In 2012, there were 99 reconnaissance aircraft JZ-8F.
Front-line fighter aircraft from 1985 to 2012 year was reduced from 4000 to 890 machines. Airplanes of the second and partly of the third generation were withdrawn from service. In total, the Air Force has 33 air divisions: three bomber, four fighter-bomber, 24 fighter and two transport.
Despite the fact that a fairly significant number of third-generation fighters such as Jian-8 (552 units) remain in the fighter aircraft fleet, the basis of its combat power is made up of light Jiang-10 and heavy Su-27 multi-purpose fighters made in Russia and China. The latter received the Chinese designation Jian-11. As well as imported from Russia multi-purpose aircraft Su-30MKK and Su-30MK2. Su-27SK (Jian-11) of different modifications belongs to 4-generation airplanes, while Su-30MKK and Su-30MK2 are considered as aircraft of the “4 +” generation.
There were 2012 units in the 340 aircraft fleet in the year, of which: Jian-10А / S - more than 200, Jian-11В / ВS - more than 70, purchased in Russia Su-30МКК - 73, Su-27SK - 43 units. In terms of the number of groups of fourth and "4 +" planes, the PRC generation ranks second in the world after the United States, overtaking Russia, which has no more than 230 of such machines.
MULTIFUNCTIONAL FIGHTERS JIAN-10 AND JIAN-11
In the middle of the 80-s of the last century, the People's Republic of China adopted a program to develop a new 4-generation fighter. In the future, the specified technical task directed the efforts of Chinese developers towards the creation of a multi-functional machine. Russian specialists were involved in the project. Subsequently, Russia began to supply advanced equipment of this type, the AL-10 FN with 31 kg, to equip the Jian-12700 and its modifications to the People's Republic of China. The first flight of Jian-10 took place on 22 March, March 1998. After the completion of the full cycle of state tests in July 2004, he began to enter into service with the PLA Air Force.
The main tactical, technical and flight characteristics of the Jian-10 multi-role fighter: maximum take-off weight 19277 kg, maximum speed 2,2 M, combat radius with refueling in air 1600 km, without refueling in air - 550 km. The aircraft has 11 suspension assemblies. It is equipped with a wide range of weapons, can carry a combat load up to 6000 kg. Gun-guns are represented by the built-in 30-mm automatic cannon. The aircraft has a modern on-board radio-electronic equipment (avionics): an armament control system including an integrated NPIET KL-10 radar sighting system with an on-board phased-array radar, as well as an optical radar station. It can be equipped with ventral containers for various purposes.
The most modern machines in the PLA Air Force fleet are the Su-27 and Su-30 aircraft, delivered from Russia or manufactured under a Russian license. The development of their production technology in China for a decade reduced the cycle of creating aircraft 4-th generation. In 1998, with the help of Russian specialists and according to the Russian project, the workshops at the aircraft building plant in the city of Shenyang were re-equipped for the licensed assembly of aircraft of this type. Several groups of Chinese engineers and technicians have been practicing at the Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aviation Production Association named after Yu.A. Gagarin.
The licensed program, designed for 10 years, provided for the assembly of 200 aircraft in the PRC, 105 of which was to be assembled from vehicle sets supplied from Russia. However, the Chinese side, in violation of contractual obligations after the assembly of the first batch of aircraft, refused to continue the production of aircraft from Russian components, adjusting their domestic production completely. The independent Chinese version of the Su-27SK received the designation Jian-11. In the future, China, refusing the help of Russian specialists, began to develop and modernize Jian-11. All innovations make it possible in the first approximation to assign the multi-functional fighter Jian-11В to the generation “4 +”.
With 2007, the small-scale production of the aircraft in this configuration began, and it entered service with the PLA Air Force. However, due to a number of problems associated with the operation of the machine, mainly related to the WS-10 engine, which had a very low resource-free operation, it was decided to re-equip both previously produced and under construction aircraft of this modification by the Russian AL-31F engines.
The work on the creation of Jian-10, as well as the establishment of licensed production of Jian-11А in China and the further independent development of the basic model, created a powerful foundation to begin research and development on the design of a fifth-generation multi-purpose fighter. Successful implementation of this project will provide China with the opportunity to become one of the great aviation powers of the world.
The prototype of the aircraft was first shown in January 2011 of the year during the official visit to the PRC of US Secretary of Defense Robert Gates. According to aviation experts, the appearance and layout of the new Chinese multifunctional fighter under the designation Jian-20 is in many ways reminiscent of the multifunctional fighter of the Russian Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation (RSK) MiG MFI 1.42. It is assumed that MiG specialists who participated in the development program for FC-1 and Chien-10 could have prevented the leakage of information on the 1.42 MFIs.
October 31 2012, the prototype of the lighter 5 generation Jian-31, similar to the American F-35 Lightning, was lifted into the air. It is intended to ensure air supremacy and to destroy land and sea targets. It is assumed that at its base will be created deck option for basing on aircraft carriers.
Currently, Beijing is negotiating the purchase of a batch of 26 ++ Russian Su-4 multi-role 35 fighter jets from 30, which is a transitional model between the latest version of the 5 Su and the promising T-50 35 generation aircraft. Having received the Su-20, China will be able to solve two tasks: on the one hand, before adopting Jian-22, to form an aviation group capable of almost equally opposing the American F-35 and F-XNUMX, and on the other, copying those systems and units of the Russian aircraft that bring it to the fifth generation.
After the decommissioning of morally and physically obsolete fighter-bomber (attack aircraft) Nanchang Q-5 is practically the only representative of this kind of aircraft in the PLA Air Force is the 3 + generation Chien-Hung-7 in several modifications.
This type of machine was developed and adopted by the PLA Air Force during the period of the most intensive development of military-technical cooperation with the West. In appearance, layout and armament, the basic version of the aircraft is similar to the Anglo-French SEPECAT Jaguar. The first test sample of the aircraft took off in December 1988 of the year. In 2003, after significant revision, aircraft of this type, known as Block 2, were adopted by the Air Force. A later modification of the Jian-Hung-7A machine, capable of applying high precision weapon, entered the PLA Air Force combat units in 2004 year. In terms of combat capabilities, Jian-Hung 7А roughly corresponds to Panavia Tornado. It is believed that Jian-Hung-7 cannot withstand modern fighters on equal terms. They take part in almost all the peace missions of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), including the last 2013 in August.
This kind of PLA Air Force is represented by the only type of reconnaissance aircraft JZ-8F. In 2012, their numbers were 99 units. In addition, eight long-range radar detection and control aircraft (AEWS) were adopted, in particular, four KJ-2000 and KJ-200. The Soviet military transport aircraft IL-200 MD was used as an air platform of the KJ-76 complex.
Bomber aviation is the main attack tool of the PLA Air Force. After the withdrawal of Xian Hoon-5 front-line bombers (Chinese replica of the famous Soviet IL-28) from the line-up, the only Xian Hoon-6 bomber, which can be called long-range, remained the only representative of bomber aviation in the Air Force. The release of the aircraft Hun-6 stopped on the grounds that they are not able to overcome modern air defense and guaranteed to deliver to the target bombs. Part of the aircraft Hun-6 bomber versions was finalized in the interests of its use as a tanker.
With the development of cruise missiles for various purposes in China, the Hong-6 aircraft were able to be used as missile carriers that could launch missiles without entering the air defense zone and fighters of a potential enemy. In the anti-ship variant they are capable of striking the ships belonging to the carrier strike group (AUG).
In 2006, the serial production of such anti-aircraft aircraft in the Hun-6M version was adjusted. They were equipped with search radar "type 245" and four underwing nodes of the CJ YJ-83 / YJ-62 suspension system (C803 / C602). According to some sources, the aircraft of this type is equipped with a system for following the terrain and in order to overcome the air defense system has the ability to fly at ultra-low altitudes. To increase the combat radius on it, an additional fuel tank was installed on the site of the bomb bay. In the Hun-6H version, the aircraft could be equipped with two KD-63 anti-ship missiles or advanced KD-88 cruise missiles.
In January, 2007, the newest carrier of the new-version Hun-6K cruise missiles with six underwing assemblies was lifted into the air. Thanks to the installation of two Russian turbojet D-30KP-20 engines manufactured by NPO Saturn, both the combat radius of the aircraft, which reached 3500 km, and its combat load, was increased.
The missile carriers of the Hoon-6 K and Hoon-6 M modifications are intended to perform two main tasks, namely: to launch nuclear strikes against strategic targets that are within the theater of military operations; and to destroy the AUG of the United States Navy at distant approaches to the waters of Taiwan. At the same time, it is planned that they will strike in groups in numbers from the squadron to the regiment. Their actions can be provided by DRLOU aircraft and hide behind jamming aircraft. Air-launched cruise missiles will be launched outside the zone of operation of air defense weapons and enemy fighter aircraft.
By the end of 2012, the Air Force had 82 Hun-6 of the latest modifications. In parallel with the modernization and development of Hun-6, Chinese specialists are conducting intensive research and development on the development of strategic rocket carriers of the new generation of Hun-8 and Hun-10. According to American sources, there are many elements in the design of both bombers borrowed from American aircraft B-2 Spirit and F-117. This is due, in particular, to the fact that Chinese designers managed to copy some of the American developments in the field of stealth technology due to the B-2 design documentation obtained by Chinese intelligence and cyber formations, as well as the study of fragments of an invisible fighter shot down by Yugoslav means of air defense F -117, which were subsequently transferred to China.
MILITARY TRANSPORT AVIATION
Chinese military theorists have concluded that as China’s economic and political influence in the world increases, its national interests become global in scope. Accordingly, the role of its Armed Forces is expanding, as well as the provision of China’s national security with military means should be able to protect these interests in remote regions of the globe. In addition, such capabilities are necessary for China to perform peacekeeping and other functions. The solution of all these tasks in the shortest possible time can be achieved mainly with the help of transport aviation, much of which in the PRC is part of the PLA Military Transport Aviation.
In the middle of 2012, the PLA military transport aviation had more than 320 aircraft. Compared to 1995, when it had the maximum number of aircraft, namely 600 units, the number of aircraft fleet BTA decreased by 280 aircraft due to the cancellation of morally and physically obsolete 1-th and 2-th generation, such as the Soviet " An-12 ”,“ Lee-2 ”,“ Il-14 ”,“ Il-18 ”, American -“ Bae Trident 1E / 2E ”. As a result, the third-generation Russian-made and domestic-made airplanes remained in the BTA PLA Air Force, of which: IL-76-10 units, Yun-8 heavy vehicles of various modifications — 53 units; medium - Tu-154-12 units., Tu-154MD - 4 units; lungs: Yun-11-20 units., Yun-12-8 units., Yun-5-17 units.
China pays special attention to the creation of heavy military-technical cooperation, multi-purpose air tankers and special purpose aircraft of its own design and production. Specialists from the ASTC named after O.K. Antonov, who provide Chinese colleagues with technical assistance in the development of heavy military-technical cooperation Yun-9. In terms of its flight and tactical and technical characteristics, it significantly surpasses both the PLA Air Force and the Yun-8 series aircraft with four WJ-6C turboprop engines, and the American C-130 “Hercules” machine widely used in the world, exported .
Helicopter regiments are a powerful addition to the Chinese Air Force. Reuters Photos
Significant success Chinese developers have achieved in the creation of a military transport aircraft (MTC) with the turbofan engines. Flight tests began of the first prototype of the heavy military-technical model Yun-20, which was first lifted into the air on January 26 2013. The new Chinese car has a take-off weight of more than 200 tons, a payload mass of 66 tons, has a fuselage length of 47 meters, a wingspan of 45 m, and a height of 15 m. Its configuration has a certain similarity to the American Boeing C-17 Globemaster and Russian IL-76. In a number of Western publications, information has passed that the wing design for Yun-20 and the technology for its production have been developed by the Ukrainian aircraft-building concern Antonov. According to Russian experts, Yun-20 is based on the unrealized project of the Soviet heavy military transport aircraft An-170. According to Chinese media reports, the new transporter surpasses the Russian IL-76MD series in all respects and corresponds to the deeply modernized IL-76MD-90А aircraft in terms of its main characteristics, and surpasses it in some of them.
At the same time, Chinese specialists are actively working on the creation of new high-performance turbofan engines, such as WS-18 and WS-20. Prior to their creation, Yun-20 will be equipped with Russian engines D-30KP2.
A serious impetus to the development and production of our own fairly advanced air-to-air missile systems was given when Chinese specialists gained access to missile armament for the Su-27 fighters manufactured under the Russian license and the Su-30MKK and Su imported from Russia. -30MK2 presented by the air-to-air UR P-27Р1 (ER1), P-27P (EP), P-27Т1 (ЭТ1), Р-27П (EP), Р-73Э and РВ XRN-77-ETNNXX, Р-XNUMXП (ЭП), Р-XNUMXЕ and РВ-РН-XNUMX and Р-XNUMX (ЭХXNUMX) ).
Synthesizing previously obtained Western technologies and Russian developments, the Chinese designers created a line of their own modern short-range, medium and long-range SDs such as PL-5 modifications A, D, C, E, comparable in tactical and technical characteristics with American SD AIM-9H, AIM-9L or AIM-9P, PL8. The rocket design and tactical and technical characteristics similar to the US MVDA AIM-132. Its peculiarity is that the fuel is virtually smokeless and does not leave an inertial trace, which makes it difficult to visually detect the missile. Medium-range SD include PL-11 and its improved version PL-11B with active radar homing head (РГСН) AMR-1, as well as PL-12 of various modifications. The PL-12 base rocket has an active end-guidance radar system and has a maximum range of applications up to 60 - 80 km.
Its modifications are represented by the PL12B / C / D missiles. The latest PL12D is the most advanced, representing an SD with active radar homing, optimized for placement on the internal suspension points of promising 5-generation aircraft systems, created using the stealth technology.
Long-range missiles are represented by the PL-15 multi-purpose air-to-air and air-to-radar missile. In terms of weight and dimensions, it resembles the latest modifications of the PL-12 rocket; it has an active-passive homing head and equipment that provides a two-way line of data exchange with the aircraft carrier. The maximum range of the rocket is about 100 km. At the final stage of development, the Chinese PL-21 ultra-long-range UD is being developed with a promising direct-flow rocket engine providing a range of applications up to 150 - 200 km.
Air-to-surface aircraft armament designed to equip Jiang-11B multi-purpose fighters is represented by the KD-88 guided missile, which is a development of the Russian SS of the same class X-29ТE. The means of destruction of targets located on the surface of the earth also include freely falling (gravitational) and adjustable bombs up to 500 kg with laser guidance and bomb cassettes that are included in the Jian-11 weapon system.
Missiles bomber aircraft represented by line anti-ship missiles (RCC) YJ-6 (C-601) KD-63, C-301, C-101, YJ-82, YJ-83 / YJ-62 (C803), C602, designed to equip long-range bomber Han-6 latest modifications. Chinese developers are paying serious attention to the creation of air-based cruise missiles for various purposes. The most advanced of them at the present time is a long-range air-launched cruise missile (ALCM) CJ-10A long-range (2500 km). She may have a nuclear warhead.
The goals and objectives of training and combat training in the new conditions were specified in the Basic Principles of Military Training and Evaluation adopted in 2009. This document emphasizes that the main emphasis of combat training of military personnel should be on joint operations, with the participation of all types of troops (troops), joint training, joint training, which should be aimed at training military men (commanders) having a flexible strategic thinking and operational talent, allowing for effective joint operations in network-centric wars.
The Basic Principles outlines four guiding principles: adapt to the revolutionary changes taking place in military affairs; prepare for the violent obstruction of the proclamation of independence of Taiwan; actively integrate advanced weapons and military equipment; in the course of planning, organizing and conducting exercises (training sessions), do not reduce their realism for the sake of ensuring greater safety.
New training programs have been developed for air academies and flight schools, as well as short-term refresher courses, in which up to 60 percent of military personnel are trained. In accordance with these programs, the time spent on flight training, as well as the duration of tactical exercises during one flight, have been increased.
The number of training and combat aircraft from 2005 has increased approximately 2,5 times. During the flight training, the new L-15 training and combat aircraft, developed with the participation of Russian specialists, were actively used. The annual flight time of fighter, fighter-bomber and bomber aviation pilots reached 150 hours, and military transport more than 200 hours. At the same time, the number of exercises performed during one training flight increased. If earlier only one or two educational tasks were set, now there are three - four. For example, the development of elements of long-range air missile combat and close maneuverable air combat with the use of rocket and small arms weapons; practicing the skills of conducting fire, jamming and maneuverable counteraction against air defense weapons; practicing the skills of searching for, detecting ground (sea) mobile and stationary targets, accomplishing aiming and using guided and uncontrolled aviation weapons.
In the interests of combat training and education, joint exercises of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) member countries, as well as drills and exercises on a bilateral basis, are also actively used. In all SCO “Peaceful Mission” exercises, starting from 2003, a group of Chinese aviation was involved, which included, in addition to army helicopters Z-9 and Mi-17, a division of Jian-Hung 7A Flying Leopard fighter-bombers. The last exercise, held in Russia from 27 July to 15 August 2013, was also attended by fighters-bombers of this type from the 31-th aviation regiment of the 11-th aviation division of the Shenyang military district.
The Air Force has an extensive airfield network with more than 400 airfields, of which 350 has a hard surface. Their operational capacity makes it possible to provide with excess not only the permanent basing of assigned aviation units (formations) and their dispersal in the event of a threat of enemy attack, but also the ability to disperse aviation groups after their operational deployment. As a rule, an aviation regiment is based at each aerodrome, less often an aircraft division with a predominance of the same type of aircraft. This facilitates their maintenance and pre-flight training.
The main aerodrome and two to three aerodromes of dispersal with their infrastructure constitute the aviation base, which is an integral part of the logistics system. The personnel of the bases ensures the operational readiness of aerodromes, solves the tasks of logistics, technical and certain types of combat support.
Given the presence of an extensive aerodrome network, which makes it possible to maneuver forces and means of aviation, China can now achieve more than twice the numerical superiority in aviation over any potential adversary and in any strategic direction along the perimeter of national borders.