Military Review

"General Frost", cavalry and reserves near Moscow

36
"General Frost", cavalry and reserves near Moscow

In the battle under the capital, the Soviet Stavka conducted a brilliant operation to defeat the Germans for the first time during the Great Patriotic War.


On December 5-6, the Moscow counter-offensive, the first successful operation of the Red Army in the Great Patriotic War, began. Within a month and a half, the Germans were driven back to 1941 — 100 km from Moscow. After this defeat, the Wehrmacht forever buried the idea of ​​a massive offensive in the central sector of the front.

The tactics and strategy of the Moscow counteroffensive are described in detail in the military literature on both sides. This article will focus on the important details that contributed to the first victory of the Red Army in the Great Patriotic War - a victory that dispelled the myth of the invincibility of the Germans.

Victims for Moscow

For starters, about an important circumstance that often eludes the view of military analysts: this is an unprecedented feat of the Red Army during the retreat of the summer - autumn of 1941. By November, it almost ceased to exist, suffering huge losses in 5 million people killed and captured. However, these victims made it possible for the Germans to avoid the approach of 1941 to Moscow in early October, when the defense of the capital was not yet properly prepared. In addition, the German units approached Moscow badly beaten.

November 16, the balance of power near Moscow was as follows: 233 thousand German soldiers and 240 thousand Soviet. By tanks the Wehrmacht had a tremendous advantage - 1300 cars versus 500 for the Red Army. The Germans had about one and a half times more field guns - 1900 barrels versus 1250. The Wehrmacht command was sure that the Germans would be able to break through the Soviet units: after all, before the Red Army was able to resist the Germans only with a manpower ratio of 1: 5 (that is, the Germans in theory were ready to meet and defeat 1 million Soviet soldiers). In addition, until the winter of 1941, the Red Army could not oppose anything to the Germans' crown tactics - offensive tank wedges. But in November near Moscow, the Wehrmacht unexpectedly stalled. So, the German advance was only 4–4,5 km per day (from November 16 to December 5–6, that is, 20–85 km in 90 days). Previously, these figures were an average of 8-12 km per day. What was the reason for the failure of the German offensive?

Defensive and engineering structures

The battle of Moscow was the first in the Great Patriotic War, when the Red Army managed to prepare the defense perfectly. October 9. The General Headquarters instructed to start building field fortifications along the following lines: in the north along the eastern bank of the Moscow-Volga canal and further along the eastern bank of the Volga; in the south - to the city of Serpukhov and further along the Oka River.

165 thousands of civilians were engaged in defensive construction, 85 thousands more (in total 250 thousand people) in the forest rubble. Anti-tank obstacles (not counting minefields) 325 km, anti-personnel obstacles 260 km, 3700 firing points (including 1500 reinforced concrete and 1280 DZOT), metal hedgehogs 37 500 pieces, dug up to XNXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX7XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX7 of 2x9x5 . As a result, for the first time the Germans not only for the “Russian” campaign, but also for the entire Second World War, had to face such a dense and perfectly prepared engineering defense.

Rail transport

For the first time since the beginning of the war, the Soviet leadership was able to restore order to the railways. And this immediately affected the results. For example, at the end of November, the distance between Bugulma and Khimki, which was equal to 1250 km, was overrun by echelons with troops, equipment and supplies for three days, that is, with an average transportation rate of 400 km per day. Long-distance transportation, for example, from Krasnoyarsk (4000 km), was made at a speed of about 500 km per day. For comparison: in September - October, the pace of rail transportation was 200 — 220 km per day. Do not forget that at that time, trains and railways were subjected to massive German aerial attacks. The duration of repairs in November was halved compared with a month earlier.

The railways during the preparation for the offensive on the right wing sent troops of the 1 shock and 20 armies as part of 75 thousands of people and 300 guns (not counting the rest of the materiel and horses), and on the left wing - troops of the 10 reserve army numbering about 90 thousand people and 200 guns.

According to the headquarters of the Moscow Defense Zone, for the period October-December 1941, the Moscow railway junction transported 1126 echelons, of which 370 echelons with evacuated goods and for operational transportations - 756 echelons.

Provisions

The headquarters has prepared military reserves of up to 180 thousand people. Moreover, their delivery to Moscow was completely secret: the Germans, 4 of December, were sure that the 200 — 250 of thousands of soldiers confronting them — that was all the Red Army had. The most cautious generals of the Wehrmacht still added 60 — 70 thousands of civilian reserves (militias). Entering into battle the fresh parts of the Red Army was a complete surprise to the Germans. A total of December 5 — 6 of the German army 240 thousand people fought 380 thousands of soldiers of the Red Army. Plus 600 guns and tanks.


Soviet soldiers march along the liberated streets of Kalinin (Tver) past the murdered Germans, 1941 year. Photo: Samarium Gurariy / RIA News


But, as mentioned above, judging by the previous battles in the war, the Germans did not consider this ratio critical. Other factors have also become decisive. For example, for the first time during the Great Patriotic War - full provision of the necessary supplies. This is not only ammunition and shells, but also food, fuel, fodder, medical supplies, the timely removal of the wounded and much more.

For comparison: back in October, supplies for the army near Moscow were 370 tons per day, and at the end of November - 450 — 470 tons. Fuel supply in October amounted to 19 500 tons, in November - 25 500 tons.

But cargo transportation was carried out not only and not so much by rail, as by road transport (already inside the front). In a month and a half, the number of trucks increased by 15 thousand units and reached 71,5 thousand.

Weather

It is believed that the Germans destroyed the "General Frost". However, on closer examination, it turns out that frost played into the hands of the Germans, and not at all the Red Army. Until mid-November, German tanks and equipment could only travel along the mudslide along roads. With the onset of cold weather, they were able to conduct an offensive on the frozen ground - through the fields, forest edges. The ice on the small rivers allowed the Germans to force them easily.

Frosts changed the tactics of the German offensive. Whereas previously, tank wedges (a cluster of 30 — 50 and even 80 — 100 machines) delivered the main blow, now the Wehrmacht has arrogantly divided the wedges into small groups of 5 — 10 tanks. These groups of armored vehicles were stretched along the entire front, instead of, as before, assembling tanks into 4 — 5 large formations (advancing, as a rule, along the highway).

Time

Realizing that the attack on Moscow was exhausted, the German generals 3 — December 4 secretly began to issue orders to go on the defensive (secretly, since Hitler categorically insisted only on the offensive). The German military historian Paul Karel in his book “Hitler goes to the East” wrote that if the Wehrmacht had three or four additional days to create defensive lines, the Russians would not have been able to carry out a successful counteroffensive near Moscow.


German soldiers near Moscow, December 1941 of the year. Photo: ITAR-TASS


December 4 most of the German troops began to dig trenches and device dugouts, stretching barbed wire, building fortifications. Stalin gave the order to start the December 5 counterattack (in some parts of the front it began on December 6). Perhaps he remembered Lenin's dictum referring to the October Revolution: “Yesterday is early, tomorrow is late.” General Zhukov advised Stalin to launch the December 8 counterattack when reserves were finally formed. Stalin decided to take a chance and start it earlier. And these three days, apparently, played a major role in the battle, not allowing the Germans to prepare defensive lines.

Cavalry

Even among historians, it is still customary to speak ironically about the conviction of the heroes of the Civil War Voroshilov and Budyonny that “it is too early to bury cavalry in this war, it will show itself”. With the counteroffensive near Moscow, the role of cavalry turned out to be very large.

In total, cavalry was 20 — 25% of all Soviet troops near Moscow. Moreover, it was reinforced by heavy machine guns and mortars.

The same Paul Karel wrote about the cavalry of the Red Army:

“The Russians in this wooded area acted bravely, with great skill and cunning. What is not surprising: the units were part of the elite Soviet 20 Cavalry Division - the assault compound of the famous Cossack corps, Major General Dovator. Having made a breakthrough, the Cossack regiments concentrated in various key points, formed into battle groups and began to attack the headquarters and warehouses in the German rear. They blocked the roads, destroyed the lines of communications, blew up the bridges and then attacked the rear support columns, destroying them ruthlessly.

So, on December 13, squadrons of the 22 Cossack Regiment defeated the artillery group of the 78 Infantry Division in 20 kilometers behind the front line. They threatened Lokotne, an important supply base and transportation hub. Other squadrons carried out a roll to the north between the 78 and 87 divisions. As a result, the entire front of the 9 body literally hung in the air. The forward positions of the divisions remained intact, but the lines of communication, the routes of communication with the rear were cut. Ammunition and food stopped flowing. There was nowhere to put a few thousand wounded who had accumulated on the front line. ”

Strange as it may seem, it was the forest that allowed the cavalry to advance successfully. In the open area, the Germans mowed her out of weapons. The cavalry could do nothing in open battle with the tanks. But in the forest there was no German equipment and infantry, which allowed the cavalry of the Red Army to travel up to 15 — 20 km per day.

Why did the Red Army counter-attack choke

In the first days of the counteroffensive near Moscow, the Soviet units were on average 6 — 7 km per day (against the Germans 4 — 4,5 km in November). It was a very good pace. However, after 12 — 15 days, the offensive began to run out of steam. And here it became clear once again that winter was not at all a gift for the Red Army. On the contrary, the “General Frost” sided with the Germans.

By 13 — 15 December 1941, the snow depth on different parts of the front reached 60 — 80 cm. Because of this, the cavalry maneuverability, which played one of the main roles in the first two weeks of the counteroffensive (the horse could not walk in high snow), decreased. There were not enough snowplows, and drifts on country roads and even highways affected the supply of supplies and food. The advancing troops again, as in the summer - in the autumn of the 1941, began to experience shell and rifle hunger, a shortage of fuel and food.

The second is the distance of the main warehouses. Now they have defended 100 — 150 km from the army.

Third, the scorched-earth tactics, previously practiced by the Red Army and playing into its hands, now turned against it. The same cavalry entered the liberated villages and did not find forage there. Railway lines, which could be used for supplying supplies, were destroyed. Repair brigades could even recover no more than 7 km of tracks per day, even if they were over-stressed: on the 100 — 150 km, for which the troops had left, they needed two to three weeks.

This time (two or three weeks), while the Red Army was waiting for reserves and restoring supplies, the Germans with might and main used to build deep and engineering-thought-out defense. The stakes also understood that a further counteroffensive in the central sector threatened with the creation of a “boiler”, and she decided to move here in the winter of 1941 — 1942 of the year to a trench war.

The Germans lost thousands of people to 85 during the counteroffensive - a figure inconceivable for them until that time. Moreover, these were the most experienced troops that had passed the 1939-1941 European campaign. Great was the loss and officers. After the winter of 1941 — 1942, the Germans began to gradually shift to accelerated training of officers (this finally happened at the end of 1943), which affected the fighting qualities of the Wehrmacht.

The main result of this battle was a change in the strategy of the German army. After the defeat near Moscow, Hitler, enraged, fired 35 generals and assumed command of the army. The place of experienced generals was taken by the possessed corporal. Began to emerge the outcome of the Second World War.
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  1. drop
    drop 14 December 2013 09: 29 New
    16
    The victory near Moscow is the beginning of the defeat of the Nazis. All residents of our country know this. But practically at the same time, an offensive operation was carried out on the Volkhov and Leningrad fronts to liberate Tikhvin. Not only fascist, but the Italian division were defeated here. The city was liberated, the Nazis failed to connect with Finnish troops on the Svir River. At the same time, the Finnish army was stopped on the Karelian front. On 11 of December 1941 of the year the armored Finnish battalion breaking into the village of Povenets was destroyed by an ice-water rampart and washed away into Lake Onega. The platinum at the 7 gateway was blown up. After the December 11 of 1941, the Karelian front froze in the positions they occupied on that day. The offensive of the Karelian Front began only in the 1944 year.
    1. samoletil18
      samoletil18 18 December 2013 09: 16 New
      0
      And Rostov was recaptured about the same days.
  2. avt
    avt 14 December 2013 10: 13 New
    +6
    Quote: Drop
    The victory near Moscow is the beginning of the defeat of the Nazis. All residents of our country know this.

    It is not a sin to remind, especially to the younger generation, that this "format" is quite worthy, the main key points are indicated and those who wish can dig into the historical materials themselves, which, thank God, have become quite a lot and not at all rezunoid - Svanidze's.
  3. Day 11
    Day 11 14 December 2013 10: 31 New
    19
    I like this photo. Frogs before attacking Moscow. Okay, the Germans ... Is there something that went there? Was it raked a little in 812? --- The Vishists and Peten served out.
  4. vladstro
    vladstro 14 December 2013 10: 32 New
    +8
    Yes, many people came to visit us in Russia, but we always saw them all home. Yes, and now I'm sure there are a lot of walkers, and so far the nuclear weapons are holding back.
    1. smile
      smile 14 December 2013 13: 31 New
      +5
      vladstro
      Well, we did not see off everyone - usually the bulk of the guests we kindly provided our land ... some two meters ... :)))
  5. RUSS
    RUSS 14 December 2013 10: 44 New
    +6
    Now the Cossacks are called "mummers", and after the Civil War, the Bolsheviks did not need them in simple terms, but at the end of the 30s, when the smell of a big war, the Cossacks were remembered and how the Great Patriotic War showed for good reason, and today Russia needs the Cossacks not as private security guards and vigilantes , namely as soldiers, but there is no legislative basis, we hope not yet.
    1. Day 11
      Day 11 14 December 2013 10: 50 New
      +6
      They were not so "mummers" ...
      1. RUSS
        RUSS 14 December 2013 11: 18 New
        +8
        What does the traitors have to do with it? It is not necessary to denigrate the memory of the dead Red Cossack soldiers with such photos.
        1. Day 11
          Day 11 14 December 2013 11: 31 New
          -12 qualifying.
          Traitors? Whom? They only swore allegiance to our Czar-Sovereign! You don’t need to think with cliches driven into the head during the Khrushchev’s. It’s not so simple with the Cossacks. Thank Leiba Davidovich Bronstein. The main fault of this
          1. avt
            avt 14 December 2013 11: 47 New
            13
            Quote: Den 11
            Traitors? Whom? They swore only to our AUTO-SECRETARY of our state! No need to think with cliches driven into the head during Khrushchev.

            These are the ones from the photo that in the von Panwitz corps were slamming around with the SS tank corps!? What punishers served in Yugoslavia and Italy!? The very ones that as part of the Cossack corps in 1943 took the oath of SSovskaya personally to Hitler!? Did the sovereign Adolf Hitler become for you? And he didn’t accept them all the same in the SS, and so they hung out to the end under the name of foreign formations. There is no faith anywhere for traitors, at least swear, fascist lackeys!
          2. RUSS
            RUSS 14 December 2013 11: 57 New
            +6
            Zhukov also served in the Imperial Army and swore allegiance to the king, so what?
            1. Day 11
              Day 11 14 December 2013 12: 02 New
              -5
              Incomparable-incomparable. The quality went as a separate caste, originally destined to protect the state. For a child-boy from a Cossack family everything was already determined to be transferred (even at birth) -protection of the state! Girls-the birth of new Cossacks. Quality and all the preferences had from the Sovereign Emperors (Empresses) --- sickly

              put on land and tax exemption. Do you agree with me? (if you are from the Cossacks, you should know)
              1. avt
                avt 14 December 2013 12: 19 New
                18
                Quote: Den 11
                The Cossacks went as a separate caste, originally destined to protect the state-va. And it had all the preferences from the Emperor Sovereigns (Empresses).

                Why did these defenders of the asudar from the convoy, all these “splendid elite” Life Cossacks not recapture him at the Dno station near Pskov? And Kornilov - also one of the Cossacks and a man of courage and decisiveness, scored a bolt on the oath and did not suppress the riot in February 17 th, although he had a DIRECT order from the tsar and also the Supreme Commander-in-Chief? Why is the same lackey Hitler's Krasnov, later hanged at 45m, the same all in an oath and "preferences for the protection of the state" He hammered a bolt with the entire Cossack corps on the State, and not the Bolsheviks, but he himself ravaged the bitch, and galloped off to himself "Cossack" build, did not support Kornilov, who woke up and went on the Ice Camp?! None of the thousands of officers, let alone ordinary Cossacks, supported the Kornilovites! Kaledin could not stand such a shame - he shot himself! And this was like water off a duck's back. the Bolsheviks came and already here they prescribed lead gadgets in accordance with the class theory. Otherwise they did not know what they would be prescribed ?! The Bolsheviks honestly warned everyone - to the ground, and then transferred the imperialist to the civil one, about which Lenin also warned everyone in writing. that there is no reason to blame the mirror if the face is crooked.
                1. Day 11
                  Day 11 14 December 2013 12: 35 New
                  -8
                  Well, you are not a stupid person. You understand everything perfectly yourself. The functions of the Cossacks protect the BOUNDARIES of the Empire from external enemies. How the trouble went near the throne, they did not intervene, because, like the power of the Tsar-Emperor from GOD! All the ALMOST ALMOST! the sovereign has a successor, they’ll figure it out (well, there will also be a regent, he’s not a decree for us). And we’ll protect the outer borders of the Empire! -What) .How did the Red Cossacks end up? Pralno, Leib Davidovich took all of them to the root.
                  1. Day 11
                    Day 11 14 December 2013 13: 05 New
                    0
                    Do not forget another THIS in the troops "Okopnaya Pravda", and for the Cossack formations it was with its own bias. In fairness, Martov also had a hand in this. Yes, they showed weakness.
                  2. avt
                    avt 14 December 2013 13: 52 New
                    +4
                    Quote: Den 11
                    You understand everything perfectly yourself

                    But I don’t need to push this intellectual one from the times of perestroika, saying that if I didn’t understand it, I’m not very educated. I won’t be led to this.
                    Quote: Den 11
                    The functions of the Cossacks to protect the BORDERS of the Empire from external enemies. As the turbulence near the throne went, they did not intervene, because the power of the Tsar-Emperor is from GOD! All the ALMOST WILL! The emperor has a successor, they will figure it out (well, there will also be a regent, he will not decree).

                    Himself not funny and not ashamed of such somersaults!? That broadcast about the oath to the king
                    Quote: Den 11
                    They swore only to SAMODEREZTSU-PRESIDENT of ours!

                    Then all of a sudden, it’s not the tsar at all, but borders. Yes, and whose borders are also unclear whose, not that of the Russian Empire, but suddenly a le up and your own Cossack, your borders, your people and all the others went to their forests .And about
                    Quote: Den 11
                    The emperor has a successor, they will figure it out
                    , so the “Wild” division judged it quite sensibly, you never know what - they will be written at the root. They also remembered Ermolov and they really took the oath to the tsar, but when, under the ass of Nika No. 2 from “loyal subjects,” and even got close ones, decided not to interfere - come Kolya to the mountains, until the end of your days you will be a guest, well, deal with your own.
                    Quote: Den 11
                    How did the Red Cossacks end?

                    Pokotsali hard, no doubt, but that’s what Sverdlov prescribed, and executed
                    Quote: Den 11
                    How did the Red Cossacks end in the end? Pralno, Leib Davidovich took all of them to the root.
                    There is nothing to tell. Where did so many hereditary people hatch from? Whoever was worn out the most was the Uralskys and beyond, there were fewer of them and they did not hang out en masse like the hero of the "Quiet Don" between two fires.
                    1. Day 11
                      Day 11 14 December 2013 16: 48 New
                      -1
                      It’s inappropriate to whistle here about what I didn’t say. There is only one empire, and the Sovereign Emperor can transfer power to his heir. Read the text of the oath of allegiance to the Sovereign Emperor (Empress). As for the hereditary, you mean me? NEVER adhered to them. Unfortunately, unfortunately I didn't have them in my family (probably), at least I haven't heard of it. How many "historians" ...
                      1. avt
                        avt 14 December 2013 17: 22 New
                        0
                        Quote: Den 11
                        The empire is one, and the Sovereign Emperor can transfer power to his heir.
                        That's what amazes me about the monarchists, who are avidly enjoying the bileberda about the succession to the throne, is that in the specific case of Nika # 2, there was NO renunciation! Well, he WAS NOT WRITING THE MANIFESTO of renunciation! He was a weak-willed alcoholic, but he was not a feeble-minded, uneducated fool. The letter, forcefully knocked out of him at the Bottom station by Rodzians, Shulgins and other bastards who surrounded him who later called themselves monarchists in emigration {who managed to escape}, including guards, began with the words “To the Chief of the General Staff” It was practically a cry for help , but EVERYONE betrayed, ALL commanders sent telegrams of agreement, and the repeated telegram that Nikolashka sent afterwards disavowed a letter - Alekseev, in his own recollections, put it in his pocket. and the newspapers have already printed it right.
                      2. Day 11
                        Day 11 14 December 2013 17: 51 New
                        +1
                        Okay, old fellow, I’m not tuned today to swear. There is a reason, finally they were given a vacation! (Not very big, and I’m glad about it). I wanted to fly to Baku ..., I don’t get it. I’ll definitely go to a friend! Maybe next year (most likely )
                      3. avt
                        avt 14 December 2013 18: 08 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Den 11
                        . There is a reason, finally gave a vacation! (

                        request Well, let's finish.
                    2. Day 11
                      Day 11 14 December 2013 18: 14 New
                      +2
                      Minus, if Che, not mine. So, for all chance. They want us to gnaw each other's throats
      2. bistrov.
        bistrov. 15 December 2013 23: 57 New
        +1
        Quote: Den 11
        They swore only to SAMODEREZTSU-PRESS

        Well, what are you fooling about? It turns out that you are justifying the traitors who have sided with the German fascists?
  • Strashila
    Strashila 14 December 2013 11: 27 New
    +3
    Another factor was missed in the article ... Wehrmacht reconnaissance. It worked pretty well, the cavalry raid on the rear of the Nazis was actually frustrated by it, not immediately, but enemy agents were identified in the headquarters of the Soviet troops.
    1. Hudo
      Hudo 14 December 2013 13: 09 New
      +6
      Quote: Strashila
      enemy agents were identified at the headquarters of the Soviet troops.


      Share, please, info. I am pleased to read it.
  • 0255
    0255 14 December 2013 11: 29 New
    +4
    I am glad that in 1941 it was not as deplorable as they tell us
    1. Stas57
      Stas57 16 December 2013 09: 40 New
      +1
      But how do they tell us all the hype?
      were we at the walls of berlin?
  • kair_kz
    kair_kz 14 December 2013 11: 31 New
    +1
    The most bloody and most massive battle in terms of the number of participants of all time ...
  • RUSS
    RUSS 14 December 2013 13: 40 New
    +1
    Quote: Den 11
    Well, you are not a stupid person. You understand everything perfectly yourself. The functions of the Cossacks protect the BOUNDARIES of the Empire from external enemies. How the trouble went near the throne, they did not intervene, because, like the power of the Tsar-Emperor from GOD! All the ALMOST ALMOST! the sovereign has a successor, they’ll figure it out (well, there will also be a regent, he’s not a decree for us). And we’ll protect the outer borders of the Empire! -What) .How did the Red Cossacks end up? Pralno, Leib Davidovich took all of them to the root.

    The 1st Cavalry Cavalry Cavalry Corps was formed as part of the 8th and 17th Cavalry Divisions on the South-Western Front on October 26, 1920.
    The commander of the Red Cossacks V.M. Primakov was appointed commander of the corps.
    In November 1920, the corps as part of the troops of the Southwestern Front took part in the Soviet-Polish war.
    In November 1920, the corps participated in the defeat of the Ukrainian army under the command of S. Petlyura.
    December 10, 1920 The Horse Corps became part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and Crimea.
    December 13, 1920 The Horse Corps was given the name 1st Kiev Horse Corps.
    The 9th cd.
    January 1, 1921 as part of the 1st Kiev cavalry corps were the 8th Red Cossacks cd, 17th cd, 9th cd. In January 1921, the corps was fighting at Squira against the Ukrainian army of Makhno.
    On April 5, 1921, the corps left for Lipovets, east of Vinnitsa.
    In June 1921, the commander of the 1st Corps V.M. Primakov was appointed Head of the Podolsk provincial section on the elimination of banditry.
    In July 1921, a flying detachment of the 1st cavalry corps finally finished off Makhno in the Poltava region.
    August 10, 1921 the 1st Kiev Horse Corps was named the 1st Horse Corps of the Red Cossacks. All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee.
    Until November 1921 V.M. Primakov was the Head of the Podolsky Gubuchast to eliminate banditry.
    In November 1921 V.M. Primakov leads the operation to defeat the gang of the ataman Pali.
    On November 30, 1921, the 8th Red Cossack Cavalry Division was given the name 8th Zaporozhye Red Cossack Cavalry Division, and the 17th Red Cossack Cavalry Division was given the 17th Chernigov Red Cavalry Cavalry Division.
    On May 6, 1922, the 8th Zaporizhzhya Chervona Cossacks cd was named the 1st Zaporizhia Chervona Cossacks cd, and the 17th Chernigov Chervona Cossacks cd was named the 2nd Chernigov Chervona Cossacks cd. (1s)
    On May 20, 1922, the 9th Crimean CD was named the 9th Crimean named after the Council of People's Commissars of the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic cd.
    In the spring of 1936, the 2nd cd was withdrawn from the corps and introduced into the 7th cavalry corps.
    In June 1938 the 1st cavalry corps of the Red Cossacks. The All-Ukrainian CEC was renamed the 4th Cavalry Corps.

    And where does Trinity (Bronstein)? Which, in your opinion, rooted out the Red Cossacks?
    1. Day 11
      Day 11 14 December 2013 16: 28 New
      +1
      Bronstein was the ideologist of the storytelling (his word). But Primakov I don’t need to give an example here, I confessed to the anti-Soviet conspiracy (by the way, how many% of the ethnic Cossacks were in that corps?). Do you think that Was Stalin wrong? Was he mistaken? I don’t think so! Almost the entire command staff was drawn into the conspiracy thanks to this man. What follows from this? -Right, the poor work of the political organs .-- All under the ax!
      1. RUSS
        RUSS 14 December 2013 18: 13 New
        0
        Bronstein-Trotsky, and to a greater extent one more Jewish dog, Sverdlov, were the initiators of the revelry, but as an example that you brought Trotsky to the root of the Red Cossacks, it’s not faithful, the Cossacks who fought with the Bolsheviks were brought to the root, and later on they introduced repressions to the elderly and children in the Cossack villages.
        1. Day 11
          Day 11 14 December 2013 18: 22 New
          0
          Yes, these, too, went to the batch ... You know the fate 2 Horse Army?
  • Bigriver
    Bigriver 14 December 2013 20: 00 New
    +5
    Some disaster recently on the site with materials on the history of the Second World War sad
    Where and what the authors come from is not clear? It feels like a wild and unintelligible mix of figures and facts pulled from everywhere is connected by creativity according to the “finger-nose” method.
    By November it practically ceased to exist, having suffered enormous losses in 5 млн a man killed and captured.

    Baltic strategic defensive operation (June 22 - July 9) - 75 202
    Belarusian strategic defensive operation (June 22 - July 9) - 341
    Lviv-Chernivtsi strategic defensive operation (June 22 - July 9) - 172 323
    Defensive operation in the Arctic and Karelia (June 29 - October 10) - 67
    Kiev strategic defensive operation (July 7 - September 26) - 616 304
    Leningrad strategic defensive operation (July 10 - September 30) - 214
    Battle of Smolensk (July 10 - September 10) - 486 171
    Donbass-Rostov strategic defensive operation (September 29 - November 16) - 143
    Moscow strategic defensive operation (September 30 - December 5) - 514

    Total for six months (and not for four, as the author), irretrievable losses amounted to 2 630 067 people.
    Source - "Classified", 1993.
    Okay, this is a debatable question.
    November 16, the balance of power near Moscow was as follows: 233 thousand German soldiers and 240 thousand Soviet. In tanks, the Wehrmacht had a tremendous advantage - 1300 vehicles against 500 in the Red Army. The Germans had about one and a half times more field tools - 1900 barrels versus 1250.

    But it does not fit into any framework. At first my eye fell out ... Only then I drove in, which takes the author for the Moscow battle.
    In the general strategic Moscow direction, there were three main operating areas: directions (from north to south): Kalinin, Moscow and Tula.
    In "Typhoon" participated from the west GA "Center" as part of 7 armies, in which there were at the beginning of the operation (September 30) 1 people.
    She was opposed by the troops of the Western, Bryansk, Reserve fronts, which totaled about 1 people.
    As I understand it, the author took only the forces of one front - the Western one and called this case "... near Moscow."
  • Bigriver
    Bigriver 14 December 2013 20: 00 New
    +4
    because before The Red Army was able to resist the Germans only with a ratio of manpower of 1: 5 (that is, the Germans in theory were ready to meet and defeat 1 million Soviet soldiers)

    For example, where was this?
    Frosts also changed the tactics of the German offensive. If before the main blow was delivered by tank wedges (a cluster of 30-50 and even 80-100 vehicles), now the Wehrmacht arrogantly divided the wedges into small groups of 5-10 tanks. These groups of armored vehicles were stretched across the frontinstead of collecting tanks in 4-5 large formations, as before

    That is, the Wehrmacht dismissed the tank groups, corps, TD, and distributed the tanks to the pehtur?
    Delirium wassat
    The German military historian Paul Karel in his book Hitler Goes East wrote that if the Wehrmacht had three or four additional days to create defensive lines, then the Russians would not have been able to carry out a successful counterattack near Moscow

    Karel is not a historian. He was engaged in fascinating writings called historical journalism.
    The Wehrmacht did not need to create a defense. Because, according to von Bock himself, GA "Center" did not consider the Red Army capable of a strategic counteroffensive.
    Bock's Army Group simply "hovered" in uncertainty, exhausting its offensive capabilities.
    In total, the cavalry was 20-25% all Soviet troops near Moscow. Moreover it was reinforced with heavy machine guns and mortars.

    What is meant? If the number of compounds (CD) - then, approximately, yes. If the number of l / s, then no. The staff of the cavalry division for the autumn-winter 41- a little more than 4000 people. And the easel machine guns, artillery and mortars, up to the regimental 120 mm, KD had nominally.
    Why did the Red Army counter-attack choke

    Because the Red Army did not have the instruments for conducting a deep offensive operation in the form of tank corps and armies. And also there was no experience in planning their actions and management experience.
  • Fedya
    Fedya 14 December 2013 21: 58 New
    +2
    Well, general frost froze everyone equally, frostbite in Soviet hospitals was 30 thousand less than in Fritzevsky. But with technology, here without captive Soviet techies, the Fritzes couldn’t even move! All German planes stood on the ground. The oil is frozen. Russian techies mixed oil with gas and started the engines, as the gas warmed up, the gas evaporated and the planes could take off. In general, the defeat of the Fritz near Moscow is still the first hook to Nazism! And he rang out to the whole world.
    1. Day 11
      Day 11 14 December 2013 22: 08 New
      +2
      Exactly. Dumb Germans didn’t guess how much fuel they got. What do you get from them?
      1. Fedya
        Fedya 15 December 2013 19: 02 New
        0
        You read carefully!
  • Moore
    Moore 15 December 2013 10: 37 New
    +2
    To the question of:
    . In the open, the Germans mowed it with small arms. The cavalry could not do anything in an open battle with tanks. But there was no German equipment and infantry in the forest, which allowed the Red Army cavalry to go up to 15-20 km per day.


    Extracts from the operational reports of the General Staff of the Red Army from November 14 to 21, 1941 16th Army No. 262 at 8.00 15.11.41/XNUMX/XNUMX
    Dovatora’s group counterattack knocked the enemy out of the MOROZOVO-IVANTSEVO area, dropping him south. 18 sd, occupying the former line of defense, during the day with fire raids thwarted the enemy’s repeated attempts to accumulate for an attack in the KOZLOVO area. 78 sd with its 40 joint ventures fought on the northern outskirts of the MIKHAILOVSKY area, its 131 joint forces engaged in a stubborn battle for the seizure of the Brykino area, and the 258 joint ventures occupied the front of MARA - TOWN. In a battle near the MIKHAILOVSKY area, 6 tanks and 6 enemy vehicles were destroyed. No. 265 at 8.00 on November 18.11.41, 17 ... On November 16 ... Units of the 316th Army fought stubborn stubborn battles with the enemy, who sought to reach the VOLOKOLAMSK-ISTRA highway. XNUMX sd, having beaten off the enemy’s attacks on its right flank, on the left flank it retreated to the line GOLUBTSOVO - LYSTSEVO - st. MATRENINO - MATRENINO and counterattacked the enemy in order to restore the situation ...
    What destroyed these tanks from the point of view of the author? Dashing Budennovsky saber attacks on the tower?
    Or does the author really believe that squadrons are intended to attack the German trenches with dashing Cossack lava with sabers in their heads, and is the presence of a forest just such a bonus?
    When there was an opportunity - against the rear column or artillery position - it really could be. In all other cases, the soldiers dismounted, gave the horses to the horse breeders and went on the attack under the cover of their own artillery guns as ordinary infantry.