The text of the anthem consisted of only six lines:
God save the Tsar!
Reign in glory, in glory to us!
Reign for fear of enemies,
The Orthodox King!
God save the Tsar!
The music was written by Alexander Lvov, whom Nicholas I ordered - through Benkendorf - to write “Russian Anthem”. Prior to that, the melody of the English hymn "God Save the King!", Which appeared in 1743, was used in Russia. It was a kind of "international" of all the imperial houses of Europe. English melody was used as a hymn in 23 countries, including ours. In 1771, a hymn to poems by Gavriil Derzhavin and the music of Osip Kozlovsky “Thunder of victory, be heard!” Was written in honor of the capture of Ottoman fortress Izmail by Alexander Suvorov during the Second Turkish War, which pressed even the march of the “Preobrazhensky Regiment”:
Thunder of victory, resound!
Have fun, brave Ross!
Vivid glory adorn.
Mahometa you potres!
Before the appearance of the official “God Save the Tsar”, the text on verses by Mikhail Kheraskov and the music of Dmitry Bortnyansky “How Glorious is Our Lord in Zion” was also used. In the music editions of the nineteenth century, it was accompanied by the note “National Russian anthem”:
Kohl glorified our Lord in Zion
Can not explain the language.
He is great in heaven on the throne,
In the epic to the land is great.
Everywhere, Lord, everywhere You are glorious,
In the night, in days the radiance is equal.
You thy lamb goldstep
In himself portrays us:
Psalter we are the ten-string
We bring you incense.
“I felt the need,” Lvov later recalled, “to create a magnificent anthem, strong, sensitive, understandable for everyone, having an imprint of nationality, fit for a church, fit for troops, fit for a people - from a scientist to an ignoramus”.
And he succeeded. The agitated Lviv sat down at the table, and in a few minutes the anthem was written. To create the text, the patriotic poem created earlier by the poet Vasily Zhukovsky, “The Prayer of the Russians” was used:
God save the king!
Glorious long days
Give on the land!
To the proud humble,
Weak to the keeper,
To all comforter -
All come down!
In fact, it was a free translation of the words of the English anthem.
In 1816, the song with the words of Zhukovsky was performed in Warsaw at the arrival of Alexander I. Since then, he commanded that it should always be performed at the meeting of the emperor. And when Lvov composed a new melody by order of Nicholas I, Vasily Zhukovsky “fitted” his text “The Prayer of the Russians” to her. The majestic melody that Lviv composed and the poems appealed to Nicholas I, and after listening to the anthem, he ordered to “show” it to the general public, and as a reward the author handed over a diamond box and appointed him as an adjutant to the cavalier guard corps. Thus, this patriotic musical masterpiece appeared, which was performed in Russia until the February 1917 revolution of the year.
In an official setting, the hymn "God Save the Tsar" was performed for the first time on December 25 1833 on the anniversary of the expulsion of Napoleon's troops from Russia, in the halls of the Winter Palace, during the consecration of banners and in the presence of high military officials.
On New Year's Eve, the commander of the Separate Guards Corps, Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich, gave the order: “It was a pleasure for the emperor to express his permission to play newly composed music at parades, parades and divorces and other cases instead of the now used anthem from national English.”
Historians believe that the first hymn in Russia can be considered the battle cry and toast "For Russia!". Over time, solemn events began to be accompanied by church chants. Peter I replaced them with military marches, among which the most popular was the march of the Preobrazhensky regiment, in which the king himself served. To the sound of it, the Russian army entered 1814 in Paris. By whom it was written, we do not know, and at first the march was performed without text. Words written at the beginning of the XIX century, the poet-Guardsman Sergey Marin:
Come on, brothers, abroad
Beat the enemies of the Fatherland.
Recall Mother Queen,
Recall what her age is like!
Glorious age of Catherine
Every step will remind us
Those fields, forests, valleys,
Where fled from the Russian enemy.
Here is where Suvorov fought!
There Rumyantsev where struck!
Every warrior was different,
The path to glory found ...
The march was used as the anthem of the White Army during the Civil War and by the Russians in exile, where it was performed during flag raising ceremonies and dedicated to the memory of the fallen.
In the first months after the February revolution, the French “Marseillaise” was performed as a hymn in Russia.
It was played at the meeting of members of the Provisional Government, the reception of foreign delegations, before the start of performances in theaters, and hats were taken off. The orchestras performed the melody of the classic French version of Marseillaise, and sang the Russian Worker Marseillaise with the words of Peter Lavrov:
Renounce the old world
Shake his dust off our feet!
We don't need a golden idol,
We hate the royal palace.
We will go to our suffering brothers,
We will go to the hungry people
With him we will send curse to the wicked,
In the fight we will call him.
Get up, get up, working people!
Go to the enemy, people are hungry!
Break out the cry of people's revenge!
Forward, forward, forward, forward, forward!
The composer Alexander Grechaninov proposed the “Anthem of Free Russia” to the words of Konstantin Balmont. This option was not adopted by the Provisional Government.
"Marseillaise" was still the anthem of another state. Therefore, from the year 1918, the Internationale began to be used as the national anthem of the RSFSR - and then from the year 1922 of the USSR - to 1943.
The anthem of the Bolshevik Party, created in 1938 to the music of Alexander Alexandrov and to the words of Vasily Lebedev-Kumach:
Countries are unprecedented free children,
Today we are proud of the song we sing
About the party, the most powerful in the world,
About your biggest man!
Glory is fanned, it is soldered by will,
Strengthen and rejoice for ever and ever!
The Party of Lenin, the party of Stalin,
Wise party of the Bolsheviks!
But if the music remained, the text for the anthem was written by another. At the height of the war, in 1943, it was decided to announce a competition for the creation of a new hymn. The competition allowed 13 composers, among them - Dmitry Shostakovich, Isaac Dunaevsky, Vano Muradeli. And 14 poets, but Sergei Mikhalkov and El-Registan were not among them. A government commission was established, headed by Clement Voroshilov.
And here it happened downright mystical история. As Mikhalkov recalled, one morning his friend and poet and military journalist Gabriel El-Registan came to him and announced excitedly from the door: “I had a dream that we wrote the anthem of the USSR! And I have already written two lines! ”. El-Registan took the bill from the barbershop, where he wrote on the back: "Long live the great, mighty Soviet Union created by the will of the peoples." Today this account is in the folder with the documents on the creation of the anthem in the Russian center for storing and studying documents of recent history.
Friends sat down to write words and - wow! - it was they who won the competition, which was sent about 500 works.
Of the composers, the winner was A. Alexandrov. The leader said about his music: “The strength and power of this beautiful work can be compared with the dreadnought, dissecting raging waves of the boundless ocean with its bosom!”.
The wife of El-Registan, an Armenian born in Samarkand, later explained in a somewhat different interpretation how the text was written. According to her, at the beginning of September 1943, her husband suddenly jumped up at night - she decided that an air-raid had been declared - and rushed headlong to the table. There was not a single piece of clean paper, then El-Registan grabbed a hotel bill - they lived in "Moscow" - and wrote down the first lines of the future hymn that he dreamed in a dream:
by the will of the nations
Barely waiting for the morning, El-Registan rushed to Mikhalkov, with whom he worked in the military newspaper "Stalin's Falcon", and invited him to write together. On the same day they wrote the first version of the chorus, which initially sounded like this:
Live for ages
Country of socialism!
Let our banner
The world bears.
Live and be strong
Great your people
However, the authors categorically did not like this option, and soon they composed a new chorus:
Hail the Fatherland
Friendship between nations
Us from victory
to victory leads.
After that, Mikhalkov and El-Registan submitted their text to the government commission. All members of the Politburo and Stalin personally took part in the consideration of the variants of the anthem sent to the competition. Critically discussed every word, every comma. As a result, the choice fell on the option Mikhalkov and El-Registan. They were invited to the Kremlin to Stalin, who invited them to work in a relaxed atmosphere. The leader was immediately embarrassed by the word "noble." “Cann’t the simple people associate the word“ noble ”with“ your nobleness? ”He asked thoughtfully. “Isn't it better to replace him?” The authors were confused, they did not come up with anything suitable. And Stalin, walking around the office with a pipe in his hand, suddenly suggested: “Indestructible!” So the word “noble” was replaced in the text of the hymn by Stalin’s “indestructible”.
And Stalin, recalled El-Registan, phoned Mikhalkov at 2 one o'clock in the morning and said that the text is short, you need to add one verse with the chorus. In this verse, it is necessary to say about the Red Army, its power and strength, as well as the fact that we are beating fascism.
And the third verse of the hymn was born:
We raised our army in battles
We will scour the vile ones from the road
We in battles decide the fate of generations
We will lead our father to glory.
For the creation of the anthem, the authors received an award in 100 thousand rubles, but Stalin asked what they would like more. El-Registan asked for a Stalinist pencil, and Mikhalkov asked for an apartment. Both received requested. For the first time a new anthem was played on the night of January 1 1944, and since March 15 1944 was officially used as the USSR national anthem.
From 1956 to 1977, the year the anthem was sung without words, because it mentioned the name of Stalin. In 1977, Mikhalkov - El-Registan was already dead - created the second edition of the anthem, in which the name of the leader was not mentioned. In the 1990 year, when the winds of change were already “blowing over the USSR”, composer Rodion Shchedrin suggested taking the music of Mikhail Glinka’s “Patriotic Song” for the hymn. Some historians believe that this song was one of the variations of the hymn created in 1833. They referred to the fact that in the manuscript Glinka's hand made an inscription in French: “The motive of the national anthem”. In December 1993 of the year, President Boris Yeltsin, by his decree, approved the “Patriotic Song” as the national anthem of Russia, which was performed without words until the 2001 year.
However, this melody did not catch on; it did not gain popularity among Russians.
In December 2000, President Vladimir Putin suggested that the Federal Assembly leave the music of the former Soviet anthem, but with a new text written by the same Mikhalkov.
December 20 package of bills, which, including the law on the anthem, was approved by the Federation Council.
Many, however, probably don’t remember that instead of the updated “Mikhalkov’s” text, other options were proposed. There was a version of the famous politician and scientist Yevgeny Primakov, who writes poetry at his leisure:
Russia has passed a series of tests -
Now the fate of the motherland is in our hands
Let's go all up as one, Russians,
To make the country happy forever.
Hail, our united Fatherland,
Peace dignity, honor and stronghold!
Banner Russian invincible
To new challenges will lead us!
Fatherly home to many nations
Became the Holy Great Russia.
Covered in a spirit of goodness and freedom
I love you and proud of you.
Beautiful words. But others have chosen.