Historyas she is
Before we talk about the battle itself, we should probably recall how Europe looked in the little-known 16th century. And since the volume of a journal article makes it necessary to be brief, then you can only say one thing: in the 16th century there were no full-fledged states in Europe except the Ottoman Empire. In any case, dwarf formations that called themselves kingdoms and counties, it is senseless to even roughly compare with this huge empire.
In fact, only frantic Western European propaganda can be explained by the fact that we represent the Turks as dirty, stupid savages, wave after wave rolling on the gallant knight troops and winning solely because of their numbers. Everything was exactly the opposite: well-trained, disciplined, courageous Ottoman warriors, step by step, crowded apart, poorly armed formations, mastering more and more “wild” lands for the empire. By the end of the fifteenth century on the European continent it belonged to Bulgaria, at the beginning of XVI century - Greece and Serbia, by mid-century, the border moved to Vienna, the Turks took under his arm Hungary, Moldavia, the famous Transylvania, launched a war of Malta, devastated the coast of Spain and Italy .
First, the Turks were not "dirty." Unlike Europeans, in those days unfamiliar even with the basics of personal hygiene, the people of the Ottoman Empire were obliged, according to the requirements of the Koran, to at least perform ritual ablutions before each prayer.
Secondly, the Turks were true Muslims - that is, people who were initially confident in their spiritual superiority, and therefore extremely tolerant. In the conquered territories, as far as possible, they tried to preserve local customs, so as not to destroy the existing social relations. The Ottomans did not care whether the new subjects were Muslims, or Christians, or Jews, whether they were Arabs, Greeks, Serbs, Albanians, Italians, Iranians, or Tatars. The main thing is that they continue to work calmly and pay taxes regularly. The state system of government was based on a combination of Arab, Seljuk and Byzantine customs and traditions. The most striking example, to distinguish Islamic religious tolerance and pragmatism of European savagery, can serve as a history 100 000 Jews expelled from Spain in the year 1492 and willingly accepted in citizenship Sultan Bayazid. Catholics received moral satisfaction, having dealt with the "murderers of Christ", and the Ottomans received significant revenues from new, far from poor, immigrants.
Thirdly, the Ottoman Empire was far ahead of its northern neighbors in the technology of production of weapons and armor. It was the Turks, not the Europeans, who suppressed the enemy with artillery fire, it was the Ottomans who actively saturated their troops, fortresses and ships with cannon barrels. As an example of Ottoman power weapons can lead 20 bombards caliber of 60 90 to centimeters and a weight of up to 35 tons at the end of the XVI century put on combat duty in the forts that defended the Dardanelles, and stood there until the beginning of XX century! And not just those who stood still - at the beginning of the 19th century, in 1807, they quite successfully crushed the new British ships “Windsor Castle” and “Active”, which were trying to break through the strait. I repeat: the guns were a real fighting force even three centuries after its manufacture. In the XVI century they could be boldly considered as a real super-weapon. A manufactured referred to bombard in the very years when Niccolo Machiavelli carefully wrote out in his treatise "The Prince" the following words: "It is better to give the enemy to blind himself, rather than to search for it, seeing nothing because of the gunpowder," denying any benefit from the use of guns in military campaigns.
Fourth, the Turks had the most advanced regular professional army for their time. Its backbone was the so-called "Janissary Corps". In the XVI century, it was almost completely formed from the boys, who were legally slaves of the Sultan, who were bought or captured by boys. All of them went through high-quality military training, received good weapons and turned into the best infantry, which only existed in Europe and the Mediterranean region. The number of corps reached 100 000 people. In addition, the empire had a completely modern feudal cavalry, which was formed from sipahs - owners of land plots. Such allotments, "Timar," the commanders rewarded valiant and worthy soldiers in all newly attached areas, thanks to which the size and combat capability of the army increased steadily. And if you remember also the fact that he was a vassal of the Magnificent Ports rulers were bound by the order of Sultan lead their armies to general campaigns, it becomes clear that the Ottoman Empire could at the same time put on the battlefield no less than half a million highly trained soldiers - much more rather than having troops all over Europe combined.
In the light of the foregoing, it becomes clear why, at the mere mention of the Turks, medieval kings were thrown into cold sweat, the knights clutched their weapons and twisted their heads in fear, and the babies in the cradles began to cry and call for mom. Any more or less thinking person could confidently predict that in a hundred years the whole habitable world will belong to the Sultan of Turkey, and lamented the fact that the advance of the Ottomans to the north holds back not courage Balkans defenders, and the desire of the Ottomans in the first place to learn much more rich lands Asia, conquer the ancient countries of the Middle East. And, I must say, the Ottoman Empire achieved this by moving its borders apart from the Caspian Sea, Persia and the Persian Gulf and almost to the Atlantic Ocean (modern Algeria was the western lands of the empire).
We should also mention a very important fact, for some reason unknown to many professional historians: since 1475 years of the Ottoman Empire included the Crimean Khanate, the Crimean Khan appoints and dismisses the sultan firman, led his troops on the orders of the Magnificent ports or began military action against anyone from neighbors on orders from Istanbul; on the Crimean peninsula there was a sultan governor, and in several cities there were Turkish garrisons.
In addition, the Kazan and Astrakhan Khanate were considered to be under the auspices of the empire, as a state of co-religionists, moreover, regularly supplying slaves to numerous war galleries and mines, as well as concubines for harems ...
Golden Age of Russia
Strangely enough, but now that few people of Russia of the XVI century are of themselves today, few people can imagine - especially people who have learned the history of high school on their conscience. It must be said, there is much more fiction than real information, and therefore any modern person should know a few basic, supporting facts that allow us to understand the attitude of our ancestors.
First of all, slavery practically did not exist in Russia of the XVI century. Every person born in the Russian lands was initially free and equal with all others. The serfdom of that time is now called the land lease agreement with all the ensuing consequences: you cannot leave until you have paid the land owner for its use. And that's all ... There was no hereditary serfdom (it was introduced by the Council of 1649), and the son of a serf was a free man until he decided to take a plot of land for himself.
No European savagery like nobility for the first night, to punish and pardon, or just drive around with a weapon, scaring ordinary citizens and starting a quarrel, did not exist. In the 1497 trial, only two categories of the population are generally recognized: service people and non-service people. Otherwise, everyone is equal before the law, regardless of origin.
Military service was completely voluntary, although, of course, hereditary and lifelong. You want - serve, you do not want - do not serve. Unsubscribe the estate to the treasury, and - free. Here it should be mentioned that the concept of infantry in the Russian army was absent completely. The warrior went on a march on two or three horses - including archers, who dismounted only immediately before the battle.
Actually, the war was a permanent state of the then Russia: its southern and eastern borders are constantly fiddling with predatory raids of the Tatars, the western borders of troubled brothers-Slavs Duchy of Lithuania many centuries Moscow has contested the right of the championship on the legacy of Kievan Rus. Depending on military success, the western border was constantly moving to one or the other side, and the eastern neighbors were pacified, then they were trying to cajole them with gifts after the next defeat. From the south some protection was represented by the so-called Wild Field - the southern Russian steppes, completely deserted as a result of the continuous raids of the Crimean Tatars. To attack Russia, the subjects of the Ottoman Empire needed to make a long transition, and they, as people lazy and practical, preferred to rob either the tribes of the North Caucasus, or Lithuania and Moldova.
It was in this Russia, in 1533, that the son of Vasily III Ivan reigned. However, reigned - this is too much said. At the time of accession to the throne, Ivan was only three years old, and his childhood can be called happy with a very big stretch. At the age of seven he was poisoned by his mother, after which he literally killed a man whom he considered to be his father, dispersed his beloved nannies, everyone he liked a little bit, either killed or sent out of sight. In the palace he was in the position of a chained dog: then they were taken to the wards, showing the “beloved prince” to the foreigners, then they were kicking everyone. It got to the point that the future king was forgotten to feed for whole days. Everything went to the fact that before the age of majority he would simply have been slaughtered in order to preserve the era of anarchy in the country - but the sovereign survived. And not just survived - but became the greatest ruler in the whole history of Russia. And what is most striking is that Ivan IV did not become embittered, did not revenge for past humiliations. His rule was perhaps the most humane in the history of our country.
The last statement is by no means a reservation. Unfortunately, everything that is usually told about Ivan the Terrible, ranges from “complete nonsense” to “outright lies”. By "complete nonsense" include "evidence" renowned expert on Russia, the Englishman Jerome Gorseya his "Notes on Russia", which argues that the winter 1570 years guardsmen killed in Novgorod 700 000 (seven hundred thousand) inhabitants, with a total population of this city at thirty thousand. To "frank lies" - evidence of the cruelty of the king. For example, looking into the well-known encyclopedia "Brockhaus and Efron," in an article about Andrei Kurbsky, anyone can read it, anger the prince, "in order to justify their rage Grozny could lead only to the fact of treason and violation of kissing the cross ...". What nonsense! That is, the prince changed the Fatherland twice, got caught, but was not hanged on an aspen tree, but kissed the cross, swore by Christ-God that he would no longer be, was forgiven, changed again ... However, for all that, the king is trying to blame the wrong that he did not punish the traitor, but what the geek continues to hate, bringing Polish troops to Russia and shedding the blood of the Russian people.
To the deepest regret of the "ivano-haters", in the 16th century there was writing in Russia, the custom of commemorating the dead and synodnik, which survived along with the memorial records. Alas, with all the diligence on the conscience of Ivan the Terrible for all his fifty years of rule, no more than 4000 dead can be attributed. Probably, this is a lot, even if we take into account that the majority honestly earned themselves a penalty by treason and perjury. However, in the same years, more than 3000 Huguenots were cut out in Paris in neighboring Europe in one night, and more than 30 000 in just two weeks in the rest of the country. In England, on the orders of Henry VIII, 72 000 were hanged, guilty of being a beggar. In the Netherlands, during the revolution, the expense of the corpses passed for 100 000 ... No, Russia is far from European civilization.
By the way, on suspicion of many historians, the bike about the devastation of Novgorod insolently was written off from the assault and the ruin of Liege by the Burgundians of Karl the Bold in 1468 year. Moreover, plagiarists were even too lazy to make an amendment to the Russian winter, as a result of which the mythical oprichniki had to go on boats along the Volkhov, which in that year, according to the chronicles, froze to the bottom.
However, the main personality traits of Ivan the Terrible do not dare to challenge even his most terrible haters, and therefore we absolutely know for sure that he was very clever, prudent, echid, cold-blooded and courageous. The king was amazingly well-read, had an extensive memory, he loved to sing and composed music (his verses were preserved and performed to this day). Ivan IV was fluent in pen, leaving a rich epistolary heritage, he loved to participate in religious disputes. The king himself dealt with litigation, worked with documents, could not bear the vile drunkenness.
Having achieved real power, the young, far-sighted and active king immediately began to take measures to reorganize and strengthen the state - both from within and its external borders.
The main feature of Ivan the Terrible is his manic passion for firearms. For the first time in the Russian army, detachments armed with peelers appear - archers, which gradually become the backbone of the army, taking away this rank from local cavalry. Cannon courtyards appear all over the country, on which more and more new barrels are cast, fortresses are being rebuilt for a fiery battle - they straighten the walls, set mattresses and large-caliber food in the towers. The king, in all ways, stockpiles gunpowder: he buys and places powder mills; he has besieged cities and monasteries with salt work. Sometimes this leads to awesome fires, but Ivan IV is inexorable: gunpowder, gunpowder as much as possible!
The first task that is set before the army gaining strength is the cessation of raids by the Kazan Khanate. At the same time, the young tsar is not interested in half measures, he wants to stop the raids once and for all, and for this there is only one way: to conquer Kazan and incorporate it into the Moscow kingdom. Seventeen young man went to fight the Tatars. The three-year war ended in failure. But in 1551, the king appeared under the walls of Kazan again - a victory! Kazan asked for peace, agreed to all the requirements, but, as usual, did not fulfill the conditions of peace.
However, this time the stupid Russians for some reason did not swallow a grudge and the following summer, in 1552, they again disbanded the flags of the enemy capital.
The news that far away in the east, infidels smash fellow believers, caught Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by surprise - he hadn’t expected anything like that. Sultan gave the order to the Crimean Khan to help Kazan, and he, hastily gathered 30 000 people, moved to Russia. The young king at the head of 15 000 riders rushed towards and routed the uninvited guests utterly. Following the news of the defeat of Devlet Giray, the news flew to Istanbul that in the east there was one less khanate. The sultan did not have time to digest this pill - and they already told him about another khanate, Astrakhan, joining Moscow. It turns out that after the fall of Kazan, Khan Yamgurchy, in a fit of anger, decided to declare war on Russia ...
The glory of the Khanate conqueror brought Ivan IV new, unexpected subjects: hoping for his patronage, the Siberian khan Ediger and the Circassian princes voluntarily swore allegiance to Moscow. The North Caucasus was also under the authority of the king. Unexpectedly for the whole world - including for itself - Russia in a few years more than doubled in size, came to the Black Sea and found itself face to face with a huge Ottoman empire. It could only mean one thing: a terrible, devastating war.
The blunt naivety of the Tsar's closest advisers, so beloved by modern historians - the so-called "Chosen Rada" - is striking. By their own admission, these clever men, they repeatedly advised the king to attack the Crimea, to subdue him, like the khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan. Their opinion, by the way, will be shared four centuries later by many modern historians. To better understand how stupid such advice is, it’s enough to look at the North American continent and ask the first comer, even a stoned and uneducated Mexican: is the boorish behavior of the Texans and the military weakness of this state enough reason to attack it and return the original Mexican lands?
And they will immediately reply to you that you may attack Texas, but you will have to fight with the United States.
In the XVI century, the Ottoman Empire, having weakened its pressure on other directions, could withdraw five times more troops against Moscow than Russia allowed itself to mobilize. Only the Crimean Khanate, whose subjects were not engaged in craft, farming or trade, was ready, on the orders of Khan, to put all of their male population on horses and repeatedly went to Russia by armies in 100-150 thousand people (some historians bring this figure to 200 000). But the Tatars were cowardly thieves, with whom the troops coped in 3-5 times smaller in number. It is quite another thing to come together on the battlefield with battle-hardened and accustomed to conquer new lands janissaries and Seljuks.
To indulge such a war Ivan IV could not.
The contact of borders happened unexpectedly for both countries, and therefore the first contacts of the neighbors turned out to be surprisingly peaceful. The Ottoman Sultan sent a letter to the Russian Tsar, in which he offered a choice of two possible ways out of the current situation: either Russia provides the Volga robbers, Kazan and Astrakhan, the former independence, or Ivan IV swears allegiance to the Magnificent Port, being part of the Ottoman Empire, along with the subjugated khanstvam.
And for the second time in the long history in the chambers of the Russian ruler, the lights were burning for a long time and the fate of the future Europe was decided in painful thoughts: to be or not to be? Admit the king to the Ottoman proposal - and he will secure the southern borders of the country forever. The Sultan will no longer allow the Tatars to rob new subjects, and all the predatory aspirations of Crimea will be turned in the only possible direction: against the eternal enemy of Moscow, the Lithuanian principality. In this case, the rapid extermination of the enemy and the rise of Russia will become inevitable. But at what cost? ..
The king refuses.
Suleiman releases the Crimean thousands, which he used in Moldova and Hungary, and indicates to the Crimean khan Devlet-Giray a new enemy that he will have to crush: Russia. A long and bloody war begins: the Tatars regularly rush toward Moscow, the Russians barricade a multi-hole ridge trait from forest windbreaks, fortresses and earthen ramparts with stakes dug in them. 60-70 thousands of warriors annually take the defense of this giant wall.
Ivan the Terrible is clear, and the Sultan has repeatedly confirmed this with his letters: the attack on the Crimea will be regarded as a declaration of war against the empire. In the meantime, the Russians suffer, the Ottomans also do not begin active hostilities, continuing the wars that have already begun in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Now, while the Ottoman Empire has hands tied by battles in other places, while the Ottomans are not going to lean on Russia with all their might, there is time for the accumulation of forces, and Ivan IV begins energetic transformations in the country: first of all he introduces a regime in the country was called a democracy. Feeding is abolished in the country, the institute appointed by the king by the governor is replaced by local self-government — the provincial and labial elders elected by peasants, artisans and nobles. Moreover, the new regime is imposed not with stupid obstinacy, as it is now, but prudently and intelligently. The transition to democracy is made ... for a fee. Like the voivode - live the old way. I do not like it - the locals contribute to the treasury the amount from 100 to 400 rubles and can choose who they want to be their superiors.
Transformed army. By personally participating in several wars and battles, the king is well aware of the main trouble for the troops - regionalism. Boyars demand appointment to posts according to the merits of their ancestors: if the grandfather commanded the wing of the troops, it means that I have the same post. Let the fool, and the milk on the lips is not dried: but still the post of the wing commander is mine! I don’t want to obey the old and experienced prince, because his son walked under the hand of my great-grandfather! So, I am not him, but he must obey me!
The issue is being resolved radically: a new army is being organized in the country, the oprichnina. Oprichniki swear allegiance to only the sovereign, and their career depends only on personal qualities. It is in the oprichnina that all the mercenaries serve: Russia, leading a long and difficult war, chronically lacks warriors, but it does have enough gold to hire ever-poor European nobles.
In addition, Ivan IV is actively building parochial schools, fortresses, stimulating trade, purposefully creating the working class: direct tsarist decree prohibits the involvement of tillers of the land for any work connected with detachment from the ground - workers must work in construction, factories and factories not the peasants.
Of course, there are many opponents of such rapid transformations in the country. Just think: a simple rootless landowner like Boriska Godunov can reach the governor simply because he is brave, smart and honest! You think: the tsar can buy the family estate into the treasury only because the owner knows his business badly and the peasants run away from him! Oprichniki hate, disgusting rumors about them, conspiracies are organized against the tsar - but Ivan the Terrible with a firm hand continues his transformations. It comes to the fact that for several years he has to divide the country into two parts: the oprichnina for those who want to live in a new way and the zemstvo for those who want to preserve old customs. However, despite everything, he achieved his goal, turning the ancient principality of Muscovy into a new, powerful state - the Russian kingdom.
In 1569, the bloody respite consisting of the continuous raids of the Tatar hordes ended. The Sultan, at last, found time for Russia. 17 000 selected janissaries, reinforced by the Crimean and Nogai cavalry, moved towards Astrakhan. The king, still hoping to do without blood, took all the troops out of their way, and at the same time replenished the fortress with supplies of food, gunpowder and nuclei. The campaign failed: the Turks did not manage to drag artillery with them, and they were not accustomed to fight without guns. In addition, the reverse transition through the unexpectedly cold winter steppe cost the lives of most Turks.
A year later, in the 1571 year, bypassing the Russian fortresses and knocking down few Boyar barriers, Devlet-Girey brought 100 000 riders to Moscow, set fire to the city and came back. Ivan the Terrible tore and threw. Boyar heads rolled. The executed were accused of a specific treason: they missed the enemy, they did not report the raid in time. In Istanbul, they rubbed their hands: reconnaissance in force showed that the Russians did not know how to fight, preferring to sit behind the walls. But if the light Tatar cavalry is not able to take fortifications, then experienced janissaries could uncork them very well.
It was decided to conquer Muscovy, for which Devlet-Girei was given 7000 janissaries and gunners with several dozen artillery barrels - to take cities. Murza were appointed in advance to the still Russian cities, governors to the not yet conquered principalities, the land was divided, merchants received permission for duty-free trade. All the men of Crimea, young and old, have gathered to develop new lands.
A huge army had to enter the Russian borders and stay there forever.
And so it happened ...
6 July 1572 of the year Devlet Giray reached Oka, stumbled upon 50 000-th army under the command of Prince Mikhail Vorotynsky (many historians estimate the number of the Russian army in 20 000 people, and the Ottoman - in 80 000) and laughing at the foolishness of their foolishness. up along the river. Near Senkin ford, he easily dispersed a detachment of boyars from 200 and, crossing the river, moved to Moscow along the Serpukhov road. Vorotinsky hurried after him.
Huge cavalry masses moved with speed unprecedented in Europe in the Russian open spaces — both armies moved light, on horseback, not burdened by carts.
The oprichnik Dmitry Khvorostinin stole along the Tatars' heels to the village of Molodi at the head of the 5000 squad of Cossacks and boyars, and only here, on July 30 of 1572, received permission to attack the enemy. Rushing ahead, he trampled the Tatar rearguard into the dust of the road and, rushing on, crashed into the main forces along the Pakhra River. Slightly surprised by such arrogance, the Tatars turned around and rushed to a small detachment with all their strength. The Russians rushed to their heels - the enemies rushed after them, pursuing the guardsmen all the way to the village of Molodi, and then the invaders waited for an unexpected surprise: the Russian army deceived on Oka was already here. And she didn’t just stand, but she managed to build a walk-city — a mobile fortification of thick wooden shields. From the gaps between the shields, the cannons of the steppe cavalry were struck, and from the holes cut through the log walls of the battlements they squealed, and a shower of arrows poured over the fortifications. A friendly volley swept forward Tatar troops - like a huge hand wiped off unnecessary crumbs from the table. The Tatars mingled — Khvorostinin deployed his warriors and again rushed to the attack.
Thousands of horsemen coming up the road one by one fell into a cruel meat grinder. Tired nobles then retreated behind the shields of the walk-city, under the cover of dense fire, then they rushed into more and more new attacks. The Ottomans, hurrying to destroy the stronghold that they had taken from nowhere, rushed to the storm wave after wave, abundantly filling the Russian land with their own blood, and only the darkness that had fallen stopped the endless slaughter.
In the morning of the Ottoman army, the truth was revealed in all its terrifying ugliness: the invaders realized that they had fallen into a trap. Ahead of the Serpukhov road stood the solid walls of Moscow, behind the road to the steppe the guardsmen and archers chained off in iron blocked off. Now for the intruders, it was no longer about the conquest of Russia, but about getting back alive.
The next two days were spent in attempts to frighten the Russians who blocked the road - the Tatars showered the town with arrows and balls, threw themselves at him in horseback attacks, hoping to break through the slots left for the passage of the boyar cavalry. However, by the third day it became clear that the Russians would rather die on the spot rather than allow uninvited guests to get out. 2 August Devlet-Girey ordered his soldiers to dismount and attack the Russians along with the janissaries.
The Tatars were well aware that this time they did not go to rob, but rescued their skin, and fought like mad dogs. The heat of battle has reached the highest voltage. It got to the point that Crimeans tried to break the hated shields with their hands, and the Janissaries gnawed them with their teeth and chopped them down with scimitars. But the Russians were not going to release the eternal robbers into the wild, to give them the opportunity to catch their breath and come back again. The blood flowed all day - but in the evening the walking-city continued to stand still in its place.
In the Russian camp, hunger was craving - after all, chasing after the enemy, the boyars and archers thought about weapons, not about food, simply leaving a carriage with supplies of food and drink. As the chronicles say: “In the shelves I taught hunger to be great for people and horses.” It should be recognized here that, along with the Russian warriors, the German mercenaries, whom the tsar willingly took in the guardsmen, endured thirst and hunger. However, the Germans also did not grumble, but continued to fight no worse than others.
The Tatars were in a frenzy: they were used not to fight the Russians, but to drive them into slavery. Ottoman Murza, gathered to rule the new lands, and not die on them, was also no laughing matter. Everyone was looking forward to dawn to deliver the final blow and finally smash the brittle-looking fortification, destroy the people hiding behind it.
With the onset of dusk, the governor Vorotynsky took part of the warriors with him, walked around the enemy camp and hid there. And in the early morning, when, after a friendly salvo at the attacking ottomans, the boyars headed by Khvorostinin rushed to meet them and tied the city down, the voivode Vorotinsky unexpectedly struck the enemy in the back. And what began as a battle instantly turned into a beating.
On the field near the village of Molodi, the defenders of Moscow completely slaughtered all the janissaries and the Ottoman murz, on it almost the entire male population of Crimea was killed. And not only simple warriors - the son, grandson and son-in-law of Devlet-Girey himself perished under Russian sabers. Having, according to various estimates, either three times less, or four times less power than the enemy, the Russian soldiers forever eliminated the danger emanating from the Crimea. Live managed to return no more than 20 000 from the gangsters who went on a campaign - and the Crimea has never been able to regain its strength.
This was the first major defeat in the history of the Ottoman Empire. Having lost almost 20 000 janissaries and the entire huge army of their satellite on the Russian borders in three years, the Magnificent Port abandoned hopes of conquering Russia.
Of great importance was the victory of Russian weapons for Europe. In the battle of Molodya, we not only defended our independence, but also deprived the Ottoman Empire of the opportunity to increase its production capacity and the army by about a third. In addition, for the huge Ottoman province, which could have arisen in the place of Russia, there was only one way to further expansion - to the west. Retreating under the blows in the Balkans, Europe would hardly have survived even for a few years, if the Turkish onslaught increase even slightly.
One question remains to be answered: why aren't they making films about the battle of Molodya, not telling about it at school, not celebrating its anniversary with holidays?
The fact is that the battle that determined the future of the whole European civilization happened during the reign of the king, who was not supposed to be not only good, but simply normal. Ivan the Terrible, the greatest tsar in the history of Russia, who actually created the country in which we live - who took the reign of the Moscow principality and left behind Great Russia, was the last of the Rurik dynasty. After him, the Romanov dynasty came to the throne - and they did the maximum possible to diminish the significance of everything done by the previous dynasty and to defame the greatest of its representatives.
According to the highest order, Ivan the Terrible was appointed to be bad - and along with his memory, the great victory was banned with great difficulty by our ancestors.
The first of the Romanov dynasty gave the Swedes the Baltic Sea coast and access to Lake Ladoga. His son introduced hereditary serfdom, depriving the industry and the Siberian expanses of free workers and immigrants. Under his great-grandson, the army created by Ivan IV was broken and industry was destroyed, supplying weapons to all of Europe (Tula-Kamensky factories alone sold west to 600 guns a year, tens of thousands of nuclei, thousands of grenades, muskets and swords).
Russia was rapidly sliding into an era of degradation.